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Bio 151 Notes 4/18-4/22

by: Sarah Arndt

Bio 151 Notes 4/18-4/22 ZOOLOGY 151

Sarah Arndt
GPA 3.643

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About this Document

These notes cover last weeks lecture.
Introduction to Biology
Seth Blair
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Arndt on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ZOOLOGY 151 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Seth Blair in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology


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Date Created: 04/24/16
Lecture Notes 4/18/16  Epitopes: antigenic determinants  Generator of Diversity o Somatic recombination  DNA deleted between randomly selected v and j segments  Then transcription, RNA processing, and translation  Finally have a light-chain polypeptide of variable and constant regions o Hyper mutation in the V domain  B cells secrete antibodies  Clonal selection and amplification o Antigen molecules make clone of memory cells and clone of plasma cells o Cast of cells  B cells: make antibodies using the mechanisms we discuss  T cells: 2 sorts, cytotoxic and t helper: helps amplification of b cells  Macrophages and dendritic cells: antigen processing cells o Lymphocytes are made in bone marrow and where b cells and t cells mature  Light chain 70V, 5J, 350 possibilities  Heavy: 50V, 30D, 6J, 9000 possibilities, 3x10^6  About 24,000 genes in the human body  If you have 40 v regions and 5 j regions the number of possible light chains isn’t 200 because of other processes  Cast of molecules o MHCII on macrophages and b cells: very small family o membrane-bound antibodies on b cells (also called b cell receptors): huge family o t cell receptors on t cells: huge family o CD4: special recognition protein on T cehls-single molecular species  Molecular interactions of mhc 1 with peptide o It stretches out the peptide chain and allows the side chains to be recognized by the t cell receptor  T cell only has to recognize one epitope for it to work and bind o Checks it out with CD4 o Macrophage is stimulated o This the first stage of amplification to make a t cell clone  B cell specialized to make and secrete a specific antibody molecule o Has membrane bound antibody that is specific to that cell  When attached it stimulates endocytosis, then digested by lysosomal enzymes  T cells recognizes epitope and checks it out with CD4 then secretes the cytokine to make b cell divide and this is the second stage of amplification o Clicker: b cells are also antigen-processing cells  Cytotoxic t cell: also have a t cell receptor that can recognize epitopes, recognizes antigen fragments on surface of the cell using class I MHC molecule  Kidney can Filtrate: 180 L/day  Most water retrieved so only ca. 1.5 L of urine/day  Tubule: retrieve what you want, get rid of what you don’t  Ureter: where urine travels to the bladder before exiting the body through the urethra  Filter o About a million nephrons in each kidney  Podocytes o Filtration slit, interpose fingers  Osmolarity is concentration times 2


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