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PSYC 309 - Psychology of Learning - Week 14

by: Julia Mosebach

PSYC 309 - Psychology of Learning - Week 14 309

Marketplace > Southern Illinois University Carbondale > Psychlogy > 309 > PSYC 309 Psychology of Learning Week 14
Julia Mosebach
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

This covers discrimination and schedules of reinforcement, along with a couple other week 14 terms in learning/behavioral psychology
Psychology of Learning
Class Notes
behavior, Psychology, Behavioral, PSYC, psych, psyc309, 309, learning, concurrent, schedules, Of, reinforcement, reinforcers, interval, intermittent, fixed, ratio, response, scallop, discrimination, SIUC, SIU, Southern, Illinois, University, Carbondale, Science, behavioral analysis, ABA, operant, conditioning, stimulus, pavlov, b.f. skinner, training
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Mosebach on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 309 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Price in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Learning in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
Psychology 309 – 4/24/2016 Discrimination **If you can distinguish between situation A and situation B, you know what each  situation serves and what to do in each scenario. Knowing “which” – choosing this instead of that Knowing “when” – to act at a proper time Knowing “whether” – to act differentially depending upon the probability of an  event ^ These all intermingle; you don’t have to associate a situation with only one.  ­ For example, say you’re trying to decide whether or not to speed, but you end  up deciding not to because you know there are usually cop cars in the area. This  could be knowing which (knowing not to speed instead of speeding), knowing  when (waiting to speed later, when you’re not surrounded by cops), and knowing  whether (that it’s best to not speed since it’s likely that, if you would, you’d  probably get a speed ticket). Knowing “how” – to act effectively; verbal behavior not necessary; tacit  knowledge ­    Swimming; riding a bike; jump­roping  Knowing “that” – to know that you have done something; your behavior must be  under stimulus control of some other aspect of your behavior ­    “I know that I can ride a bike.”  ­    Animals are not capable of knowing “that.” A rat can learn how to press a  lever, but it will never know that it pressed the lever in order to get food.  Three terms of the contingencies that establish “knowing that”: ­ Antecedent: the behavior reports about (e.g. bike riding) ­ Behavior: the report (e.g. “I can ride a bike.”) ­ Consequences: socially­mediated (verbal) consequences  “Self­awareness” is a social product ­ Our verbal community teaches us to be self­aware ­ Teaches us to report on our own behavior ­ Brings our behavior under discriminative control of other aspects of  behavior ­ ^ All of these can be related to the example of a doctor asking a kid, “Does it feel like you have butterflies in your stomach?” ­ Shaping self­awareness is reinforced in members of verbal community.  ­ Our ability to think and know what we’re doing and why we’re doing it  makes us different from, for example, pigeons.  4 ways to talk about private events **FINAL EXAM!** 1. Public accompaniments 2. Collateral behavior 3. Recession of overt behavior to covert level 4. Covert perception 1. Public accompaniments  Public events often occur simultaneously with or just before a private event  For example, losing a job, or the death of a loved one 2. Collateral behaviors  Public behavior sometimes occurs at the same time as private  Example: holding jaw may indicate a toothache 3. Recession of overt behavior to covert level  Behavior established as public becomes covert ­ Reading, self­talk/thinking, imagining 4. Covert perception  Seeing the absence of the thing seen  Hearing in the absence of the thing heard ­ Hearing your favorite song in your head Other important terms ­Match­to­sample: a procedure in which the choice of a stimulus that matches the  sample is followed by a reinforcer (example: a pigeon pecks a blue button after being  shown a blue sample) ­Delayed match­to­sample: the comparison stimuli are presented a while after the  sample stimuli are taken away ­Delay discounting: decline in the value of a reward with as its receipt is more and more  prolonged (example: when given an option of $300 now or $500 in one week, people  might choose to wait a week for the bigger reward; but if the option changes to $300  now versus $500 in one year, they are more likely to take the $300)  ­Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: the subject is reinforced every time they perform  the necessary behavior (example: a dog is given a treat every single time he pees  outside) ­Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule: the subject is only reinforced some of the times  they perform the necessary behavior (example: a dog is given a treat every third time he pees outside)  These are useful because they can be based on the number of responses made  or the time between reinforcement. (Think of ratio and interval schedules.) ­Fixed Ratio Schedule examples  You’re being paid to seal envelopes. Your payment is based off of a FR50  schedule. What does this mean? ­ This means that you get paid for every 50 envelopes that you seal.  You decide to allow yourself one piece of chocolate for every one page of your  term paper that you type. What schedule would this be? ­ FR1  ­ Ratio strain: occurs in fixed ratio schedules when the amount of behaviors needed to  elicit reinforcement increases too quickly; often makes desired behavior less reliable ­Variable Ratio Schedule examples  If a slot machine gives out money based off of a VR30 schedule, what does this  mean?  ­ On average, the slot machine gives out money after every 30  try, but it varies.  th Payoff might come before or after the 30  try in some cases.  If you give your boyfriend a shoulder massage every (on average) 3  time he  buys you a coffee, what is the reinforcement schedule for him buying you coffee? ­ VR3 ­Fixed Interval Schedule   FI schedules produce a scalloped pattern of responding.  Example: study a whole lot the day before a test, and hardly at all the week after  a test ­Variable Interval Schedule  Example: On average the first response after every 15 seconds is reinforced but  the time of reinforcement might vary between 1 second and 30 seconds.  *For a reminder of what schedules of reinforcement look like on a graph, refer to the  image halfway through the page of the following link:  http://s­f­


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