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by: Erika Marini
Erika Marini

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text structure
Professor Adrian Pasquarella
Class Notes
Text, structure
25 ?





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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika Marini on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDUC210 at University of Delaware taught by Professor Adrian Pasquarella in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see BEGINNING LITERACY INSTRUCTION in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Delaware.

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Date Created: 04/24/16
Text Structure and Vocabulary Instruction 04/13/2016 ▯ Literacy: letter names and sounds, alphabetic principle. Phonological awareness, concept of work, decoding work recognition word stud and guided reading ▯ Language: oral language conventions, concept knowledge, listening comprehension, understanding of text structures shared and interactive reading ▯ Gradual release of responsibility: I do we doyou do (cycles)  I do: I= the teacher (interactive read alouds)  Interactive read alouds: the teacher models how to read, shared thinking, and invites students to share their thinking  Guided reading (we do): students take over the role of reader but teachers is there to guide the process and help when needed  Independent reading (you do): students read on their own and determine if they need help and what kind of help they need ▯ The domino theory: teach children to decode first, and put off vocabulary instruction until later hurts children ▯ We can teach the structures that authors use  Narrative: o Story map, sequence of events  Information o Compare and contrast o Topic-subtopic o Concept o Features o Continuum o Cause and effect o Cycle o Hierarchy ▯ How do we learn vocabulary?  Initially (naturally) through exposure- listening and speaking  Then, when reading begins, students begin learning from text ▯ What does it mean to know a word?  It happens in degrees  Know it well, can explain and use  Know something about it, can relate it to a situation  Have seen or heard it  Do not know the word at all ▯ So how does a word move up toward full knowledge?  We see it or hear it again  We think about it and what it means  We ask someone or look it up  We try to use the word  It may take as many as 14 meaningful encounters to truly learn a new word Do we ready learn words from context?  Yes and no. the more words we already know, the more easily we learn new ones.  The more we read the more easily we learn new words  The more actively we read the more we think while reading, the more easily we learn new words  Seems unfair- it’s easier for more those who are “word rich” to get “word richer” ▯ Why should we care?  Oral vocabulary at the end of first grade is a significant predictor of comprehension ten years later  Increases exponentially throughout the years why we don’t wait to do read alouds o The teacher does the decoding o Natural contexts for words are provided o Students engagements is likely o Discussion is facilitated o Words can be reinforced in new contexts all year long ▯ How many words?  Adding 3 root words a day is the average daily number of words learned by primary age children with the largest vocabularies o 3 words x 140 days = 400 words per year ▯ Text talk: the goals  Enhance comprehension through interspersed open-ended questions  Reflect on ideas in the story  Talk about ideas  Make connections throughout story  Enhance vocab development ▯ Vocabulary: explicit instruction  Two characteristics that make a word appropriate for teaching: o We can define it in terms that the students know o The students are likely to find the word useful or interesting ▯ Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers  Tier 1: most basic words, rarely requiring instruction in school (front, surprise, go) o Basic words of oral language for a third grader o Objects, concrete things o Everyday, basic familiar words  Ex: pencil, crayon, scissors, sun, rock, sister, brother, run, behind, red, blue, smile, frown  Tier 2: high-frequency words for mature language users, important to academic success (coincidence, fortunate, absurd) o Likely to be unfamiliar to young children o Characterize written text but not so often in oral conversations o Found across a variety of domains o Sometimes a tier 2 word is a more precise, “fancy” way to express a tier 1 idea  Ex: disappear, foolish  Tier 3: Low-frequency words, limited to specific domains (isotope, estuary, lathe) o Frequency of use is low o Limited to specific domains of knowledge  Ex: refinery, photosynthesis, tundra, revolution, ukulele, gravity  We teach these in subject-specific work ▯ We teach these in sets  Just as in word study, the concept of comparing and contrasting applies to word meanings too  This is counterintuitive, but the technical terms associated with content-area instruction (science, social students, art, math, music) are easier to teach because we teach them in relation to one another ▯ Does it depend on the reader?  No  Each word is in tier independent of the reader. Tiered vocabulary instruction is a concept to consider when choosing words ▯ Steps in “Bringing Words to Life” Vocabulary Lesson  Say the word. Children repeat  Tell a child-friendly definition  Tell how the word was used in the book  Give examples of the word used in multiple, unrelated contexts  Invite children to construct an example  Have children repeat the word ▯ Practicum read aloud  1. Build excitement and background knowledge o I went to the library and looked for books to share with you and I picked this one because…  2. Describe the story  3. Read interactively, asking questions  4. Use tory map to prompt a retelling ask them to tell you what happened in the story, don’t prompt them  5. Use tier 2 words ▯ ▯


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