The Study of Folklore
The Study of Folklore FOLK-F101
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Date Created: 03/03/15
Midterm Review A Week 1 What is folklore and who are the folk a Lecture i How is folklore represented in popular culture ii iii Why do we say that folklore is performed Does everyone have folklore 1 Yes iv Why do we say that language is an instinct Why do we say that writing is a technology V 1 8 b Reading Ch 1 What are the differences between verbal speech and writing Speech is full of paralinguistic clues a Facial expressions postures gestures b Internets emoticons are impoverished paralinguistic clues Speech has intonation and rhythm a Inside words themselves i Pitch ii Volume iii Rhythm speed b ALL CAPS IS NOT YELLING Speech can be modified on the spot writing cannot a I meant to say b Most writing once sent is rarely corrected i Retraction of twitter oopsies ii Even in text very quick modification is not the same as immediate facetoface modification Speech is primarily disposable i Almost all speech is intended for one time use Most writing is intended for multiple usage and storage Speech is primarily used for interactional purposes a Speech maintains human relationship i Talking w friends b Writing is more often used for transactional purposes Speech relies on relatively simple syntax a We normally speak in a conglomeration of simple fragments and runons Speech contains a lower level of content per sentence a Speech is very repetitive because listeners must receive all information as it is being spoken Speech is situationaly transparent a Speakers share the same experiential context ii i Folklore unrecorded traditions of people includes both the form and content of these traditions and their manner of communication from person to person ii Difference between folklore and folkloristics iii Folklore has been studied in the US for around years iv What problems result from using the term folklore 1 It has acquired so many meanings people seem to think fake or superstitious when they hear that word V Levels of folklore Example Medicine 1 Elite academic progressive prescription 2 Normative popular mass mainstream Over the counter 3 Folk conservative traditional herbal vi 5 Qualities of Folklore 1 Folklore is oral customary and material 2 It is traditional in form and transmission 3 It exists in different versions or variants 4 It usually has an anonymous author 5 Folklore tends to be familiarized B Week 2 The Way We Talk Folklore and Language a Lecture i Is ain t a word 1 Depending upon who you ask Grammarians tried to condemn contractions in the 18th19th century ii What are the basic stages of language development 1 All children are born into a cultural linguistic folk group 46 months children babble 1013 months children begin to make words 24 months children make short phrases 34 years children form sentences 56 children have full linguistic and grammar capabilities 2 Language is an instinct that precedes development iii Which accent is the correct accent 1 There is no correct accent regional variations effect dialect b Reading Ch 4 i Folk morphology 1 Differences in word form 2 Ex It s winding outside ii Folk Syntax 1 Difference in word order 2 Ex Throw mama from the train a kiss iii Examples of folklorists work in dialect vocabulary 1 Definition 99962 Workers on Dictionary of American Regional English found 175 variations on words to describe a downpour 3 main dialects a Regional the father you go in one direction the harder it will be to understand b Occupational not strictly job related can be a hobby c Temporal if you stay in one place long enough ones dialect will change Folk naming a Def Names with traditional value b Some cultures ones quotrealquot name is earned by some significant act c Sometimes people use folknaming out of habit or tradition other times in judgment d Ex You re a Hoosier if you re from Indiana signing your John Hancockquot C Week 3 Folk Speech and Saying a Lecture i ii iii iv i ii iii If the Golve doesn t fitquot 1 0 Simpson was on trial for murder and one of the main pieces of evidence was a glove that was to have been worn by the murderer During trial there is a very famous clip of O trying on the glove and then after the attorney says If the glove doesn t fitquot This proverb has been adapted to many different situations Do proverbs ever start in writing 1 Yes proverbs can start in writing and become oral a The best things in life are freequot originated from asong What functions do proverbs serve 1 Capture applicable wisdom advice or commentary judgment in a prepackagedquot traditional saying How does rhyme assist the transmission and performance of folklore 1 Rhymes in folklore help communicate aspects of memory teaching coordination and more b Reading Chapter 5 amp 7 Proverb A popular saying in a relatively fixed form that is or has been in oral circulation True Proverb 1 Def Always a complete sentence varies slightly in form and usaually expresses some general truth or wisdom a b Proverbial Phrase Live and let livequot Accidents will happenquot 1 Def Never complete sentences regularly vary in form as they are used and seldom express an generalized wisdom nearly all of them are metaphorical Vary in number and tense a From A to Zquot b to raise the roofquot c from Alpha to Omegaquot 2 Meanings are usually clear a To have your ducks in a rowquot 3 Folk sayings on page 9798 be able to list and provide examples a Insults Retorts and Wisecracks slam sayings You make a better door than a windowquot b Sarcastic interrogatives Is the Pope a Catholicquot amp Does a dog have easquot c Euphemisms It s snowing down southquot iv Rhymes 1 Assists memory easily identified in the context of speech as a whole 2 Mental device 3 Different kinds of rhymes a Nursery Rhymes i Usually British in origin ii Have a deeper meaning iii Ex b Play rhyme i Begin a babies social life ii Performed with gestures or other actions iii Ex The counting out loud rhyme of choosing quotitquot c Parody rhymes i Ex Good food good meat Good God let s eatquot D Week 4 Stories Myths Legends and Tales a Lecture i What do we mean when we say that some stories are sacred 1 Sacred stories ask and answer existential questions ii Legends 1 Hawaiian Goddess take lava rock you will be cursed 2 Bell Witch take rock from cave you will be cursed a quot Examples of localization iii Tales 1 Include stories of folk fiction iv Myth 1 Flood myths about Noah s Arc b Reading Ch 8 amp 9 i Myth 1 Definition traditional prose narratives which in the society in which they are told are considered to be truthful accounts of what happened in the remote pastquot a Deal with activities of gods and demigods ii The complications surrounding the identification of what is sacred in any given folk group 1 Native Americans 172174 a Myths and tales have been collected in large numbers for a long period oftime b Often freely mix human and animal characters and the animals may have both human and godlike qualities c Combine believable and fantastic elements d The original nature is lost to us as English writers and makes it difficult to read iii Legend 1 Definition a Remarkable events that happened to ordinary people a variable fact combined with an illusion commonly believed to be true The stories of our folk history 2 Resemble myths in that they are stores regarded by their tellers as true despite being partly based on traditional motifs 3 Generally secular and are set in the less remote past in a conventional earthly location 4 Various forms of legends a Religious legends i Appearance of 3 Nephites who helped aide the Mormons in time of need ii 3 types blessings miracles and Bible of the Folk b Supernatural legends i Take the form of supposedly factual accounts of occurrences and experiences that seem to validate folk beliefs and superstitions ii Memorates firsthand descriptions of personal experiences iii Protomemorates any credibility seekingquot utterance of folk belief itself c Urban legends i A story in a contemporary setting reported as a true individual experience ii Typically have three good reasons for their popularity 1 Suspenseful humorous storyline 2 Element of actual belief 3 Warning or a moral that is either stated or implied iii Ex The vanishing hitchhiker iv Localization 1 All kinds of stories that get localized based on geography V Validating formula 1 Be able to define and identify I heard this from a best friendquotquotThis happened in my neighborhoodquot vi Folktales 1 Definition traditional narratives that are strictly fictional and told primarily for entertainment although they may illustrate a truth or a moral 2 EXAMPLE Cinderella E Week 5 Folklore and the Internet a U Chain posts i Validating formulas I heard this from my friendquot ii Chain letters have been around forever 17th18th century iii Rumors Just because it is on the internet doesn t make it folklore Folkloric genres on the internet i Folk speech duck face leet speech wut R U doing 2nite selfie ii Rhyme failwhalequot when twitter breaks iii Iokes Ex George Bush fishing during Katrina What is a meme i A group of digital items sharing common characteristics of content form and or stance Leamor Shiftman 1 We do NOT use definition by Richard Dawkins ii Circulate Is a meme folklore i Yes 1 Slenderman legend a Creator Victor Surge Agency i Ability or capability to act or exert power active working operation Creative i Inventive imaginative of relating to displaying using or involving imagination or original ideas F Week 6 Folk Games a Lecture i Why do humans take play so seriously 1 Because play is the opposite of work almost always considered fun it is natural for humans to play ii How is children s play developmental 1 Social acclimation babies play house a Practice as adulthood iii SuttonSmiths Six Forms of play 1 Mental or subjective play a Day dreaming 2 Solitary play a Solitaire 3 Informal social play a Dancing 4 Performance play a Concerts Contests games and support a Fantasy football 6 Performance play and contests a Adults watching high school game b NFL iv Folk illusion 1 Definition instances of play during which specific traditionalized verbal and or kinesthetic actions are performed in order to create embodied illusions for one or more participants 2 Examples a Floating arms b Twisted hands c The chills d Light as a feather b Reading Chapter 18 i Difference between a pastime and game 1 Pastime a traditional recreation performed simply to pass the time away a Lacks what true games have i Elements of competition ii Measure of organization with some kind of controlling rules b Solo activity ii Games of action 1 Subdivided by the principal action involved 5 a Hopping b Chasing c Hiding d Battle e Dramatic 2 Example MarcoPolo Cops and Robbers iii Games with objects 1 May be classified by the objects that are used stones sticks seeds plants or marbles jacks balls and knives a Strategy or dexterity is usually more important than physical strength 2 Example Checkers board games Frisbee hackeysack iv Games of mental activity 1 Characterized by guessing figuring choosing and the like usually involve some physical action as well often manipulation of objects 2 Pencil and paper games 3 Example Charades G Week 7 Superstitions a Lecture i Why do so many Americans still believe in the supernatural 1 Because they have beliefs that help them believe Supernatural beliefs explain the unexplainable ii What kind of evidence is most important for superstitions and belief 1 POSITIVE EVIDENCE b Reading Ch 14 i Superstition Often thought of as a naive popular belief usually concerning chance magic or the supernatural that are logically or scientifically untenable 1 Examples a b c The two dollar bill was thought to be bad luck so Americans originally rejected them and would tear off a corner to let the bad luck outquot Hotel owners skipping 13th oor Knocking on wood ii What is the connection between superstition and belief 1 Positive evidence of for a belief works in tandem with culture pressures that support that belief Rational dynamics govern folk beliefs iii Theories of superstitions 1 Theoretical aspects of superstitious behavior a Faulty reasoning coincidence psychological predilection to believe in the supernatural rites of passage the theory of survival fear of abnormal or of the risky fear of the dead modernization of superstitions and the power of magic to persist traditionally side by side with officially maintained science and religion 2 Sympathetic magic a Provided terminology still in use for explaining some superstitions iv Examples of superstition within the chapter 1 Superstitions pertaining to a The cycle of human life b The supernatural c Cosmology and the natural world d Miscellaneous superstitions H Week 8 Fieldwork Assignment a Four Aspects of folklore field work i Identification and planning this step is when people fail 1 Who and what 2 Gain permission 3 Plan documentation ii Documentation 1 Observation notes photography 2 Interviews keep the conversation going with little talk from yourself iii Analysis 1 Research 2 Follow up interview iv Outputs 1 Video radio essays essays articles presentations 1 Week 9 a Lecture i Be able to identify all three major aspects of folklife verbal customary material 1 Louisiana a Verbal i Cajun dialect b Customary i Rougarou Old French story of werewolf that hid in swamps looking for kids that were misbehaving around Christmas c Material i Food Crawfish boil ii Quilting traditions 1 Earliest quilting traditionwhole cloth pattern 2 pieces of cloth with stuffing stitching important 2 Trapunto stuffed techniquequot 3 Applique the application of a precut design to the top cloth 4 Gee s Bend Quilters height of abstract art b Reading Ch 19 i How is the study of folklife a movement away from text dominated folklore studiesquot 1 Folklife claims that folklorists are too narrowly preoccupied with verbal forms and neglect tangible products of folk artisans 2 Folklorists tend to rely on a mere list of examples 3 Folklife refers to traditional material culture 4 Folklife is not a broad as folklore folkLORE encompasses folkLIFE ii Understand the conceptions and misconceptions discussed in the chapter 1 Some researchers believe you should focus on the old ways of life when studying folklore whereas others believe that studying old ways is insufficient 2 There is some question if folklife studies should properly include contemporary traditions at all iii What are the central issues of studying folklife What are the inherent differences between studying material culture and verbal folklore 1 Artifacts must be measured carefully materials identified 2 Maps and atlases should be made up for locating locations of findings 3 Analysis a Truly traditional variations must be distinguished from individual innovations 4 No unified approach to American material traditions has been established a Folklorists aren t aware of others doing the same research as them Chapter 3 A Understand major folk groups a Occupational age family regional ethnic national etc B Folk group a Any two or more people with at least one thing in commonquot Alan Dunde C Identify what folk groups you belong a I am part of IU folk group Even smaller than that I am part of F101 folk group Smaller than that I am part of Dom s discussion folk group Chapter 6 A Understand the importance of Rhyme as a mental device Rhyme assists memory and rhyme is easily identified in the context of speech as a whole a Educational things alphabet b Manners and morals c How to avoid getting sick or hurt d Things about the natural world B Be familiar with the different kinds of rhyme from the chapter and be able to list 23 of those kinds and provide examples a Nursery Rhymes Mother Goose Little miss muffet b Rhymes of play Iump rope rhymes Cinderella dressed in yellow went upstairs c Rhymes of work Peddlers cry d Written Traditional rhymes epitaphs graffiti Final Review A Week 10 a Lecture i Know the relationships between Halloween s pagan antecedents and modern celebrations of Halloween 1 Four key aspects to Halloween a Halloween is both a Pagan and a Christian Festival b Halloween s calendrical position has always ensured its celebration of harvest c Halloween has also always been related to celebrations of death d Connections to Pagan New Year celebrations give Halloween a joyous lively and rauchous side ii Be able to recognize the important connections between Fall the calendrical season and Halloween s celebration of death and the macabre 1 The Celtic Harvest Festival a Took place at sundown on Oct 31 b Celebration of harvest i Crops coming out of the field c Human sacrifice 2 Black Plague a Black Death and the macabre b Because of the plague death was prominent in society and art c Make life out of death iii What are some of the themesespecially themes that focus on certain areas of the bodythat arise in Halloween costumes 1 Image of the witch a Christianity tried to stamp out witches in black pagicHalloween has still persisted to be celebrated i Devil ii Sator 2 The Grotesque body a Teeth i Glorifying the nature of decaying ii Vampires only seem to present elongated teeth b Legs i Slenderman stilts ii Pirate leg c Hair i Frankenstein s Hair d Heads i Headless horseman ii Adding heads e Eyes i Displacement f Skin i Blue Man Group ii Skin deformities and injuries b Reading Chapter 15 i Be able to define and provide examples of customs 1 Definition A traditional practice a mode of individual 2 behavior or a habit of social life transmitted by word of mouth or imitation then ingrained by social pressure common usage and parental or other authority Examples a Baby boy dressed in blue girl in pink child leaving tooth under pillow for the tooth fairy ii Be able to define folklife 1 Definition refers to the full traditional lore behavior and material culture of any folk group with emphasis on the customary and material categories Examples a Manners or mores i A fixed part of a national behavior and are practiced unvaryingly throughout a country ii Mores are traditional modes of behavior that have achieved the status of moral requirements often being institutionalized in laws iii Ethnocentrism the assumption that one s own customs manners and mores are the quotrightquot ones iii What is a riteofpassage custom 1 Birth and adolescence coming of age courtship and marriage and death Boy babies customarily dressed in blue baby girls customarily dressed in pink Celebrations of birthday anniversaries a Birthday parties dropped at about high school age b Sometimes revived around the age of maturity 2 1 c 50th birthday over the hill d One spank for each year with extras to grow onquot or for good measurequot B Week 11 090 2 e Happy Birthdayquot song i Variations f Birthday person King or Queenquot for the day Loss of baby teethquot a Tooth fairy School customs a Prom b Hazing of freshmen initiation into clubs c Passing around autograph book Friendship customsquot a Exchanging of articles of clothing or jewelry b Friendship bracelets c Friendship beads Reaching maturity coming of age Courtship and engagement Wedding customs a Something old something new something borrowed something blue iv Be able to define and provide examples of calendar customs 1 Definition In the US cluster around a few annual events Examples a St Patrick s Day wear green b April Fool s Day pull pranks c Easter Both Christian and Orthodox dyeing eggs and wearing new clothes a Lecture Folklore Body Adornment And Vernacular Dress Know the ways that body adornment folklore and dress interact with other folkloric genres like rites of passage and myth 1 Body adornment a Purposeful artistic choices that dress mark and accessorize our bodies 2 Body adornment intersects various genres of folklore a Adornment and rites of passage graduation cap and gown b Adornment as an avenue for customary traditions c Formal adornment and folk agency folk creativity 3 Adornment and myths sacred belief a Underwear magic underwearquot i Amish community ii White symbolizws purity all start out with the same colors you can t tell who joined recently and who has been there forever b Also called two pieces temple garment 4 We all adorn ourselves in various ways a Sacred mythical or religious beliefs ii What do folklorists mean when we refer to vernacular dress 1 The style which is most regular in its structure and in its relation to the history of the language area 2 Vernacular in material culture a Louisiana i Camou age wasn t in war for awhile began in antiquity 1 Used to blend into the background 2 Outdoorsmen is a huge part of being in the Louisiana folkgroup a Because of this camou age has been spread out through other areas of dress 3 Indiana University Vernacular dress a Candy stripes b Crimson and creme c Cutting shirts creating an identity d Leggings black b Reading Chapter 22 i Understand the difference between folk dress and stereotypical dress 1 Folk dress a 2 Stereotypical dress ii Understand and be able to provide examples of Occupational Dress 1 Examples a Leather apron blacksmith b American loggers wore checkered shirts pants that were cut off at the cuffs stagged sometimes a sash around the waist and always hobnailed and wellgreased boots c Cowboys outfit as a national symbol iii Understand and be able to provide examples of Immigrant Dress 1 The idea that immigrants came over and discarded native styles in preference for Westernized fashions They sensed how clearly one s clothes projected a personal image identifying the outsider as a foreigner 2 Examples a iv What are the recognizable contemporary forms of folk dress C Week 12 Brunvand lists several 1 Medical student s lab coat 2 Motorcyclist s leather jacket 3 Not wearing something braless shoeless or wearing something in an unintended manner backwards baseball cap constitutes a statement about a tradition made via one s mode of dress 4 a Lecture i ii iii iv V What are the complications of defining songs or music as quotfolkquot or popular 1 77 Know the history of the now popular song Man of Constant Sorrowquot 1 Began with Dick Burnett 1913 2 Then recorded by Emry Arthur 3 Bob Dylan is credited for its fame 4 Union Station sang it for George Clooney in 0 Brother Where Art Thou How do we know ballads survived or diffused all the way from the British Isles to Appalachia 1 A kind of culture that existed upon a westeast divide a Mountains acted as a cultural barrier b There own culture way of speaking cooking is rooted in this culture because of mountains 2 What folk groups played in important role in the development of the standard electric guitar 1 Hawaiian 2 Hillbilly 3 African American culture 4 Rickenback Frying Fans 1930 a First electrified guitar a Hawaiian guitar b Bob Dunn first to play 5 Gibson Les Paul 1949 6 Leo Fender 1950 Be familiar with the vernacular expressions of guitar discuses in lecture 1 History a Pythagorous b Hitties played string instruments 100 BC c European Lutes d Vihuela similar version of lute 6 e Spanish vernacular guitar Flamenco 18th century f Vernacular guitar in America the Mariachi g Vernacular guitar in America Hillbilly music i Mother Maybell Carter Family picking h Hawaiian Lap steels Cruises a Selling Hawaii and its music i You could order Hawaiian guitars The problem with Hawiian guitars a They re played laying down on your lap b The sound hole then faces up which didn t have enough sound i Fix dobro Jerry Douglas Delta Blues a Mississippi b Blue Slide i Robert Johnson Iazz a Charlie Christiansan 1941 i Swing to Bopquot Debate between if Hawaiians or African American Blues were sliding first b Reading Chapter 11 Be able to identify the problems with defining folk songs methods of transmissions variants commercial recordings of folk songs etc i ii 1 Be able to define and provide examples for Wordless Folksongs NearSongs and Functional Folksongs 1 2 Wordless Folksongs a Vocal music without lyrics b Chin musicquot i When the voice imitates the sound of dance music played on a fiddle c Vocal instruments such as yodeling hollering the jug and the kazoo developing into muted and growl effects produced on conventional band instruments d Eephing or hoodling i Breathy grunting quasimusical noises that sound somewhat like animal imitations Nearsongs a Definition when words predominate and melody is weak b C Peddler s cries i Singsong chant Squaredance calls 3 Functional folksongs a b D Week 13 a Lecutre Definition first group of true songs with both traditional words and music Lullabies that are smoothly rhythmical peaceful or repetitious Worksongs i If they are regulated by the repeated pulse of chopping hammering marching pulling on ropes and so forth they are classified as functional songs Playparty songs Children s game songs i Be able to define foodways 1 The cultural social and economic practices relating to the production and consumption of food a It is what you eat and how you eat it ii Why do we say that taste is both biological and cultural 1 Taste is cultural a Example i Iapan squidink burger jellyfish salad ii America Adding crunch ontop of stuff iii Thailand fried crickets for lunch iii How do foodways intersect with other forms of folklore like myth and festival 1 Food for Holidays a 4th of July i All food colored red white and blue ii Meat hot dogs fried chicken b New Years i Champagne c Hanukah i Apple sauce potato pancakes latkes d Thanksgiving i Food holiday of all food holidays 2 Religion a Kosher i Kosher is the laws on what food is clean or not in the Jewish Torah b Hinduism i Mostly vegetarian nonViolence extends to animals ii Some eat meat only killed with one blow iii No Hindu eats beef sacred animal 3 Food and Time a Easter first Sunday after first full moon after Spring equinox b Thanksgiving fourth Thursday of November c Lemonade and icecream summer food d Hot Chocolate applecider pumpkin spice latte winter food 4 You are what you eatquot a Other countries insult people by what they eat 5 Foodways talk not about survival but what you and your friends eat to belong 6 Class and how it changes a Corn not always an American food staple i Benjamin Franklin had to convince them b Soul foodquot Southern food c Maine i Lobster ii Used to be a dirty foodquot and inappropriate iii Biggest quotbugquot of America iv Used to be considered food for poornow is the most expensive thing on the menu 1 Tourists iv Be able to identify the varying vernacular expressions of BBQ 1 Columbus a Looking for gold spices converting others to Christianity b Long voyages salted fish for two or three months c Pinta Voyage i Left to go find land in area of the Caribbean ii For three weeks it disappeared looking for land and anything not salt cod iii They find an island and on the shore they see sticks above a fire with meat on it cooking with spices and they thing it smells awesome 1 Cooked dragons iguana meat iv Discovery of the barbeque d Barbeque word comes from barbacoa the device used to cook natives also used it to sleep v Know the origins of the American BBQ 1 Barbeque on the pit vs barbeque on the grill a Pit slow cooked smoked i Pits today made of brick with smoking hole sometimes with fancy grills 2 Connection between males as cook for barbeque a Masculine themes b Males outside cooking 3 Barbeque spans all socioeconomic levels 4 Vernacular BBQ sauce regions a Carolinas i Vinegar Tomato Vinegar Mustard b Kansas City i Sweet tomato brown sugar c Texas i Brisket sweet tomato d Memphis i Dry rub tomato vinegar 5 Family BBQ b Reading Chapter 23 i Know why the entire process of foodways must be considered when trying to understand food traditions from selection to preparation to consumption 1 ii Native Americans shared much of their food culture which was attached to the North American locale with the Europeans who colonized the country Know examples 1 Indian cornquot the term English settlers used for maize indicated a debt to the natives 2 Indian derived names for some corn dishes such as corn pone hominy and succotash iii Understand that regional tastes differ Consider turtle soup and lutefisk among other examples eg crawfish iguana bugs etc What does this say about humans taste preferences 1 E Week 15 a Lecture i What do we mean by aesthetic appreciation and perception 1 Aesthetic of or relating to the perception appreciation or criticism of that which is beautiful ii Know examples of how human traditions tend toward the aesthetic 1 77777 2 Various folknames 3 Legends 1 hate the Bell Witchquot a Like watching a play 4 Mindsweeper game a Goal to manipulate the structure you cannot control i However sometimes people make artwork out of it showing creativity and art 5 Presentation of food iii How does the aesthetic interact with all of the forms of folklore we ve discussed this semester 1 iv Be able to recognize the traditional ways that we adorn our automobiles 1 60 s was the culture of customizing vehicles 2 Vernacular assemblage and dash ornaments Saint Christopher Patron St of safe travel Religious statues Iesus Mary Buddha Santa Dashboard Hula Girls i Pearl Harbor ii 1950 as soldiers returned home from their stations in Hawaii Americans became really interested in Hawaiian culture e Masculinity in the aesthetics of dashboard adornment 3 Folk aesthetics and the license plate 4 Ritual commemoration and traditional car d cor a Just Marriedquot cans streamers b Car paint graduation sporting events v Why can we consider the automobile an outward expression of the innerself 1 Bumper stickers as traditionalized social commentary 2 Traditionalized rearview mirror decorations 3 77777 b Reading Chapter 21 i Be able to define and provide an example of folk craft 1 Definition Usually thought of as amateur labor resulting in traditional homemade objects that are primarily functional 2 Examples 9962 a Fences b Mailboxes c Quilt ii Be able to define and provide and example of folk art 1 Definition The purely decorative or representational items produced by traditional means iii iv vi a Very close to handicraft difficult to distinguish the two fields 2 Example a Wreaths b Quilt c Stenciling Be able to understand the complications associated with these categories as crafts become beautiful and or art becomes useful Know Nicolaisen s distorted functionquot 1 Adapting old artifacts for new purposes a The reuse of old wagon wheels Be able to provide an example of materials that come to have a distorted function 1 Wagon wheels 2 Milk jugs turned into baskets banks or toys 3 Wreaths woven out of wool feathers or human hair may be fashioned from coat hangers and plastic bags In light of the three blurbs from John Vlach Michael Owen Jones and Henry Glassie on pages 562563 understand the importance of studying folk craft art in the context of the folk groups in which that art is made 1 Folk Games 1 Game Lore Ideal topic for folklore research Passed from child to child in almost pure oral tradition Players will strive to maintain the right way to play Develop clear regional subtypes May be based on the movements of the body simple social activities on chance or on elementary mathematics of mechanics f Reveal much about the society in which they are played and the individuals who play them i Nonverbal elements of games are significant along with verbal ones g WWNewell i Games and Songs of American Children h Paul G Brewster s i American NonSinging Games ii Described games without songs i Problems with classifying games i Grouping games into four classes depending upon the elements of 1 Competition 2 Chance 3 Mimicry 4 Or vertigo ii Pervious categories too broad Another way to group is made my anthropologists 1 Their requirements for either physical skill strategy or chance iii A more workable classification may be made based on the primary kind of play activity involved 1 Whether physical action 2 Manipulation of objects 3 Mental activity j Pastimes i Must be distinguished from true games 1 A traditional recreation performed simply to pass the time away 2 Lacks what true games have a Elements of competition b Possibility of winning or losing c Measure of organization with some kind of controlling rules 3 Solo activities 4 Lack of rules k Solo reaction FDPPP39P 2 Games of Action a Games of physical action i Subdivided by the principal action involved 1 Hopping games 2 Chase games 3 Hiding games 4 Battle games 5 Dramatic games ii Outlets for high spirits iii Provide healthy competition iv Hiding games 1 Illustrate the variety of play that is possible on the basis of one simple concept 2 Marco Polo a Taghiding game 3 Truce terms and sanctuary terms in all such recreations differ from game to game b Most games passed childchild not adultchild c Certain amount of mimicry of life situations i Little Sally Walker d Battle games i Cops and robbers 1 Dramatic imitations of adult conflicts that have survived even in the age of space exploration 3 Games with Objects a Games involving manipulation of objects i May be classified by the objects that are used whether found items like stones sticks seeds and plants or manufactured objects like marbles jacks balls and knives 1 Strategy or dexterity is usually more important than physical strength b Variations of organized sports i Baseball or softball in folk groups are seldom plated with full teams game officials standardsize playing fields c Checkers board games i Frisbees and hackeysacks 1 Used frequently for playing traditional games perhaps the most elaborate being ultimate Frisbee 4 Mental Games a Games of mental activity i Characterized by guessing figuring choosing and the like 1 Usually also involve some physical action as we often manipulation of objects ii Lemonade New Orleans 1 The procedure of one team acting out a kind of work and the other team guessing what it is 2 Charades and 20 questions are two of these that eventually found their way into television game shows b Games involving drawn diagrams are usually called penciland paper games i Hangman 5 Other Folk Recreations a Practical Jokes i Do not qualify as true games because in Richard S Tallman s definition they consist of a competitive play activity in which only one of two opposing sides is consciously aware of the fact that a state of play exists The unknowing side is made to seem foolish or is caused some physical andor mental discomfort ii Require that all participants but one be in on the joke iii Fools errand iv Snipe hunt 1 Which remains a successful trick on an occasional youthful camper or club member The other hunters explain the habits of the exclusive snipe The victim is to hold a bag open and make the proper sound while the others will fan out in the woods to drive the snipe towards him But all the tricksters simply 0 home leaving the poor hunter holding the bag until they realize they have been duped b Kissing games i Chasing kiss games 1 Kiss in the ring the kiss is a reward for catching a panner ii Mixing kiss games 1 Post office pairing of couples occurs temporarily during the course of the game iii Couple kiss games 1 Flashlight couples are established beforehand and the game allows them to kiss each other repeatedly c Drinking games i Popular in many college and high school party groups ii Most drinking games are transparent excuses to chuga lug that is to down a drink of beer or liquor in one draught 6 Recap a American folklorists seem to have bypassed the stage that was so important in folktale studies that of historicgeographic studies Customs and Festivals 1 What are customs a b Many customs are closely associated with superstitions Involve both verbal and nonverbal elements traditionally applied in specific circumstances Definition A traditional practice a mode of individual behavior or a habit of social life transmitted by word of mouth or imitation then ingrained by social pressure common usage and parental or other authority Customs associated with holidays i Calendar customs and when such events are celebrated annually by a whole community and especially over a period of several days they become festivals Festival Definition a calendar custom celebrated annually by a whole community and especially over a period of several days Transmitting folklore itself is customary Ethnography the descriptive study of all traditions in a particular group or region Ethnographic descriptions of different cultures make possible comparative studies or ethnology Folklife refers to the full traditional lore behavior and material culture of any folk group with emphasis on the customary and material categories Not all customs are stillliving folklore i Manners or mores 1 A fixed part of national behavior and are practiced unvaryingly throughout a country a Ex Domestic manners in America switching a fork from left hand to right when eating serving certain drinks iced maintaining a high degree of informality in social life 2 Mores are traditional modes of behavior that have achieved the status of moral requirements often being institutionalized in laws 3 Ethnocentrism the assumption that one s own customs manners and mores are the quotrightquot ones 2 RightofPassage Customs a 96 Birth and adolescence coming of age courtship and marriage and death Boy babies customarily dressed in blue bab y girls customarily dressed in pink Celebrations of birthday anniversaries i Birthday parties dropped at about high school age ii Sometimes revived around the age of maturity 21 iii 50th birthday over the hill iv One spank for each year with extras to grow onquot or for good measurequot V Happy Birthdayquot song 1 Variations vi Birthday person King or Queenquot for the day e Loss of baby teethquot i Tooth fairy f School customs i Prom ii Hazing of freshmen initiation into clubs iii Passing around autograph book iv Friendship customsquot 1 Exchanging of articles of clothing or jewelry 2 Friendship bracelets 3 Friendship beads g Adolescent custom i Legendtrippingquot 1 Teenagers will cruise to a place to said to be haunted cursed inhabited by witches or maniacs the scene of a terrible accident or the like and there retell the legends while halfhoping that something supernatural will take place h Reaching maturity coming of age i Institutionalized according to the ethnic group education level or religious affiliations of the family ii Bar or bat mitzvah iii Confirmations iv Graduations i Courtship and engagement i Studydates ii Doubledatingquot iii Going steadyquot iv Saving one s virginity for marriagequot j Wedding Customs i Begins with a shower 1 Once customarily only for women 2 Bachelorette and bachelor parties ii Wedding itself 1 The dress of participants the seating of guests choice of attendants kissing the bride throwing the rice decorating the car iii Mock Weddingquot 1 A parody of a couple s wedding in dramatic form put on as an anniversary celebration usually at a milestone date such as the 25th anniversary k Children arriving in marriages i Baby showers 1 Death i Generally fraught with suggestions of fear or superstition ii Pouring water out of vases covering mirrors and stopping the clocks in a house in which death has occurred iii Draping the furniture in the room in which a corpse lies 3 Other Customs a Customs tend to cluster around work recreation or social events b Domestic work ritual of the pastthe weekly washday i North Carolina ii Variations Grandma s Washdaysquot iii Typical washday routine required only that each housewife had her clean laundry hanging on the line to dry every Monday preferably earlier than any other woman on the block c Modern sports or children s games i Choosing sides by odd or even fingers choosing the server in tennis by spinning the racket rallying for the serve in Ping Pong 4 Calendar Customs a US Calendar Customs i Cluster around a few annual events 1 2 3 990 St Patrick s Day wearing green April Fools Day playing pranks Easter both Christian and Orthodox dyeing eggs wearing new clothes Memorial Day visiting cemetery and decorating family s graves Independence Day shooting fireworks and giving patriotic speeches Halloween trickortreatingquot Thanksgiving feasting and giving thanks Christmas caroling and hanging mistletoe New Year s Eve attending a watch partyquot at which there is much noisemaking and general congratulations at the stroke of midnight ii Sometimes commemorated 1 2 3 Cinco de Mayo Day of the Dead Jewish Holidays iii Some American holidays have few or no folk aspects 5 Folk Festivals a Easter Halloween and especially Christmas i Because of the largescale general commemorations and the commercialization b Mardi Gras c Observance of Passover by Eastern Europen Iews i One of the few imported festivals d Another transplanting of holiday celebration i Americanized Christmas customs that took root in Japan 1 Japanese merchants displayed Christmas decorations a Trees Christmas carols played parties gift exchanges Folk Foods Only traditional product to be quickly and wholly consumed in a short time after preparation Stud of folk foods should include the entire process of traditional food handling and consumption 0 00000000 What is eaten How and when it is eaten Food preparation and preservation Seasoning and serving food Ethnic and regional foods Religious food taboos and other requirements Food terminology and beliefs Kitchens and cookware Table manners etc 1 Historical Study a warher Native American culture had a negligible in uence on settlers i Indian cornquot the term English settlers used for maize indicated a debt to the natives ii Indian derived names for some corn dishes such as corn pone hominy and succotash White trappers and hunters learned from Native Americans how to prepare lightweight survival rations like pemmican and jerked beef i Ierky was often made by overland emigrants by hanging strips of raw meat outside of their wagons and allowing the sun to dry them out ii Nowadays most jerky is prepared packaged and sold commercially Mountain men developed tastes for the Native s favorite wild meat both cooked and raw i Buffalo meat Henry David Thoreau learned from Native Americans how to make tea Three meals a day Variation in what people ate based upon location Corn dodgersquot a term applied to a variety of cornmeal cakes Scouse i A rare treat on sailing ships made of pieces of salt beef boiled up with pounded biscuits and a few potatoes ii Pudding or quotduffquot American Cowboy i Westerners 1 Large meals of fried steak sourdough biscuits and strong coffee with canned or dried foods included if available 2 Traded beef for vegetables fruit or melons whenever possible ii Dutch oven 1 Allowed controlled baking to be done by an open fire or over a bead of coals 2 A goodfood company was sometimes referred to as strictly a Dutchoven outfitquot iii Men s cooking in their own work camps almost always concentrated on solid fundamentals that stuck to their ribs j Learning to settle for substitutes i Horsemint teaquot for coffee or shredded will bark for tobacco ii Women invented a way of stretching the coffee supply 1 Baking cornmeal in molasses and stirring it into the grounds 2 Or burn coffee dregs for reuse k Nothinginthehouse Piesquot i Concocted from marginally tasty fruits green currants or elderberries for instance or from unlikely ones such as grapes ii Outandout quotmockquot pies required either vinegar or field sorrel might pass for lemon on crushed crackers could be made to taste like an apple filling with the proper seasoning 2 Regional Foods a Baked BeansBoston Clam chowderNew England clam chowder Manhattan blackeyed and friend chickenSouth corn on the cob Midwest b Cincinnati Chili Culinary Complexquot i Timothy Loyd ii Cincinnati Chili ingredients typically include such spices as cinnamon allspice and bay leaves iii Even more distinctive is the terminology of serving chili 1 a bowl of plainquot 2 Twoway a Served over spaghetti 3 Threeway a Cheese added 4 Fourway a Onions added 5 Fiveway a Beans added iv The protocol of ordering states the way c Varying names for similar foods in different regions i Doughnuts 1 Fried Cakes 2 Sinkers 3 Crullers 4 Ginger Nuts ii Green beans 1 String beans 2 Snap beans iii Pancakes 1 Hotcakes 2 Griddle cakes 3 Flapjacks 4 Wheat cakes iv Soda pop etc 3 The Folk Meal a Characteristics of the American folk meal seem to be large quantities great variety and the use of regional specialties b Pilgrim s first Thanksgiving c American tendency to dream of much good eating 4 Playing with Your Foodquot a Eating Oreos by breaking them apart b Eating the best part lastquot c Mashed Potatoes with gravy sculpted into a volcano d Playful recipes for special cakes i Upsidedown cake ii Tomato soup cake iii Sauerkraut Cake iv Wacky Cake v 1234 Cake 5 Researching Folk Foods a While there are traditional qualities in virtually every aspect of eating and drinking the most obvious factors in uencing these acts are now commercial and professional ones b The foods people prefer for breakfast while mainly of commercial origin group themselves in traditional ways c Lighter foods are healthier A Folklife and Folklore a e f Folklore i oral traditions channeled across the centuries through human mouths Dorson i Material traditions 1 In his book he rarely touched upon these ii Oral traditions iii Customary traditions Folklife i Re ected in the names we bear from birth invoking affinities with saints ancestors or cultural heroes ii Shaping of everyday experiences in stories swapped around Preliminary problem i Lack of widely accepted procedures and theories for American folklife studies many of which in the past have been simply descriptive approaches to individual artifacts or artisans American scholars studied folklife in Europe especially Scandinavia Organized study of folklife in the US began in the 1960s B Conceptions and Misconceptions a b C Important task of American folklife research i Locate evaluate and synthesize the borderline studies in order to establish a critical bibliography for the field and to determine what genuinely traditional material has already been described ii Not every publication about folk artquot takes a folkloristic approach Folk artquot i Must be the work of common peoplequot ii The golden age of such art in America extended from the middle of the 18th century to the beginning of the 20th iii Should be viewed as mainly quotcreativequot rather than utilitarian There is some question if folklife studies should properly include contemporary traditions at all C Fieldwork Using the Camera a Singlelensre ex SLR camera taking 35mm film i Advantage the photographer sighted on the subject and focused the image directly through the camera lens thus seeing at the time exactly what would be in the picture f g Always practice with a camera before doing fieldwork Two most useful extra lenses i Wideangle lens 1 Useful when things prevent getting far enough back to take the subject ii Zoomtelephoto lens 1 Magnifying a selected portion of a subject Using different colored photos to capture images based upon lighting Sharp clear and wellexposed pictures rather than artistic compositions or trick shots are needed for documentary purposes A series of pictures illustrating the sequence should be taken Negatives slides and prints should be filed D Studying Folklife a b c Artifacts must be measured carefully materials identified Maps and atlases should be made up for locating locations of findings Analysis i Truly traditional variations must be distinguished from individual innovations that are not transmitted to other people ii Significant traditional variations that define classes or subclasses be identified for the purpose of accurate classification No unified approach to American material traditions has been established each museum publication or research project tends to have its own emphasis and its own peculiarities i Many people conducting research in American folklife are unaware that similar research is happening in other parts of the world ii European methods are not fully adaptable to American materials The key studies of American folk artifacts remains the same as for all folklore tradition i We recognize in material traditions not only survivals from the past but also recent folk creations and we should be prepared to admit that traditional quotfolkquot methods of work may be followed by professional craftspeople and artists as well as by amateurs Folksongs 1 Problems in defining the folksong a Folksongs consist of words and music that circulate orally in traditional variants among members of a particular group i Come from several sources b Common misconception i Genuine folksongs can be detected by their style of performance ii Nor can the age of a song determine its status as folk or non folk 1 Folksongs are still being created c Difference between folksongs and nonfolksongs i The uidity of form and content ii Art songs are leaned from printed scores exactly as their composers wrote them 1 Professional singers are expected to perform art songs in a manner in keeping with the musical conventions of the composer iii Popular songs 1 Also printed or more often commercially recorded 2 Professional pop singers are expected to perform copyrighted songs more or less how they were written 3 Most popular songs enjoy only a short but very intensive existence 4 Some songs outlive their brief careers a Bing Crosby b Frank Sinatra c Mel Torme d Judy Garland iv Folksongs 1 Even more widely accepted than art songs and popular songs 2 Circulated for generations Middleclass and upperclass know folksongs 4 Generally go back to the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries Unlimited in form and subject matter 6 Their chief distinction remains the manner by which they circulate and the resulting effect on their form a Folksongs unlike any other kind are passed on mostly in oral tradition and they develop traditional variants 7 May actually originate from either art songs or pop songs 9 5 8 Some folksongs are adopted by popular artists for brief periods of times 9 Ballet books a Constitute as a source of folksongs ready collected by informants V Carter Family 2 Wordless Folksongs NearSongs And Functional Folksongs a Wordless folksongs i Vocal music without lyrics ii Chin musicquot 1 When the voice imitates the sound of dance music played on a fiddle iii Vocal instruments such as yodeling hollering the jug and the kazoo developing into muted and growl effects produced on conventional band instruments iv Eephing or hoodling 1 Breathy grunting quasimusical noises that sound somewhat like animal imitations b Nearsongs C i Definition when words predominate and melody is weak ii Peddler s cries 1 Singsong chant iii Squaredance calls Functional Songs i Definition first group of true songs with both traditional words and music ii Lullabies that are smoothly rhythmical peaceful or repetitious iii Worksongs 1 If they are regulated by the repeated pulse of chopping hammering marching pulling on ropes and so forth they are classified as functional songs iv Playparty songs v Children s game songs 3 Lyrical Folk Songs a b Considered the usual meaning of the simple term folksongs Some lyrical folksongs are true folk lyrics that is traditional songs devoted to expressing mood or a feeling without telling any connected story Other folk lyrics have a thread of a story implied in them Major category of lyrical folk songs African American blues i Based on field hollers and cries that developed countless uid stanzas of emotional responses to life ii Often although not necessarily melancholy iii Commonly disappointed love iv Blues imagery 1 Often frankly sexual e Spirituals and other traditional songs i Sometimes allude to a biblical story or a religious legend 1 They may be considered lyrical folksongs except for the relatively few that are religious balladsquot f Songs of gamblers drinkers ramblers and prisoners g Folksongs of courtship and marriage i Describe a courtship ii Few express desire for marriage iii Many celebrate single life h Nursery and children s songs i Derive their appeal and their easy memorability from the use of a simple repeated pattern i Cumulative song i Analogous to the cumulative folktales involve imitations of animal sounds dramatic dialogues gestures and jump or scare endings j Humorous i Dialect songs 1 Derive humor from exaggeration of racial or national speech peculiarities ii Nonsense songs 1 Take their comedy from a stream of purely meaningless verbiage k Regional and occupational folksongs i Offer insight into the history of labor and of settlement 1 Cowboy songs 4 Researching Folksongs a There has been more energy put into the collection of folksongs than classifying them b Classification is a problem i One person s regional songquot may be another s comical songquot and a third s satirical songquot c Lyrical songs offer a tremendous challenge to scholars interested in bibliographical and historical explanation of folk material d Folksongs offer a particularly promising area for research What are superstitions 1 Superstitions a Often thought of as a naive popular belief usually concerning chance magic or the supernatural that are logically or scientifically untenable b Folk beliefquot 2 What do superstitions include 3 4 a Not only belief but also behavior and experiences sometimes equipment and usually sayings or rhymes b No one is immune from the assumptions that underlie superstition nor from holding or practicing superstitions to some degree c The term quotsuperstitionquot is now so well entrenched in folklore study that it probably should continue to be used despite its traditional suggestions of ignorance and fear d Beliefs practices and procedures based upon conscious or unconscious assumptions usually concerned nature of cause and effect Supersticious sayingsquot a Describe conditions either signs or causes and their supposed results i If there s a ring around the moon Sign it will rain result b Describe conversions i When a sign is right a certain act will convert the conventionally expected result 1 If you break a mirror Sign you ll have 7 years of bad luck result unless you gather up the pieces and throw them into running water conversion Superstitions are traditional expressions of one or more conditions and one or more results with some of the conditions signs and other causesquot Superstitions in Modern Life 1 Generally couched in sound logical and are remarkably widespread at every level of society UC Berkley study a Most common being good and badluck signs involving Friday the 13th breaking mirrors opening an umbrella inside Vassar College a 186 items of superstitious belief and practice from their personal knowledge Harvard a Large number of superstitions associated with examinations athletics and games of chance Indiana University a Most scientifically controlled thus far reported showed that students were just as superstitious as ever Women seemed to be more superstitious than men c Freshmansophomore group were more superstitious than juniors and seniors d Education erases superstition i The more educated the parents the more superstitious their children 6 Two dollar bill a 1964 treasurer of the US published a plea that had nationwide distribution urging Americans to accept the twodollar bill instead of rejecting it because of the bad luck that is supposed to attend that denomination and not to tear off a corner to let the bad luck drain H out 7 Supernatural tourist folklorequot a Hawaii i Pele goddess of volcanoesquot people would take the volcanic rocks and then they would receive bad luck 8 Contemporary practices a Hotel owners skipping 13th oor b Knocking on wood i Not having wood and knocking on your own head c Detour around a ladder d Postpone business deals or trips that fall on Friday the 13th Proof a Comes from personal experience b Case stories c Many superstitions probably arose from faulty reasoning based on personal experience d Positive evidence 10 Even people s personal superstitions tend to follow traditional patterns involving luck divination magic dreams colors numbers and so forth 0 The Wayland D Hand System of Classifying Superstitions The cycle of human life The supernatural Cosmology and the natural world Miscellaneous superstitions 99 Ntquot Superstitions About the Life Cycle 1 Superstitions related to the cycle of human life fall into the first seven categories of Hand s system a Birth infancy childhood i Display concepts and habits of reasoning also associated with primitive cultures b Human body folk medicine i Primitive practices surviving in modern times ii In sickness people almost instinctively rely on traditional cures iii The less that medical science knows about an ailment the more likely it is that folk remedies will survive 1 Hiccups sties warts fever blisters cancer common cold most frequently treated with folk cures iv Faith healersquot semiprofessional folk specialist in traditional medicine usually employ a combination of personal and religious power sometimes in combination with certain herbs or nostrums v Deaths come in threes c Home domestic pursuits i Concern cooking clothing housekeeping and changing households ii Avoid seating 13 at a table mending clothes while someone is wearing them stirring cake batter clockwise eating the point of a wedge of pie last crumbling up rather than neatly folding ones napkin d Economic social relations i Owners of stores if the first customer of the day doesn t buy anything it will be a bad day for sales ii Bread and butterquot e Travel communication i Auspicious days and times for beginning a trip signs of future trips or of visitors to come and procedures for traveling or for returning to fetch something forgotten at home f Love courtship marriage i Various practices to predict or ensure marital or sexual happiness ii Trying on another persons engagement ring may lead to you never getting married iii Something old something new something borrowed something bluequot g Death and Funeral customs i Re ect our fear of all things associated with death ii A bird ying into the house a red spider a dog howling at night an empty rocking chair that is moving a picture falling off of the wall iii Was once considered bad luck to break through a funeral procession h Putting an ax under a mothers bed to ease childbirth i Having a bride wear or carry certain objects to ensure her future happiness j Guarding a corpse from cats at a wake k Initiation to adulthood i Graduation confirmation batbar mitzvah ii Ribbon on a diploma must not be cut or broken Superstitions About the Supernatural 1 Superstitions concerned exclusively with the supernatural Witchcraft Ghosts Magical Practices a The modern Americans habits of carrying lucky charms knocking on wood crossing their fingers and cursing things that offend them all point back to supernaturalism that is medieval if not more ancient 2 Not best considered part of supernaturalism a Water witchesquot who seek groundwater sources by magical means Such as practitioners walking back and forth across an area with their forked sticks or doodlebugs for locating minerals are a kind of traditional or folk scientist found in many rural counties in America and in most urban ones as well 3 Folk Religion a Folk religion which comprises in folklorist Don Yoder s words views and practices of religion that exist among the people apart from and alongside the strictly theological and liturgical forms of the official religionquot Superstitions About Cosmology and the Natural World 1 Superstition related to cosmology and the natural world fall into the following five categories in Hand s system a Cosmic Phenomena Times Numbers Seasons i Tides winds rainbows and the movements of heavenly bodies ii Unusual phenomena read as omens iii Eclipses comets and meteors shooting stars occasion more superstitions than do phases of the moon b Weather i People talk about weather but they do very little about it ii If you see a dog eating grass it is going to rain soonquot iii If it snows on Christmas day Easter will be greenquot c Animals Animal Husbandry i All beliefs and practices used to enhance agricultural success ii Many farmers plant by the signs consult almanacs treat sick animals with home cures and follow countless other traditional usages iii Writing rats a nice little note and telling them that there is a nice place for them to stay nearby and stuffing it into their rat hole iv Hold your breath and bees won t sting youquot V The most common agricultural superstitions deal with the best times to plant harvest dehorn castrating and slaughtering d Fishing and Hunting i Exist because success cannot be predicted or guaranteed ii Traditional signs for goodluck days and places and traditional magic for the best methodology of the hunt iii Behavior of a small fish kept in the tank at home will indicate how good the fishing will be that day in the waters from which the fish was taken e Plants Plant Husbandry f Miscellaneous i The lore of wishing general good and bad luck and the small but interesting group of modern beliefs ii To save enough of an apparently worthless item will result in some kind of reward The items saved may be ticket stubs cigarette packages beerbottle labels tea bag tabs or the red trademark tags from Levi s Theories of Superstitions 1 Theoretical aspects of superstitious behavior a Faulty reasoning coincidence psychological predilection to believe in the supernatural rites of passage the theory of survival the uncertainty of some desired ends fear of abnormal or of the risky fear of the dead modernization of superstitions and the power of magic to persist traditionally side by side with officially maintained science and religion 2 Sympathetic magic proposed by Sir James G Frazer provided terminology still in use for explaining some superstitions The Study of Folklore 3315 353 PM Study of Folklore Part of the broader study of people and their works Similar to humanities and social science Today there is much more interest than previously in the present functions and meanings of folk traditions Humanists and social scientists share an interest in finding out how why and which traditional cultural mentifacts sociofacts and artifacts develop vary and are passed on Oral traditions o Historians believe although seldom factually accurate furnish insights into grassroots attitudes toward historical events Probably every field of study involving people in their works can be related back to folklore Most folklore research may be still thought of as an attempt to answer certain fundamental questions 0 What folklore is o What the genres of folklore are 0 Who the folk are 0 Who composed folklore o How folklore is carried ho fast and how far 0 How folklore changes and for what reasons 0 What the underlying form of folklore is and the relation of form to content 0 What folklore means to its carriers and hot it serves them 0 What the performer intends to convey and the intended effect what folklore may symbolize or otherwise represent in a metaphorical way 0 What should be done with folklore and in what other areas of study it is useful Studies seldom considered more than one or two of these matters at a time Assumption that underlies all folklore research 0 Nothing in culture is meaningless or random folkloreas a part of culture inevitably has some function or meaning for those who create it and transmit it Three typical stages of folklore research Collection 0 Raw materials of oral folklore research Texts n Must be collected verbatim from oral sources Record data about the informants themselves gather background on families etc Capturing pictures Note setting of performance time place situation Context may be natural or induced by collector The more the collector blends in the more comfortable the performer will be Metafolklore folklore about folklore Questionnaires Allows researchers to cover a wider area Limits inquiry to a specific subject Sometimes from handwritten sources notebooks printed matter Unorthodox collecting methods Sometimes yield good results Violating superstitious taboo in order to elicit a response about bad luck Signing a song or telling a tale in garbled form so that intended informants will correct them Ethical dimension of fieldwork Responsibilities and liabilities of folklorist Always inform informants of what you re doing Classification 0 O 0 Ethnic or native categories for folk material vary from culture to culture or even person to person Categories have been established in the voluminous reference works for Motifs Tales BaHads Superstitions Riddles Proverbs Other forms Arranged by genre and subgenre within a regional framework The specific manner of classifying a folklore collection depends mainly on the interests and needs of the researcher Analysis 0 Analyzing Comparative Study Believed that after the folklore had been collected classified and made generally available to scholars analysis can take place Oldest and most common technique of analysis is comparison Historicgeographic method the most elaborated form of research in regards to comparison Another form is to bring the viewpoint to bear on other closely related scholarly fields a Ex such material traditions in the US as homemade cabins houses and barns have been investigated for some time by American folklorists and cultural geographers the former concerned with survival and variation traditional patterns the latter with regional distribution and an explanation for it 0 Analyzing Some Major Schools Literary or esthetic approach typical of humanists takes the form either of analyzing the poetics of oral style or of charting the influence of folk traditions Hemispheric approach broader relation of American folklore to American studies and cultural history Functional or anthropological approach typical of scholars with a background in the social sciences examines the roles of folklore in culture in order to determine meanings of functions Anthropological approaches folklore exists not just as a fixed set of abstract genres but as traditional patterns of communication between people a Contextual n Behavioral n Rhetorical a Performance oriented Psychological approach habits of mind underlying folk belief or the symbolic and metaphorical patterns a Freudian or Jungian Mass cultural school develop out of the work of several American folklorists studying interrelations of oral and customary traditions with the mass media and advertising Folkcultural approach material culture Applied folklore the viewpoint that folklore study can make specific contributions to knowledge and progress in other fields evolved into a Public folklore often focusing on the presentation of folk performances to a wider audience Feminist Folkloristic a special approach both to aspects of women s folklore and the production of countering the male biases
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