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Week 11

by: Jj Lynch
Jj Lynch

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About this Document

No monday notes because we had an exam
Carlton Cooper
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Microbiology

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jj Lynch on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC300 at University of Delaware taught by Carlton Cooper in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.

Popular in Biological Sciences


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Date Created: 04/24/16
Wednesday Notes  Zika virus  Entebbe, Uganda has Zika forest for viral surveillance and viral infections o Monkey wih unknown virus appeared, named virus Zika o 1947  1948 it was isolated from mosquito  1952 first human case  1960-1980 had minimal spreading  2007 spreads from Africa to Asia o “Asian strain” o no deaths or hospitalizations  2012 confirmed existence of the 2 strains. Asian was more pathogenic  2013 serious outbreak occurs, no deaths, some neurological complications  2014 it was found to transmit from mother to fetus  2015 it arrives in Brazil and South Africa o neurological disorders and cognitive symptoms o passed on to fetuses o spread is accelerated  Dec. 2015 first American case and case in Puerto Rico, caused from travel  First sexually transmitted case in Texas in 2016  Transmitted also by Aedes mosquitoes  In US most cases are travel transmitted, not locally like in South America  ZIKV o Family Flaviviridae, Genus Flavivirus o Non-segmented, + single stranded RNA o Viral envelope with protein that attaches to host receptors  Zika has additional glycan that’s different from other viruses in its genus o Causes neurological consequences  Symptoms o Most people don’t know they have it o Conjunctivitis o Fever o Joint pain o Rash  Neurological symptoms o Guillan-Barre syndrome  Immune system damages nervous system  Weakness of muscles  Weeks-months  1-20 cases result in death  rare o ADEM  Showed up April 2016  Inflammation in brain and spinal chord damage myelin  Similar to severe first attack of MS  Single attack, recover in 6 months  More rare that Guillan  Emergence o Humans disrupt forests and habitats and disrupt animals, causing them to migrate  South American strain came from French Polynesia in 2013 to Brazil  Transmission here is Aedes mosquitoes o Bites infected person and then infects next person it bites  First sex transmission actually in 2008 o Man to sex partner is confirmed transmission o Vaginal and anal o Oral is suspected  Virus is present in semen longer than blood  There is a link between Zika and birth defects  Testing not widely available  Pregnant mother to fetus transmission can occur during pregnancy or during delivery  Woman should wait 8 weeks after Zika to get pregnant, men 6 months  Fetus Symptoms o Microcephaly  Smaller head  Brain not growing properly  Seizures, intellectual disability, balance problems, senses impaired  Zika targets neuronal stem cells, stopping growth and development  After infection you are likely immune  Blood transfusion is another suspected transmitter  No animal transmission  No treatment, don’t take ibuprofen in case you have dengue Friday Notes  Ebola  Ebola river valley, Zaire 1976  Filovirus, - RNA, non-segmented  Pathogen, hemorrhagic fever, aggressive o 50-90% lethal o bleeding, hypotensive shock (low blood pressure)  lasts 14-21 days  natural host unknown o host that won’t die from virus (ie/ cold to humans)  enters cell through macropinocytosis  leaves through budding  releases RNA into cytoplasm, translates and replicates there  Transmission o Primary host believed to be fruit bat o Secondary ones are gorilla, chimp, antelope and pig o Passed through contact with blood, secretions, organs, and other bodily fluids of infected  passed through broken skin/mucus  Symptoms o Fever o Bloody vomiting o Bloody diarrhea o Bleeding o Muscle/joint pain o Skin rash  Day 7-9 are headache, fatigue, fever and muscle soreness  10 is high fever and vomiting  11 is bruising, brain damage and bleeding  12 is loss of consciousness, seizures, massive internal bleeding and death  immune cell, monocyte (microphages when in organs), is phagocyte that patrols blood o ebola infects monocyte o transfer virus as cell makes its way through blood  monocyte releases cytokines that go to endothelial cells and kill them o causes vascular leakage and internal bleeding, orifice bleeding and inflammation  your body reacting to the virus is what kills you  Care o Fluids o Medicine to treat fever o Antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infection o Fight low blood pressure o Give oxygen o Replace lost blood o Supportive care to give immune system time to fight back  No treatment or vaccine  Use serum from survivors to treat others o Survivors have T cells and B cells that can fight the virus now  Ebola binds to antibody on cell to enter it???


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