UGC 112, Lecture Notes, Week 6
UGC 112, Lecture Notes, Week 6 UGC 112 - Timothy Boyd
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UGC 112 - Timothy Boyd
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bella on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to UGC 112 - Timothy Boyd at University at Buffalo taught by Gabriella in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 608 views.
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Date Created: 03/03/15
3315 UB In Africa 9 irlambuffaloedu Turkey 0 v The Rise of Islam gt Muhammad gt New Monotheistic Religion Islam gt Islam submission to God gt Know Map of Medina Riyahd Mecca Ieddah gt Muslims those who submit to God gt Expansion 650800 AD I Arab Conquests gt Split in Islam I Sunni I Shiite v Arab Conquests gt MAP v Power of Islam gt Power taken over from Arabs to gt In the farther East Mongols 14th C gt In Mediterranean Turks 11th C gt Religion closely tied with I Government I Conquests I Empires 339 Seljuk Turks gt MAP Asia Minor Germany Bulgaria Etc 0 v Seljuks vs Byzantines O 09 Rise of the Ottoman Empire gt V V7 7 V V7 7 MAP Uthman Osman 12991326 Between Byzantine and Turkish Islamic worlds Frontier people Rough Religious Conquest I Europe I Christian World Islamic Conquest gt VVVVV gt REMEMBER TOLERANCE Conquest NOT obliteration Under certain restrictions locals were allowed to practice their religions IF they swore loyalty IF they paid their taxes IF they Christians submitted to DEVSHIRME the conscription of Christian children I Boys Ianissaries army navy and Civil service I Girls harem PICTURES Conquest of the Balkans gt gt gt Ottomans less demanding than feudal Christian overlords Oppressed subjects less likely to resist Local rulers fight defeat at I Kosovo I Nicopolis Battle of Kosovo 1389 H gt gt European Turkeyquot MAP Ottomans take over gt Balkans gt Northern Greece gt Thus most of the Byzantine Empire Constantinople gt Turks surround Constantinople I Fortresses on Bosphorus I Surrounding territory Long siege made successful by Heavy guns MUCH larger forces No Western help for the Byzantines VVVVV Turkish Sultan Mehmet 11 took Constantinople in 1453 Sultan Mehmet II big Turban picture Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos Siege of Constantinople Picture Istanbul NOT Constantinople gt Mehmet rebuilds Constantinople as new capitol Offers houses and tax breaks to locals Converted preexisting buildings ie Hagia Sophia New Islamic Buildings Walls rebuilt VVVVV Encouraged Trade Sultan Ahmed Mosque Blue Mosque gt PICTURES FAMOUS Hagia Sophia gt Another beautiful building gt Originally a church converted into a mosque Ottoman Expansion gt When Mehmet died in 1481 he controlled gt Capitol Istanbul was Constantinople gt Northern Asian Minor Most of Balkans Most of Greece Ottomans threaten Western Europe VVVV But Quarrel over succession Bayezid II vs Iem Iem loses gt Iem defeated ees west gt Held hostage to prevent Ottoman attacks gt Turks turn east for now Suleyman the Magnificent 1500s military activity Conquests in 1500s Red Sea and Persian Gulf vs Portuguese Support Spanish Arabs Defeat Safavids Persia Coastal conquest Levant southern Mediterranean and Pillars of Hercules VVVVVV Defeats I Vienna 1529 I Malta 1565 I Lepanto 1571 Siege at Vienna Picture Why do they win gt Turks United people purpose gt VS gt Disparate Nations gt Turks Organizational Superiority Turkish Society gt Sultan I Owned all land Divides it among nobles No Timar portion of land was hereditary Returned to sultan when the noble died I Appoints all government and military positions gt Levels under the Sultan I Court and Government bureaucracy in Istanbul I THEN Provinces with Sultanappointed governors I THEN Subprovinces with Officers Turkish Society gt Candidates for office gt Children of Sultan s concubines in harem I Causes Succession struggles lots of kids gt From Devshirme gt Is sum I Power ows back to government I Sultan center of government Height of Ottoman Power MAP Decline of the Ottomans Last great conquest Crete 1669 After Decline Defeat at Vienna again in 1683 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz much of Balkans abandoned Trade patterns change exclude Turkey VVVVVV Power moves away from Istanbul toward regional governors Siege of Vienna part 2 PIC Decline of The Ottomans gt Succession issues gt Through Suleyman potential heirs have govt positions gt After imprisoned in harems gt Succession often violent The Sick Man of Europequot gt 18 19th C I West industrializes and liberalizes I Ottomans decline gt Czar Nicholas I 182555 I Ottomans Sick man of Europe gt Still a player I Crimea I WWI gt Finally dissolved after World War I O 09 O 09 O 0 352015 Youtube Delhi Durbar 1911 Persia Mongols gt 1258 Mongols captured Bagdad gt Ilkhanate Persia Iran part of Afghanistan gt Ghazan Khan subking of Ilkhanate I Ghaznavid Khanate 9 shortlived empire I Circa 1300AD shortlived Khanate overthrown by followers of Safi al Din Safavid Dynasty and Empire which rules Persia for 400 years Many Pictures and Maps C 1400 Ismail O Used tribesmen as enforcers Kizilbas red headsquot C1500 Shah KingEmperor Abbas I Development of economy Emphasis upon local goods Carpets Porcelains Silk I After Shah Abba s time Persia began to go into decline into a very slow decline but to the east in Afghanistan and beyond things will heat up I 1500 Babur Afghan ruler takes Kabul and moves through passes into northern India Founder of Mughal Dynasty early 1500 s to early 1700 s I Conquest brings Islam across Northern India along with Mughal rule I His son Humayun loses a great deal of this through revolt but his son is m mid 16th C Akbar able general able administrator gt Reconquers adding new territory gt Had four branches to his government Finance Military Religion Law Royal Household Infrastructure Palaces down to canals and roads gt VERY tolerant ruler Muslims Hindus Buddhists Christians ALL in his administration gt Job of successors to Akbar Expand and maintain Mughal empire Have sons 9 succession Iahangir to his son Iahan his favorite wife Mumtaz Mahtal To his son Aurongzeb mid to late 17th C Overthrew his father and brother to take throne Puritanical Muslim Completely intolerant In 1499 Vasco de Gama arrived in India and things would change forever In 1619 British arrive at Surat north of Mumbai on the West coast gt Beginnings of British conquest gt From there to east coast at madras In 1668 Charles II marries Portuguese Princes Catherine gt Part of wedding present part of Portuguese West India gt British establish trading posts factories armed guards who will form basis of the huge BritishIndian army By 1750 s Brits began to control both coasts amp move inland gt Their method I Mostly native soldiers I Make alliances but then turn princes into puppets 0 v Ended up owning all of India
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