New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Forensic Anthropology Beginning of Week 4/18/16

by: Danielle Johnson

Forensic Anthropology Beginning of Week 4/18/16 Anth 310

Marketplace > Edinboro University of Pennsylvania > anthropology, evolution, sphr > Anth 310 > Forensic Anthropology Beginning of Week 4 18 16
Danielle Johnson
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Forensic Anthropology Beginning of Week 4/18/16
Intro to Forensic Anthropology
Dr. Barbian
Class Notes
Forensic, Anthropology
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Forensic Anthropology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.

Similar to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for Forensic Anthropology Beginning of Week 4/18/16


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/24/16
Forensic Anthropology   Beginning of Week  4/18/16  Force continued    Speed of Force  ● Dynamic Force  ○ Force delivered powerfully and at high speed   ○ Most common force  ○ Bludgeon, knife, projectile  ● Static Force  ○ Force delivered slowly  ○ Starts low and builds to point where bone breaks  ○ Strangulation    Focus of the Force  ● Narrow Focus: force applied to single point or thins line  ○ Delivered by pointed or sharp­edged instrument  ● Wide Focus: force delivered to large are of bone  ○ Ranges 1­6’  ○ Delivered by an mechanism other than cutting or chopping instrument  Five Types of Trauma  ● Blunt→ slow trauma  ● Sharp→ slow trauma  ● Projectile trauma → Rapid trauma  ● Burn Trauma  ● Miscellaneus    Slow vs. Rapid Trauma  ● Slow trauma  ○ Plastic deformation: site of impact is forced inward  ○ Fragments are difficult to match up  ● Fast trauma  ○ Elastic deformation: site of impact is forced outward   ○ Fragments are easily matched    Blunt Force Trauma  ● Injury caused by wide focus of impact  ● Result of compression, bending, or shearing forces  ○ Low load: low­force injury from an object hitting a person  ○ High load: high­force injury from an object hitting a person or a person hitting a  stationary object  ● Bone is stronger in compression than tension  ○ failure(break) occurs first in tension, on the opposite side of impact  ● Stages of bone reaction  ○ Stress: force applied with bending or distortion  Forensic Anthropology   Beginning of Week  4/18/16  ○ Strain: resilient bending under load  ○ Plastic deformation: bending with permanent deformation  ○ Fracture: failure  ● Rules to remember:  ○ Don’t let the shape of the wound influence you  ○ Skin is often better than bone in determining blunt trauma  ○ The skin is not a baloon → impact on one side does not cause action on the  other     Blunt Force to the Skull  ● Four phases  ○ In Bending at impact site, without bending surrounding the impact site  ○ Fracture lines begin on out bent surface and progress both inward and outward→  radiation features   ○ Wedge shape pieces of bones  ○ Concentric fractures    Sharp Force Trauma   ● Injury caused by narrow focus of impact  ● Result of compression or shearing forces   ● Wounds appear in different forms depending on direction,focus and energy of the force  ○ Puncture  ■ Vertical force with cone­shaped focus  ○ Incision  ■ Defects longer than they are wide  ○ Cleft or notch  ■ Vertical force by an instrument with long, sharp edge    Projectile Trauma  ● Injury caused initially by narrow focus, becoming wider as projectile passes through the  bone  ● Results of compression or bending forces    Effects of Bullets on Bone  ● Wound beveling   ○ Entrance wound vs. exit wound  ■ As a bullet enters bone, it becomes deformed, causing a large exit wound  ■ Creates a funnel shape  ○ Three types  ■ Inward beveling  ● Site of bullet entry  ● Hole on outer surface is smaller than hole on inner surface  ■ Outward beveling  Forensic Anthropology   Beginning of Week  4/18/16  ● Site of bullet exit  ● Hole on inner surface is smaller than hole on outer surface  ■ Reverse beveling  ● Wound Shape  ○ Four factors affecting shape:  ■ Bullet construction  ■ Angle of trajectory  ■ Angle of axis  ■ Type of wound (entry or exit)  ○ Four shapes  ■ Round   ● Circular in outline  ● Both angle of trajectory and angle of bullet axis are perpendicular  to bone surface  ● Most common in:   ○ Entry wounds  ○ Smaller opening of the bevel  ● Round exit would often cause by jacketed projectile  ■ Oval  ● Elliptical in outline  ● Angle between bullet axis and bone surface is <90degrees  ○ Occurs when:   ■ Angle of trajectory is not perpendicular to bone  surface  ■ Bullet is tumbling when it strikes  ● Most common:  ○ Entry wounds  ○ Smaller opening of the bevel  ■ Keyhole  ● Outline is circular on one end and triangular on other  ● Bullet grazes bone surface  ● Constitute both entry and exit wound  ○ Entry=round with inward beveling  ○ Exit=triangular with outward beveling  ● Seen most often in the skull  ■ Irregular  ● Outline lacks uniformity and general pattern  ● Examples  ○ Jagged circular  ○ Asymmetric stellar  ○ Irregular rectangular   ● Result of bone shattering  ● Most common in exit wounds  Forensic Anthropology   Beginning of Week  4/18/16  ● Caused by blunt and hollow­point bullets  ● Wound size  ○ Biggest Factors  ■ Wound type  ● Exit wound are generally larger than entrance wounds  ■ Bullet characteristics  ● Larger caliber ammo= larger wound  ○ Additional factors  ■ Thickness of bone  ● Thicker bone causes more deformation of bullet= larger entrance  wound  ■ Age of the individual  ● Younger individuals have more elastic to their bones, so they ahve  a smaller entrance wound  ● Fracture lines  ○ More powerful weapons cause more extensive fracturing  ○ Two type of cranial fracture lines  ■ Radiating  ● Lines moving outward in any direction from the point of impact  ● Often seen in entrance wounds  ● Follow ares of the vault that are weakest  ■ Concentric  ● Lines appearing as part of all of a circle whose center is the point  of impact  ● Caused by intracranial pressure created by the bullet  ● Miscellaneous Trauma  ○ Strangulation  ■ Caused by static pressure  ■ May be seen in hyoid fractures, but prevalence is low  ○ Chemical trauma  ■ Slow poisoning can be detected by abnormal presence of toxic heavy  metals in bone tissues    Fire Modification of Bone    ● How does Fire affect Forensic Anthro?  ○ Hinder personal id  ○ Make biological profile assessments difficult  ○ Conceal evidence of crime    ● General Rule  ○ Bodies are not easily obliterated by fire  Forensic Anthropology   Beginning of Week  4/18/16  ■ Identifiable material should remain even after prolonged exposure to very  high temps  ● Degrees of Fire modification  ○ Degree of thermal alteration is based on amount of surviving tissue  ■ Charring: internal organs remain  ■ Partial cremation: soft tissues remain  ■ INcomplete cremated  bone fragments remain  ■ Complete cremation: only ash remains  ○ Single element may exhibit instances of each classification→ exposure variability    ● Fire Process signatures  ○ Bodies burn in a uniform, recognizable pattern if all external variables are similar  ○ Important to remember that bones burn as part of a fleshed body, not dissociated  skeletal elements  ○ Three signatures:  ■ Body position and tissue shielding of bone  ● Pugilistic pose  ○ Posture induced by fire and heat  ○ Heat promotes muscle contraction and shrinkage  ○ Most powerful muscles (flexors) and ligaments overpower  ● Pugilistic pose reults in increased exposer of specific areas and  shielding of others  ● Degree of modification is predictable across body  ○ First to burn  ■ Wrist and back of hands  ■ Posterior elbow  ■ Knee  ○ Last to burn  ■ Palms  ■ Pelvis  ■ midthigh  ■ Color change in bone  ● Heat produces a gradient of colors as bone dehydrates and  becomes exposed  ● Generally, bones burn from the outside to the inside  ● 5 recognizable color pants  ○ Heat Line  ■ Area of initial transition from unaltered to  heat­altered bone   ■ Appears occasionally  ● Border  ○ Off­white are protected from contact with smoke and  flames by receding soft tissue  Forensic Anthropology   Beginning of Week  4/18/16  ○ Varies in width  ○ Flaking often seen in outer cortical   ○   ■ Burned bone fracture biomechanics   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.