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Anthopology 131: Native American Anthropology Week 8 Notes

by: Kyle Roe

Anthopology 131: Native American Anthropology Week 8 Notes ANTH131

Marketplace > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH131 > Anthopology 131 Native American Anthropology Week 8 Notes
Kyle Roe
GPA 3.04
Native American Anthropology

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Here's all of week 8. Enjoy :)
Native American Anthropology
Class Notes
Anthropology, 131, Anthro, Native American, Native Americans, Gamble, Kyle Roe, Cheap, Helpful, UCSB, UC Santa Barbara, California
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle Roe on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH131 at a university taught by Gamble in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 184 views.

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Date Created: 03/03/15
California Native Americans SocioPolitical Organization Net hereditary leader from dominant lineage 0 Also called Wot by Chumash Husband of wife of opposite moieties moiety exogamy Economic Exchange Dentalia long necklace of tubular shells mostly in Northwest area Shells showed social status Shell beads location where they were used is important Central California Beads Clam disc beads Abalone shell pendants Magnesite beads o The gold of California shell beads 0 Have to be baked to turn bright red 0 Specific place in Pomo region where you find these stones 0 Only high status elite wear magnesite Economics Two levels of exchange took place throughout most of California 0 Ritual exchange between leaders independent settlements and typically in the context of trade feasts or fiestas o Secular exchange between individuals or lineages Olivela biplicata disc beads Religion Three major religious complexes occurred in California oversimplified 0 World Renewal complex in northwestern California 0 Kuksu complex in central California 0 Toloache complex in southern California World Renewal 0 Rituals to ensure abundance of food prevent disease and avoid unfavorable natural events 0 2 important rituals I Jumping Dance 0 Headdresses with hundreds of red woodpecker scalps o Scalps saved for generations I White Deerskin Dance 0 Elkhorn purses where they keep their dentalia 0 Bring out their wealth make sure there will be plenty of food for the next year O O 0 Used albino deerskins accumulated them over the years 0 Save dentalia to use for rituals 0 Carry gigantic obsidian blades Most important dances occurred when a fish weir was rebuilt or a house was constructed Wealthy would display wealth during these ceremonies Regalia from NW CA coast 0 O 0 Jump dance headband Yurok Dress I Clam shells natural fibers Jump Dance Basket I Saved through generations Kuksu Religious Complex central CA 0 O O O Dancers become spirits who come to a village to bring wellbeing No mask covers the face Dancers were members of a men s secret society and their identity while dancing apparently was unknown to the audience Patwin had the most elaborate Kuksu I 3 different levels of Kuksu o Hesi 0 Kuksu o Waisaltu I Would have to pay money for admittance to the secret society initiation is very stressful I Ascend to different levels after a number of years I Even spoke a different language Dances would happen in roundhouses Higher levels of Kuksumore danger Ritual killing of some young recruits I Shot with a bow and arrow I Fall through smokehole I Run out of the roundhouse bleeding I Initiates would be acting crazy Initiation involves a lot of fasting You hallucinate without effort when fasting Brought close to death brought back to life again a ritual idea I Mothers would help revive them Kuksu associated with danger If you told someone about your secret society very bad things would happen to you Tied in with political leaders power I The smallest group with the most specific knowledge had bigger houses more in uence Roundhouses of Central California Some semisubterranean O O Ceremonial buildings that could accommodate a large number of people often a village population Precontract roundhouses apparently had earthen roofs Had clowns making fun of people during rituals Toloache southern CA Ate Datura for rituals O O 0 Pretty dangerous Most often ingested from leaves or roots Taken primarily for 3 purposes I To establish contact with a supernatural guardian who might provide protection or a skill I For clairvoyance such as contacting the dead finding lost objects or seeing the future I To cure effects of an injury evil omens or a breach of taboo Annual mourning ceremonies recognized those who recently died Adolescent boys drank hallucinogenic jimson weed toloache tea as part of a ritual to become mean Solstice ceremonies also took place Played reed whistles either made of reed or bones Chinichngish form of Toloache O O Basketry Rituals adolescent boys to manhood boys and girls have puberty ceremonies Boys whip them with stinging nettles sit them on top of a red ant hill or make them swallow a ball of red ants thought venom in red ants is a hallucinogen was actuallyjust very painful after fasting for days Served many purposes in CA 0 000000000 0 Seed gathering Food processing Cooking Food serving Storage Transport Attire hats Infant care cradled infants Identification of social status Ritual Historically articulation with the EuroAmerican economy Explorers highly valued them Used a wide variety of weaving techniques Weaving a large basket requires a large amount of time 0 Some even take years Ohlone woman named Linda Ahmani award winning basket weaver 0 Made basket with shells imbedded Some were utilitarian o Burden baskets 0 Water bottles made out of basket lined with asphaltum tar to make waterproof Serving baskets 0 Possibly for sale to whites Impacts of EuroAmerican Occupation Missionization of Native Americans Cabrillo came in 1852 first CA explorer Missionization primarily affected native populations in coastal areas from San Diego to San Francisco Bay First mission established in 1769 San Diego and the last in 1823 north of SF Bay Once living at a mission as neophytes CA were forced to remain there Franciscan priests thought Native Americans needed to be baptized so they would go to heaven and avoid hell Neophytes had less freedom than they did before Lived in dark dank barracks Built the missions aqueducts infrastructure surrounding mission Had to get pass to leave the missions Worked and farmed missions literally slavery Max number of neophytes at CA missions was reached ca 1822 Disease would spread fast through neophyte barracks By this time missions had recruited nearly all native Californians living nearby Why did the Native Americans go there in the first place Different theories 0 Livestock eating all the native plants 0 Ranchers buying land not letting anyone else use it 0 Massive drought Native peoples moved away from the missions shortly after secularization by the Mexican government in 1834 Thereafter many native people were employed in the ranching industry Would give native peoples small shitty unproductive plots of land that no one else wanted Some went back to the missions lack of options Postmission Settlements Many mission Indians reestablished settlements within their territories These communities had been acculturated Traditional culture persisted in some not all including language Some weren t members of a stable community California Gold Rush Between 1848 and 1880 at least 4500 Indians killed low estimate number doesn t include those starved to death or run off land Reservations Popped up shortly after CA statehood Almost 100 in CA Many are very small a few acres sometimes called rancherias Largest concentration of significant sized reservations is in San Diego and San Bernandino Coun es Others in Sierra foothills near Clear Lake and northwestern CA Many CA native communities not federally recognized Many retain aspects of their traditional culture Use large roundhouses for ceremonies and events Politically active activism to preserve traditional sites from development Native Languages Very low numbers of native speakers Languages dying fast Many tribal groups attempting to revive their languages Prospects for survival of most native languages are not good California Indian Casinos Economically beneficial to inhabitants of reservations About 31 CA reservations have casinos Chumash Culture Language families divided into Northern Central and Island Precontact Occupation of the Santa Barbara area for 13000 years Daisy Cave on San Miguel Island might have been occupied beginning more than 11k years ago Mano and metate used for seed milling Mortar and pestle used for acorns House depressions evident in island landscape Deer bone used as needles for sowing strings of beads as awls for basketweaving Ethnography John P Harrington obsessed with collecting information about Native American groups 0 Recorded a tremendous amount of information 0 Didn t write that many articles just wrote information down Fishing Technology Plank canoes or tomols made byjoining blanks of wood together with asphaltum natural tar 0 Important for fishing commerce across the channel Subsistence o Controlled burns meant to favor certain types of plants 0 Only burnt every 23 years in appropriate times of the year Acorn milling o Mortar and pestle o Baskets attached to catch meal flying out Beadmaking o Villages specialized in making chert drill tips especially eastern Santa Cruz Island 0 Other villages just made shell beads Chert DrillTip Manufacturing 0 Quarried o Microblades made from chert cores 0 Brought back to village Shell beads heavily traded with Tongva Catalina Island Specialized in Making Steatite Ollas and Comals 0 Set them on fire and used them to cook food 0 Quarried the rock Chumash basketry o All have a special tick on the side Political Organization Hereditary chiefs Elite lineages Chief called the wot some villages had more than one wot Controlled significant wealth in a village owners of plank canoes on coast Using a canoe in the Santa Barbara Channel was dangerous 0 Thought if you didn t make a plank canoe correctly you could die Village chief had some influence over neighboring villages called the paqwot Paha also from elite lineage was the chief s assistantgave speeches organized festivals Antap society group of elite males who performed dances at festivals and ceremonies 0 Sometimes thousands of people would come to one festival 0 Not attending was a cause of death or war for chiefs Rock Art Pictographic among most spectacular in the world Ideological meaning social context unknown Fall victim to vandalism natural erosion o Painted Rock near Carrizo Plain almost completely destroyed 1824 Chumash Revolt Chumash from 3 missions and villages burned part of Santa Ines Mission down Held the mission themselves for a few weeks took the mission over Fled once troops arrived Went and lived with the Yokuts especially near Buena Vista Lake as refugees Chumash PostMission Missions secularized Chumash set free Didn t have anywhere to go after displacement Spanish created ranches on old lands Created communities Some stayed involved with missions Cieneguitas mission sateillite community near Santa Ynez Never received promised land from missions Chumash Today Reestablishing traditional culture Principal Characteristics of CA Food was stored Fishing in oceans was important High population density Huntergatherers Lineages and clans Ranked social status elites and commoners Leadership positions are hereditary Economic exchange by shell bead money


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