Unit 2 Class Notes - Week 2
Unit 2 Class Notes - Week 2 ANTH260
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Shook on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH260 at Washington State University taught by Luke Premo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/03/15
Anthropoid refers to the group of monkeys great apes and humans basically all primates except Prosimians 4 broad groups of primates Prosimians 0 New World Monkeys Platyrhini o Anthropoid Relatively small and arboreal spend most time in trees Many have prehensile tails Live mainly in tropical forests in Central and South America Many species live in large multimale multifemale social groups Arboreal quadrupeds run on top of branches EX Woolly monkey Spider monkey Squirrel monkey Howler monkey Owl monkeys Pygmy marmoset Old World Monkeys Carcopithecoidea o Anthropoid o A terrestrial quadruped skeleton o Cercopithecines most at least partly terrestrial omnivorous live in large groups EX baboons macaques mandrills languars vervet monkey olive baboon mandrill etc A terrestrial quadruped skeleton The only two nonhuman primate species living outside the tropics n EX Barbary macaque Japanese macaque o Colobines arboreal colorful feed on leaves Hominoids apes and humans 0 Anthropoid 0 quotgreat apesquot chimpanzee bonobo gorilla orangutan Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes OOOOOO I Found in a belt along equatorial Africa a Quadrupedal knucklewalkers a Large multimale multifemale groups are 39run and defended by males that compete for status a Chimps are highly excitable and can be ferocious n Motherinfant bond is an important lifelong relationship in chimps n Studied by Jane Goodall Found that chimps make and use tools to crack open nuts get termites from mound to eat etc 0 Found that chimps hunt and eat meat Chimps can be lethal in combat Bonobo chimpanzees Pan paniscus n Slightly different morphology from common chimp o More linear build 0 longer arms darker faces a Quite different behaviorally Less aggressive in general 0 Females play a larger role in group dynamics 0 Sexuality sex for anything with anyone for a number of reason Gorilla a Live in relatively small forested regions in equatorial Africa a Exhibit marked sexual dimorphism in body size a Live in onemale multifemale social groups n Gorillas are almost exclusively vegetarian Orangutans Pongo pygmaeus a Only found in the rainforest of Borneo and Sumatra a Very large cautious climbers that rarely touch the ground mostly in trees n Orangutans do not live in large social groups n Frugivorous eat mostly fruits o quotlesser apesquot gibbons and siamangs gibbons and siamangs are found in tropical SE Asia pairbonded adults and offspring form a social unit most distinguishing characteristic is their mode of locomotion brachiation n brachiation swinging around in a monkey bar fashion to travel a have long arms and ngers but short legs because of this 0 Hominins humans and human ancestors Primate Behavioral Ecology Reproductive Strategies Behavioral ecology 101 0 Natural selection favors the strategies that increase tness 0 Strategy a set of behaviors that produces a particular course of action under certain conditions foraging strategy reproductive strategy 0 The term strategy does NOT imply conscious reasoning or intent by the organism 0 There is no quotperfect strategyquot every strategy has costs and bene ts 0 Reproductive Strategies 0 Big targets for selection because reproduction is so closely linked with tness 0 Selection often favors different strategies in males and females Female success is directly related to her ability to obtain calories for herself and her offspring n In mammals maternal investment is obligatory n Females carry fetus internally and lactate to nourish infant after birth a Maternal care is costly in terms of energy and nutrients required nourishment 0 Ex increased need of Protein Folate Calcium Zinc Iron 0 Transportation o Warmth 0 Protection from danger Male success is affected more by access to females than access to calories a Dependent upon access to females not food a Males compete for mates in a number of ways 0 By being more attractive By beating up the competition a Malemale competition results in sexual dimorphism Sexual dimorphism traits that differ between the sexes in a species 0 Ex body size coloration canine size 0 Baboon males are nearly twice as big as females 0 In baboons topranked males sire the largest proportion of the infants graph in book 0 ln chimps high ranking males sire disproportionately high proportion of offspring
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