Gothic Art Week 14 Lecture Notes
Gothic Art Week 14 Lecture Notes Art H 111
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Chapter 11 Gothic Art Lecture Notes Abbot Suger and Saint Denis Lecture Early Information about Saint Denis The monastery had importance to the French monarchy since it is the burial place of French kings and members of their courts Saint Denis is the patron saint of the monastery and France o He was also the first bishop of Paris The first building made was a small chapel Then an abbey was founded for Benedictine monks building a large basilica in place of the small chapel King Dagobert was the first royal king to show favor to the abbey Charlemagne created the building of a Carolingian basilica o Later additions were made in the 9 century Abbot Suger building campaign at Saint Denis He started a campaign to rebuild the Carolingian abbey church by enlarging it First starting with the west façade and then the choir He also decorated the church lavishly with expensive stained glass, bronze doors and expensive treasury objects He wrote about his accomplishments His plan was to enlarge the plan of Saint Denis, but faced with two major problems 1. Cost 2. Historical significance of the Carolingian basilica, the building was considered almost holy because of its association with Charlemagne He justified his campaign by saying that the building needed to be enlarged to accommodate the large amounts of pilgrims coming to Saint Denis o In Suger’s writings he says that god told him to enlarge the building o He also consulted with wise men while monks prayed over the decision The building campaign started with the entrance to the church o He matched the piers of the entrance to the piers of the Carolingian basilica o It originally had two towers but one of the towers was struck by lightning and had to be removed Western block of Saint Denis There is evidence that two different masters worked on the western block Master 1 completed the lower two levels including the entrance portals and windows directly above them o Also created the surrounding bases around the towers In the lower level is a break in the masonry between the work of master 1 and 2 Master 2 completed the upper level including the rose window and the two towers The Saint Denis façade incorporates many features that are associated with gothic architecture, but are not unified into a fully realized gothic design The gothic features are the compound piers with each portion of the pier corresponding with a portion of the structure The use of pointed arches is also a gothic feature The bases of the compound piers are at the same level, but the springing and capitals are not, making it look unharmonious Suger’s Choir campaign The choir was located in the east It is a major difference in the Romanesque style The choir has an ambulatory and radiating chapels, which are features of Romanesque churches, but now have changes to them o The chapels are not as separate from each other and the ambulatory o There are only columns marking the separation between different chapels This new radiating chapel idea makes a circular string of chapels allowing for stained glass windows to fill the choir space with colored light It is an inner penetration of space made possible by the use of slender columns in the radiating chapels and the use of pointed rib vaults o There are four and five part rib vaults o A four part rib vault covers the ambulatory o Five part rib vaults cover each one of the chapels Point support- a techniques having multiple rib vaults and arches spring from the same point above the capital of a slender column standing between the ambulatory and the chapels The combination of points supports and vaults makes the inner penetration of space possible In the choir are two stained glass windows, one showing the incarnation of Christ beginning with the annunciation and the tree of Jesse window showing Christ’s family tree o They are the two windows that show Abbot Suger Annunciation with Abbot Suger A part of a larger stained glass window showing the incarnation of Christ The window is located in the axel chapel in Saint Denis Suger is shown on the right dressed in a monks robe knelling in front of the virgin Mary at the scene of the annunciation Suger is shown on the lower level stained glass where he would be seen by others He is labeled above his head Another part of the window shows Suger in priest’s robes presenting a stained glass window to the church Suger’s Chalice Extremely valuable and were made of costly imports The cup was probably carved in Alexandria Egypt o It was considered an antique in Suger’s time o It was gilded and precious stones were placed in it The vile was made of rock crystal o From Fadiman Egypt o Rock crystal was associated with the virgin Mary because it could be pierced with light and not broken The virgin was pierced by the holy spirit when she conceived Christ remaining unbroken The vase in the form of an eagle has at its core an antique vase made of porphyry Notre Dame Paris and Chartres Sculpture Lecture Gothic architecture Has a nave, side aisles, projecting transept and choir A unified area with all the elements blending together Unified style- relies on diagonals to interlock all of its parts together All of the elements are crucial to the structure and work together as a coherent whole Any major changes to the arrangement would be disastrous Romanesque architecture Has a nave, side aisles, projecting transept and choir Many separate elements that have been conjoined together to form a whole Additive style- based upon elements being added together First Gothic design of Notre-Dame in Paris Was built in multiple building campaigns A lot of the exterior seen today was constructed after the 12 th century It was built under the orders of bishop Maurice du Soluli The first building campaign constructed the entire choir The nave and the west façade were built at a later time The façade has gone through many changes including additions, damage during the French Revolution and restoration in the 19 th century Simple overall shaped plan o Transepts barely project on either side o No radiating chapels instead there is a double ambulatory The double ambulatory forms one continuous band along the double aisles of the nave o Sexpartite rib vaulting was used in the bays above the nave and choir Sexpartite rib vault- 6 separate ribs that join at the crown of the vault and between these are 6 separate areas of masonry webbing o Took advantage of the flexibility of pointed arches in the creation of the vaults o Has no alternation of support in the nave o There are alternating supports in the side aisles and the ambulatory consisting of simple round shapes and round piers with bundled calumniates around them The architect wanted this church to be the tallest church built o This was achieved by adding a extra level to elevation of the nave o It was a thin blind passage in the wall above the gallery level that was pierced through with round openings called oculi o This results in a smaller clearstory window, making the church dark o In later centuries the oculi was replaced with a larger clearstory o Viollet-Le-Duc reconstructed a few of the oculi’s in the 19 th century Notre Dame had height and vaulting, but lacked light Gothic sculpted portals Calm and serene figures Avoids crowding The purpose is to educate you and to explain some extremely complex theological ideas as simply and clearly as possible Romanesque sculpted portals More dramatic figures Features lots of crowding Royal Portal at Chartres Encompasses the three doorways at the center of the west façade Inspired by the west portals at Saint Denis Together the three portals represent a clear and readable theological encyclopedia that corresponds closely to the writings of Thierry of Chartres th Thierry of Chartres was an important 12 century theologian who was active at the cathedral Central portal o The central tympanum shows Christ as majesty surrounded by symbols of the 4 evangelists o Around him in the archivolts are the 4 elders of the apocalypse o Below him on the lintel are the 12 apostles Right portal o Dedicated to the virgin and infancy of Christ o Tympanum shows Mary enthroned with the Christ child on her lap flanked by angels o The double lintels below her show the nativity on the lower register and the presentation of Christ in the temple on the upper register o The archivolts show the female personifications of the 7 liberal arts along with male figures representing each discipline Left portal o Christ is ascending into heaven after the resurrection flanked by angels o In the lintel are the witnesses to the ascension o The archivolts show signs of the zodiac and the labors of the months, they are references to the passage of time All of the programs depict one unified theme of Christ o In the center he is shown as the divine judge of the second coming o He is the word made flesh on the right o He is lord of heaven and earth as well as controller of time on the left The capitals above the jamb figures form one continuous narrative frieze representing the life of Christ and his deeds according to the gospels The jamb figures represent the kings and queens of the old testament who were the precursors of Christ o They support all of the new testament material taking place above Chartres, Reims and Amiens Lecture Flying Buttresses Is basically a large prop that buttresses the nave vault right at its springing Buttress- huge masonry pier that is attached to the exterior of the wall of the side aisle o Towards the top the flyer (flying buttress) stems across the gap between the aisle wall and the nave wall o A flying buttress can have 2 flyers o The arched shape of the flyer acts to transfer the outward thrust exerted by the vault downward into the massive pier of the buttress o Flying buttresses allow for more and larger windows adding more light overall due to them being placed only where they are needed in the structure Modular design of Chartres The module was a single nave bay vaulted with a pointed quadripartite (4 part rib vault) with 3 stories, its flanking side aisles and supporting buttresses Was a very large church and built in only 27 years There are flying buttresses that support the walls of the nave and choir giving the church a skeletal appearance There is a 3 part elevation in the nave consisting of the nave arcade, a triforium, and the clearstory Triforium- is a narrow passage within the nave wall that has an open arcade on one side o Unlike a gallery, a triforium is narrow The desired effect of gothic churches is lightness instead of heavy masonry Builders of Chartres emphasized both vertical and horizontal articulation of the nave o It had bundled calumniates that start at the springing of the nave arcade sitting on the capitals of the compound piers with each of the calumniates corresponding to either a rib or a transverse arch, which separated one bay from the next There is no alternation between heavy and light supports in the nave piers since it is vaulted with quadripartite rib vaults Light, height and vaulting are achieved through the combination of quadripartite rib vaults and flying buttresses A widely imitated church due to its modular design All an architect needed to do in order to layout a cathedral plan was to figure out the size and location of the crossing o All of the other measurements in the plan are based on the measurement of the crossing The cathedral was built from east to west which was often done due to the fact that it allowed the choir to be finished first The rounded shape of choir provided stability for the vaults in the nave on the east end and the twin towers on the west end The porches on either end of the transept provided support for those vaults Much of its original stained glass has survived Tree of Jesse Stained Glass at Chartres 12 century survival Believed to have been based on the tree of Jesse window in Saint-Denis o The main difference is size Jesse is shown lying on his bed in a curtained room with the family tree of Christ growing out of his groin like a tree At the top are Mary and Christ with Christ surrounded by 7 doves representing the 7 gifts of the holy spirit Rose Window at Chartres Intricate shapes of the window are made possible by the use of tracery Depicts the virgin and Christ child in the center surrounded by doves of the holy spirit, angels, 12 kings of Mary’s ancestors (in the diamond shapes), and 12 old testament prophets Beneath the central rows the middle lancet represents saint Anne, the mother of Mary holding the infant Mary The remaining lancet windows have important old testament figures Throughout the design are gold fleur du lei representing France and gold castles on red representing Castile, Spain Stained Glass Cames- the lead strips used to frame each piece of glass A stained glass window is joined together using lead cames that are soldered together o An additional framework shaped like a grid also provides stability Over time the weight of the glass and the lead can lead to the window bowing outward Reims Nave elevation is similar to Chartres Used the module from Chartres Used bar tracery in the construction of the windows o The entire lancet shape of the window is treated like an opening in the wall o The divisions between parts of the window are formed by molians (thin strips of stone) o The bar tracery allows for more glass Has much more stained glass than Chartres Nave pier capital consists of a continuous band of foliage running over all the parts of the compound pier unlike the piers at Chartres o At Chartres the pier decoration is separate from each other Amiens The tallest of all the cathedrals in this lecture and one of the tallest gothic cathedrals ever built Has the tallest and narrowest nave Imitates the module of Chartres, but with a much more elaborate triforium and clearstory Instead of simple arcade of 4 pointed arches in the tirforium at Chartres and Reims, Amiens it has become a blind arcade of 2 pointed arches that frames sets of 3 arches each o The clearstory has been divided up into more individual pieces Bar tracery was used to create a lacey effect on the clearstory windows and the triforium It took 68 years to build It was built by Robert De Luzarches who simplified and refined the model of Chartres The distinctive element of this church is a string course at the base of the triforium that is carved to look like a continuous band of leafy foliage During the reworking of the upper choir on the radiating chapels of the choir would allow for the dark passage of the triforium to be replaced by a passage lit by windows Robert De Luzarches refinements Designed deep radiating chapels that open onto a single rather than a double ambulatory The apse is also a deeper space A double side aisle runs on either side of the choir before the ambulatory and radiating chapels The bays immediately surrounding the crossing of the church are wider than any of the other bays of the nave or the transept The narthex was eliminated in the design, with the western portals opening directly onto the nave A highly refined version of the Chartres model A more elegant design for the flying buttresses Amiens is the perfect example of high gothic architecture, achieving height, light and vaulting while not being over built at all Gothic Facades and the Courtly Style Lecture Villard De Honnecourt He was some sort of a master, but scholars are unsure what kind Drew one of the radiating chapels at Reims during its construction He captured the shape of the buttresses, the window tracery and the slope of the conical roof very accurately o He even drew the angels on the exterior wall of the radiating chapel Façade at Reims This church is where the French rulers were crowned The façade was never completed, but is still seen as the greatest of all high gothic facades Work started and was interrupted twice due to the local populous running the archbishop out of town The builders gave up on the construction of the spires later A gothic façade consists of two towers with spires that rise from a large masonry block that is divided into 3 parts by buttresses A large rose window is placed in the upper portion of the façade Many of these churches were never completed up to the spires Its dynamic sculptural quality makes the façade at Reims so successful The façade is broken up into a grid with both horizontal and vertical moldings o The strict horizontal lines of the grid are broken by the projecting gabels, the pinickles on the buttresses and the sculpted screen that extends across the top of the façade Program of the west portals of Amiens The western portal is a theological encyclopedia Sculpted in stone covering all the areas of the portals The jamb figures have been fully sculpted in the round and then installed within canopied enclosures The detailed photo shows the virgin and angel Gabriel at the annunciation from the right hand portal The right portal is dedicated to the virgin The entire program was completed in a 20 year timespan It resulted in a program that is both ichnographically and stylistically coherent more than most other gothic façades The central portal o A last judgment scene is in the tympanum o Angels and saints are on the voussoirs o The figure of Christ is in the trumeau Christ is shown as the teacher and savior (Beau Dieu) o The trumeau is the central piece of the entire portal o There is a new zone at the eye level of the view called a dado o Dado zone- is a strip that runs beneath the jamb figures o The dado zone on the central portal is decorated with quatrefoils containing the signs of the zodiac and the labors of the months o The jamb figures faces are angular and simplified due to the fact that they were made quickly o The jamb figures are of the 12 apostles o The portal is conveying the message that it is only through Christ that mankind is saved Sculptures at Reims West portals The sculptures are from multiple campaigns featuring several different styles Several figures on the right side of the right portal are old fashioned jamb figures in the style used at Chartres Others were influences by the style of antique sculpture with figures standing in contraposto poses and wear rendered wet drapery resembling the goddesses pediment at the Parthenon Sculpted figures were also executed in the style at Amiens with simplified volumes and drapery The remaining sculptures were produced using the courtly style that was commonly produced for the court of Paris Even though the styles are not matched the iconographical program is still readable Main characteristics of each style in the Annunciation and Visitation scenes It is clear that there are stylistic differences between the figures On the left is the angel Gabriel with a long body, small smiling face and elegant drapery typical of the courtly style Mary is an example of the Amiens style with her simple drapery and square face The figures of Mary and Elisabeth in the visitation clearly belong together and are examples of the classicizing style while there faces seem to have been rendered from life The contrast of the two Mary figures are extreme Courtly and Rayonnant Styles Rayonnant- refers more to the architecture Courtly- refers more to the sculpture, paintings and metalwork Saint Chappelle The chapel of Saint Chappel was built to hold passon relics, which were held on the second story The upper chapel had painted decoration on its vaults, compound piers, ribs, sculpture and other details were restored in the 19 century The upper chapel is dominated by stained glass windows making the painted architectural forms unnoticed The relics of the passion were originally housed in the apse The sculpted saints in saint Chappelle have elaborately curling hair and sharp pointed facial features Like the Gabriel from the annunication portal the saints here are elongated and stand in elegantly curving poses with drapery folds around them Saint Denis Was remodeled with a new rayonnant nave and upper choir Blanch of Castile Manuscript An example of the courtly style It shows blanche of castile and her son Louis IX enthroned above a monk scribe engaged in the production of the book Blanche of castile was an important patron of the arts in France She was responsible for the glass of the north transept at Chartres This manuscript has an emphasis on beautiful hairstyles, pointed facial features and elegantly rendered drapery Paslter of Saint Louis After his death King Louis IX was canonized Created for King Louis IX’s private devotion All of the illustrations are enclosed within patterned frames and every scene takes place behind a backdrop that resembles the architecture of the Saint Chappelle It shows three angels disgusted as humans dining at the home of Abraham and Sara These are the angels that will foretell the birth of Abraham’s son Isaac despite the fact that Sara is old A tree separates the scene of Abraham encountering the angels and the dinner in their home The angel on the left speaking to Abraham is purposefully similar to the angel Gabriel from the annunciation portal Gothic Outside France Lecture English Gothic Windmill Psalter Manuscript It is called this due to the windmill at the top of the letter E on the right hand page The manuscript was made in London Considered one of the finest illuminated manuscript psalters of the 13 century The historiated B and E are two of the largest historiated letters in the entire manuscript They introduce the first psalm The imagery is inspired by the text of psalm Unlike the utrecht psalter it does not contain an image for phrase in the psalm, it rather illustrates it will imagery that sums up the message of the psalm The judgment of Solomon in the E The last judgment image of Christ at the top of the B The initial B contains the motif of the tree of Jesse o Jesse wears a cap and sits with branches springing from his side o The central branches of the tree hold King David and Mary with the Christ child above him o At the very top is Christ in a mandorla holding a book (an image suggesting the last judgment) o Two angels flank the virgin o The branches on the side of the tree of Jesse enclose 16 old testament prophets o This scene is accompanied by a cycle representing the creation in the vertical bar of the B and in quatrefoils that are enclosed within the curving lobes of the B The image of Christ does triple duty: fitting in with the tree of Jesse, the theme of judgment and the creation o The frame around the B is decorated with roundels the enclose the symbols of the 4 evangelists in the corners and additional scenes of the creation on the sides o The B itself is formed of tendrils and interlace with plant forms including acanthus and grape vines The initial E contains the judgment of Solomon o The judgment of Solomon is a story where the great king demonstrated his wisdom in judging a case of two women who both claim to be the mother of the same baby o Solomon ordered to have the baby cut in half and the true mother of the child demonstrated that she was willing to give up her infant rather than subject the child to harm o Below the enthroned Solomon an angel swoops down with a scroll containing the rest of the first phrase in the psalm the text of which follows in text below English Gothic Architecture Salisbury Cathedral Built in a short timespan of 38 years English gothic churches tend to emphasize length rather than height and horizontal articulation The other major emphasis is on the tower Salisbury tower is the tallest in England The flying buttresses were all added to sure up the tower English gothic façades tend to be low and wide, instead of tall, and they are treated like end screens of sculpture In the interior the emphasis is on horizontal elevation The three stories of elevation are treated as separate elements with no real interpenetration of the layers The vaults spring from calumniates that are supported by corbels on the level of the gallery All the support for the nave vaults is hidden within the thickness of the wall The use of contrasting colored stones are characteristic of English gothic o Here they use light limestone and a deep rich Purbeck marble (sedimentary type of limestone that polishes up like marble) The clearstory is built a bit like a triforium with an arcaded passage running in front of it (a hidden support for the nave vaults) Caernarvon Castle Located in north Wales It was built in an area that was defensively important and symbolic It had been the site of an earlier Roman settlement was believed to have been started by Constantine Caernarvon is the capital of Gwynedd When the English king Edward took over the city he immediately starting building a castle that would symbolically replace the capital of Gwynedd and recall the earlier Roman presence there Edward ordered that his castle be built as a royal residence from which he could rule Wales He brought his wife here for the birth of his first son Edward II Edward II is the first prince of Wales Edward I had a new city built on the site with fortification walls and a grid plan of streets The castle was built by master James of St. George Master James built a defensive piece of architecture with two twin towered gateways one of which was reached by 2 drawbridges, 5 doors, 6 portcullis and 9 murder holes Portcullis- an iron grid on the inside of a castle gateway o It could be kept closed to repel invaders or slammed shut to trap invaders inside o Boiling oil could be poured down through the murder holes Murder holes- defensive openings left in the vault of a gateway Arrow slits were also cut into the gateway allowing guards inside the twin towers to shoot arrows at anyone trapped within Caernarvon is made up of a series of polygonal towers set at intervals along its curtain wall o These provide coverage along the river o The towers were a direct reference to Theodogian land walls The castle is made up stripped masonry There is also an eagle tower with 3 turrets o It was decorated with 3 stone eagles one on each of its high turrets o The eagle deliberately echoed the eagle on the battle standard of the ancient Romans The castle was meant to subjugate the welsh through its military might and through its symbolic power German Gothic and the Pilgrimage church at Marburg The church was dedicated to saint Elizabeth, who was well known for her charitable acts Pilgrims came to venerate the relics of saint Elizabeth Marburg is one of the earliest fully gothic churches in Germany The early church was built with a German gothic plan It had a trefoil design with the choir and transept arms being the same size and all ending in curves The nave has side aisles The transept arms and choir have no side aisles or ambulatory It is a typical hall church, in which the nave arcade is extremely high and directly supports the nave vaults with no gallery or triforium in between The aisle is the same height as the nave, which gives the interior a different feel than a French gothic church An emphasis on width and height with a great sense of light and openness The builders of Marburg adopted many French ideas: the design of the windows and the round piers of the nave with there engaged columns Nicholas of Verdun and the Three Kings Shrine A highly sought out master goldsmith whose reputation earned him commissions in a number of different cities He exceled in enamel work and reposse figures The three kings shrine were meant to hold the relics of what is believed to be the three magi Recent scientific analysis is proven that the skeletons are medieval and not from the period of Christ’s birth The three kings were examples of ultimate Christian kings The shrine was placed behind the alter of the high cathedral in Cologne and remains a focal point today Every year on the birth of Christ the shrine is opened so that the skulls of the three kings (now decorated with diamond crowns) are visible to all the public It took 15-20 years for master Nicholas and his assistants to complete The shrine is shaped like a section of a basilica with a high nave and flanking side aisles Made with a carved oak core, covered in sheets of copper (some are gilded and stamped, some decorated with filigree and gems, and others that are enamel) Decorated with other 300 antique gems and cameos one included the emperor Nero The gilded silver figures using the reposse technique and are shown on the sides of the shrine framed by arches that are supported by enameled and gilded copper columns o Figures on the lower register are kings and prophets from the old testament o The 12 apostles are on the upper register plus two other figures representing saint Paul and an angel Other scenes fill the roundels on the aisle roof and the arcades on the nave roof (these have been lost) On the end of the side that opens are three scenes o On the lower left the magi bring gifts to the enthroned Madonna and child who sit in the center o On the lower right is the baptism of Christ o At the top Christ is enthroned flanked by angels o There is a fourth figure in line behind the three kings, this is emperor Otto IV the patron of the three kings shrine The figures are lifelike Jonah is believable due to the fact that he is not as symmetrical German Strasberg Cathedral Although now part of France was an important German speaking city in the middle ages The left portal represents the death of Mary o There are classicizing characteristics in the bodies due to their drapery o The figures are lively o The heads of all the figures have been enlarged to better emphasize their emotions o The German representations of the human figure, particularly sculpture was towards increasingly dramatic portrayals of emotions o There is a private moment between Mary and her son with their interlocking eyes The right portal is a representation of Mary crowned queen of heaven German courtly style and saint Maurice sculpture No elongated figures Typically portrayed as an African because he was from Egypt He is shown wearing armor The sense of realism is enhanced by the use of polychromy This is a rare work because it is of an African in European medieval art Ekkehard and Uta from Naumburg Cathedral Examples of the courtly style in Germany The funerary chapel was for bishop Detrick’s family All of the ancestors represented had been benefactors in the cathedral The images look like portraits even though the sculptures of the benefactors had been long dead before the sculptures were made The two figures seem worried about their fate on the day of judgment The characteristics of this style are heavy rich garments and jewelry as well as beautifully clothed hair Italian Gothic and St. Francis Church In 1997 a severe earthquake in Assisi Italy that caused the painted vaults of the church of saint Francis to collapse The frescos by Giotto and Cimabue (two of the greatest Italian th painters of the 14 century) were lost forever In the restoration process conservators were able to completely put the pieces back together The painters used the buon fresco technique, which is painting on a damp newly laid piece of plaster Paints were made of ground earth and mineral pigments that were mixed with some sort of a binder Scientists found and proved that Giotto mixed his paints with cow’s milk Italian gothic church only took certain aspects of the French gothic style which were: pointed arches, pointed rib vaults and windows with bar tracery Italian gothic churches were much lower and placed emphasis on wall surfaces o Painted imagery was placed on every available surface Nave Painting at Assisi An example of frescos that can be found in Italian gothic churches Painted by the saint Francis master The subject is the miracle of the crib at Greccio In this miracle saint Francis was constructing the first ever manger scene at the church in Greccio when the actual Christ child appeared in the manger The most important part of the image is the depiction of the interior of an Italian church during the gothic period The scene takes place in the choir of the church where you can see a baldacchino over the alter and a wooden lectern next to the alter Separating the choir from the nave of the church is a large choir screen with a painted wooden crucifix erected over the door To the left of the crucifix atop the screen is the pulpit accessible by stairs Painted Wooden Crucifix Painted by Coppo di Marcovaldo, a Tuscan artist working in the th 13 century Christ is represented in a byzantine style, the suffering Christ There is a great deal of attention given to his ribs and musculature emphasizing his uncomfortable position The similarity to Byzantine models is deliberate, it was painted in the Greek manner (maniera Greca) adopted after the sac of Constantinople It emphasized strong emotions The scenes that surround Christ on either side represent the passion of Christ Historiated crucifixes- are decorated with additional scenes The three dimensional scalloped halo was used to emphasize it as an important aspect of the painting Pulpit in the Baptistery in Pisa Carved by Nicola Pisano Combines both gothic and classicizing elements in a harmonious work The columns are made of colored marble resembling Roman and early Christian architecture Mane lions support three of the outer columns The inner columns have a high base decorated with humans and domestic animals Curved arches with trefoil tracery spring from the classicizing capitals Figures stand between each of the arches The top of the pulpit is decorated with three relief panels depicting new testament scenes of the annunciation, the nativity and the adoration Nativity Panel o It is clear that Nicola was looking at Roman sarcophagi as models o The figures are heavy with roman style drapery and hairstyles o Nicola used a drill to make deep recesses that lead to strong light and dark contrasts o He places more emphasis on a coherent narrative than upon consistency of scale Giovanni Pisano’s Pulpit in Pisa His work had been affected by the smiling courtly style in France This is a nativity scene that contains all of the same elements as his fathers and a similar crowded composition His figures are more slender, graceful and animated Mary is a long elegant figure dressed in robes that would be suitable for a courtly lady Mary is at the center of an explosion of action that spirals outward from her The Christ child and Mary share a private moment unaware the action going on around them The sleeping Joseph in the lower left corner has a well created hairstyle and beard Façade of the Cathedral in Vienna It was designed by Giovanni Pisano The façade contains style from the French rayonnant architecture including pointed gables, spiky crockets, gargoyles, tracery and lancet windows There is also an interpenetration of the various levels Giovanni created sculptures that were placed in the upper portion of the façade Unlike the French façades this one does not display a theological encyclopedia of sculpture on the portals and lacks the massiveness French façades have