PSYC 309 - Psychology of Learning - Week 14
PSYC 309 - Psychology of Learning - Week 14 309
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Mosebach on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 309 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Price in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Learning in Psychlogy at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Psychology 309 – 4/24/2016 Discrimination **If you can distinguish between situation A and situation B, you know what each situation serves and what to do in each scenario. Knowing “which” – choosing this instead of that Knowing “when” – to act at a proper time Knowing “whether” – to act differentially depending upon the probability of an event ^ These all intermingle; you don’t have to associate a situation with only one. For example, say you’re trying to decide whether or not to speed, but you end up deciding not to because you know there are usually cop cars in the area. This could be knowing which (knowing not to speed instead of speeding), knowing when (waiting to speed later, when you’re not surrounded by cops), and knowing whether (that it’s best to not speed since it’s likely that, if you would, you’d probably get a speed ticket). Knowing “how” – to act effectively; verbal behavior not necessary; tacit knowledge Swimming; riding a bike; jumproping Knowing “that” – to know that you have done something; your behavior must be under stimulus control of some other aspect of your behavior “I know that I can ride a bike.” Animals are not capable of knowing “that.” A rat can learn how to press a lever, but it will never know that it pressed the lever in order to get food. Three terms of the contingencies that establish “knowing that”: Antecedent: the behavior reports about (e.g. bike riding) Behavior: the report (e.g. “I can ride a bike.”) Consequences: sociallymediated (verbal) consequences “Selfawareness” is a social product Our verbal community teaches us to be selfaware Teaches us to report on our own behavior Brings our behavior under discriminative control of other aspects of behavior ^ All of these can be related to the example of a doctor asking a kid, “Does it feel like you have butterflies in your stomach?” Shaping selfawareness is reinforced in members of verbal community. Our ability to think and know what we’re doing and why we’re doing it makes us different from, for example, pigeons. 4 ways to talk about private events **FINAL EXAM!** 1. Public accompaniments 2. Collateral behavior 3. Recession of overt behavior to covert level 4. Covert perception 1. Public accompaniments Public events often occur simultaneously with or just before a private event For example, losing a job, or the death of a loved one 2. Collateral behaviors Public behavior sometimes occurs at the same time as private Example: holding jaw may indicate a toothache 3. Recession of overt behavior to covert level Behavior established as public becomes covert Reading, selftalk/thinking, imagining 4. Covert perception Seeing the absence of the thing seen Hearing in the absence of the thing heard Hearing your favorite song in your head Other important terms Matchtosample: a procedure in which the choice of a stimulus that matches the sample is followed by a reinforcer (example: a pigeon pecks a blue button after being shown a blue sample) Delayed matchtosample: the comparison stimuli are presented a while after the sample stimuli are taken away Delay discounting: decline in the value of a reward with as its receipt is more and more prolonged (example: when given an option of $300 now or $500 in one week, people might choose to wait a week for the bigger reward; but if the option changes to $300 now versus $500 in one year, they are more likely to take the $300) Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: the subject is reinforced every time they perform the necessary behavior (example: a dog is given a treat every single time he pees outside) Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule: the subject is only reinforced some of the times they perform the necessary behavior (example: a dog is given a treat every third time he pees outside) These are useful because they can be based on the number of responses made or the time between reinforcement. (Think of ratio and interval schedules.) Fixed Ratio Schedule examples You’re being paid to seal envelopes. Your payment is based off of a FR50 schedule. What does this mean? This means that you get paid for every 50 envelopes that you seal. You decide to allow yourself one piece of chocolate for every one page of your term paper that you type. What schedule would this be? FR1 Ratio strain: occurs in fixed ratio schedules when the amount of behaviors needed to elicit reinforcement increases too quickly; often makes desired behavior less reliable Variable Ratio Schedule examples If a slot machine gives out money based off of a VR30 schedule, what does this mean? On average, the slot machine gives out money after every 30 try, but it varies. th Payoff might come before or after the 30 try in some cases. If you give your boyfriend a shoulder massage every (on average) 3 time he buys you a coffee, what is the reinforcement schedule for him buying you coffee? VR3 Fixed Interval Schedule FI schedules produce a scalloped pattern of responding. Example: study a whole lot the day before a test, and hardly at all the week after a test Variable Interval Schedule Example: On average the first response after every 15 seconds is reinforced but the time of reinforcement might vary between 1 second and 30 seconds. *For a reminder of what schedules of reinforcement look like on a graph, refer to the image halfway through the page of the following link: http://sfwalker.org.uk/pubs/ltbm/allchap4.html
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