Week 14 Notes
Week 14 Notes History 225
Popular in U.S. History
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Sundberg on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 225 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Steven Reich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Discussion These documents reflect mid-to-late 20 century Conservatism These authors continue to be referenced today o Especially Friedman and Goldwater How do these compare to the Economic Bill of Rights and the demands of the March on Washington (there might be a question on the final related to this) Libertarian/Free-Market Thinkers o Friedman o Goldwater More concerned with economic freedom Localism over Nationalism Amoral Social Conservatives—Moral Decay o Falwell o Schlafly Committed to an idea of morality Reagan tries to bring these two ideas together o Uses both ends of conservatism to mobilize people to vote Republican Friedman “Concentration of power” and corruption is a threat to freedom Is civil rights protection an illegitimate reach of the government? The power lies in the people, not those who rule over the people Rejects the idea of the citizens serving their “civic duty” to the government Scope of government must be limited to preserve law and order, to enforce private contracts, and to foster competitive markets 4/18 & 4/20 (Reich, Lecture Notes; Foner, Chapter 25 & 26) The Changing Black Movement Uprisings in ghettos outside the South sparked fear of “reverse discrimination” The first riots were predominately battles between black citizens and white police o Newark Riot o Detroit Riot Formation of the Black Panther Party SNCC CORE Malcolm X o Orator that insisted that African Americans must control their own political and economic resources and rely on their own efforts rather than working side by side with whites o Spread message of white evil and black self-discipline o Converted to the teachings of the Nation of Islam while in prison o Assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam while visiting Saudi Arabia Black Power o Freedom from whites that tried to dictate the movement President Nixon The 1950s and 60s saw a conservative rebirth Backlash among formerly democratic voters helped Richard Nixon into the White House o Voters against black assertiveness o Anti-war demonstrations Nixon was not the solution for those who voted for him o Continued conservative language o Condemned student protesters and called for law and order o Expanded welfare state o Attempted to improve American relations with USSR and China New Federalism o Offered federal block grants to states to spend as needed rather than left to Washington to dictate Nixon Administration created new federal agencies o Environmental Protection Agency o The Occupational Safety and Health Administration o National Transportation Safety Board o Endangered Species Act o Clean Air Act o Abolished the Office of Economic Opportunity o Expanded food stamp programs o Indexed Social Security benefits to reflect inflation Continued integration of Southern schools Worked to upgrade minority employment Nixon and Vietnam “Vietnamization”- American troops would be withdrawn gradually while South Vietnamese soldiers continued the fighting Kent State massacre By 1970 more than 350 colleges were experiencing strikes related to antiwar sentiments Troop morale in Vietnam was nonexistent Watergate Nixon was no longer president by the end of the war Nixon had become obsessed with secrecy Formulated a “list of enemies” that threatened the administration Formed secret group known as the “plumbers” to collect information about Daniel Ellsberg Nixon had been recording conversations he had in his office The Fall of President Nixon It had become increasingly clear that Nixon had become involved with the Watergate burglars o Offered to pay them off to remain silent or commit perjury o Ordered FBI to stop investigations Liberals celebrated the end of Nixon’s career Decline of Manufacturing and Stagflation Postwar economic production and expansion ended and slow growth and high inflation followed Rapidly growing demand of fuel for cars caused the U.S. to import one-third of all of its oil The energy crisis increased the attention to domestic energy resources While most of the economy stagnated, western energy production saw growth Western energy companies benefitted from the high oil prices that were set by OPEC Ford as President Pardoned Nixon Ford’s president was insignificant Economic problems proved problematic for the presidents following Nixon Ford attempted to combat inflation, but unemployment continued to rise Jimmy Carter Democrat Ran for president as an “outsider” Had a lot in common with the Progressives of the early 20 th century “Crisis of Confidence” o Blamed it on the people’s ‘“mistaken idea of freedom” as “self indulgence and consumption”’ (Foner, p. 1038). 4/22 (Reich, Lecture notes) Malaise Document Address country about energy crisis Known for articulating the weaknesses of America “All the legislation in the world cant fix what’s wrong with America” “Crisis of Confidence” “The erosion of our confidence in the future is threatening to destroy the social and political fabric of America” o People thinking of themselves as part of a specific social group first, and as an American second “Too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption” o We can continue to consume our way to economic growth but we won’t be happy “Often you see paralysis, stagnation, and drift” “Restoring that faith and that confidence to America is now the most important task we face” Two paths o “The path that leads to fragmentation and self interest” o “The path of common purpose and the restoration of American values” Ronald Reagan Elected in 1980 Reagan Ascendant Conservative Counter-Revolution o Pragmatic resistance o Racial resistance and resentment White Hands Commercial (Jesse Helms) White Victimization o Welfare Queens Broken welfare system Libertarian Resistance/Critique Values resistance o Religious Neo-liberalism o Resurrecting the 18 century idea of liberalism Authority in power lacked popular mandate Free the individual and their liberties restricted by the aristocracy Liberate the people o Neo-liberals believed that a new governing elite threatens individual liberty Lower tax burdens Balanced budgets Limitation on regulatory power of the state 1980 Election Reagan and Optimism Crack in the New Deal Coalition (Reagan Democrats) Conservative synthesis o Anti-government at home o Anti-communist abroad Reagan’s Success Developed a new Brain Trust Regarded mainstream media as illegitimate
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