Chapter 12 Fourteenth Century Art Week 15 Lecture Notes
Chapter 12 Fourteenth Century Art Week 15 Lecture Notes Art H 111
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Chapter 12 Fourteenth Century Art 14 Century Florence Lecture Impact of the Black Death on European Society Also called the bubonic plague The black death originated in Asia and struck the trade centers first spreading rapidly from there by both land and sea The plague spread like wildfire despite all efforts to combat it The sick were barred from the city People’s response to the plague was to live modestly or in excess Triumph of Death Fresco Located in the Compo Santo in Pisa This fresco is paired with another fresco of the last judgment The walls of the Compo Santo are lined with sarcophagi The fresco was meant to be a reminder to the living viewer of the inevitability of death and the need for living a virtuous Christian life in order to be saved To the right of the center is a pile of dead bodies at the foot of a cliff with angels and devils swooping down to take the souls of the dead either to heaven or hell o At the center is a winged devil grabbing the soul of a dead women and pulling it from her mouth o The soul is depicted as a naked toddler o To the right is death on his way to the healthy men and women At the top of the cliff (top left) Christian hermits have escaped death in their isolated wilderness On the lower right a group of healthy men and women gather in an orange grove while death flies towards them o The nobles are listening to music unaware of death coming in from their left On the left is a famous scene, a group of horsemen riding in the wilderness discover three coffins holding corpses in three different states of decay o It shows a variety of reactions to the corpses o This scene was found in many medieval works of art Behind the horsemen are a group of crippled beggars who plead with death to free them from their misery This painting is meant to demonstrate that no matter what your station is in life you are subject to death and only piety like that of the hermits can save you Importance of Guilds in Florence Florence had a total of 74 guilds at the start of the century each one representing a different trade of craft These included fishermen, quarrymen, weavers, goldsmiths, painters, grossers, used clothing dealers, and more Medieval guilds- are organizations of professionals who began to gain importance as a social, economical, and political force in the cities of Europe Each guild had its own rules concerning membership, practices and professional standards In many cities representatives of the most powerful guilds had a place in the city government Guilds also established funds to provide funerals for their members They also funded many works of art and architecture In many cities powerful guilds competed with each other to commission more and more expensive works of art and architecture These rivalries helped to make cities important center of art and architecture during the late middle ages and into the renaissance Miracle working Madonna A work by Bernardo Daddi It shows the Madonna and child enthroned and surrounded by angels It is a third image of the miracle working Madonna It was believed that the power of the original image was on to each of the two images that replaced it The original probably had the same composition as this one with the Madonna seated on an architectonic throne elevated upon a dais surrounded by angels It was not always visible by the public, usually kept hidden behind curtains and only revealed during particular ceremonies o The confraternity of orsanmichele was responsible for the organization and production of these ceremonies Daddi was commissioned to make this painting by the confraternity of Orsanmichele Importance of Confraternities in Florence The confraternity in Florence was an organization that was dedicated to veneration of the miracle working image of the Madonna They were group that were social, charitable, and quasi religious It functioned as a sort of exclusive club formed by individuals, usually men, in order to protect their mutual self interests and to do good works within their community Confraternities were found in nearly every city in the Italian peninsula They like guilds were an important source of artistic patronage Building History of Florence Cathedral It was built on the site of an earlier Romanesque cathedral dedicated to santa reparata o The foundations can still be visited beneath the present cathedral In 1294 Arnolfo di Cambio produced a plan for an entirely new and significantly larger cathedral The great expense of the building was justified as being done in honor of god and the city of Florence It was seen as both a religious and civic symbol The new cathedral was meant to be large enough to hold the entire population of Florence which at that time was 90,000 It was financed by special tax revenues of the city government and by the wealthy wool manufacturers guild In the beginning of construction, management of the project was in the control of the 12 greatest guilds in Florence, but later the wool manufacturers guild took over The two west bays follow Arnolfo’s original plan The plans were later changed resulting in a long cathedral with a larger dome over the crossing th The dome was not constructed until the 15 century The campanile (bell tower) of the cathedral was designed by Giotto The nave was made up of 4 bays that preceded an octagonal crossing that was the width of the nave and aisles combined Instead of projecting transept arms and apse, it ended in 3 octagonal chapels each one crowned by a vaulted half dome The nave and chapels were executed in the Italian gothic style with pointed rib vaults and hidden buttressing over the aisles o It also had few small windows The wall surface both inside and out was more important Andrea Pisano’s Bronze Doors at the Florence Cathedral South side baptistery doors Created in bronze relief Consisted of 28 square panels with relief scenes set within quatrefoils The program consists of 20 scenes from the life of John the Baptist on the top 5 rows Below these are 8 personifications of the virtues in the bottom 2 rows The baptism of Christ panel o Like a Romanesque work Christ is covered by water o Above John the Baptist’s hand is the dove of the holy spirit o There is an angel to Christ’s left and John on his right o The figures stand in a much more believable landscape made up of rocks and trees o The figures are done in the courtly style due to their gracefulness and drapery Cimabue’s Virgin and Child Enthroned Painted around 1280 for the church of Santa Trinita in Florence Was influenced by the byzantine maniera greca style o Elongated figures, dramatic gestures, the use of gold in drapery folds, hierarchal scale and symmetrical compositions 12 feet high He followed the maniera gerca style while adding innovations o Highly individualized faces, facial expressions, spacial ambiguity in the architectonic throne and the use of gold highlighting to depict drapery folds rather than stylized patterns of byzantine work Delicate and unsustainable Giotto’s Virgin and Child Enthroned He produced his own version of Cimabue’s virgin and child enthroned 25-30 years after Onia Santi church in Florence Was influenced by the byzantine maniera greca style o Elongated figures, dramatic gestures, the use of gold in drapery folds, hierarchal scale and symmetrical compositions He maintained the same composition as Cimabue, but used modeling and intuitive perspective to create the strong illusion of three dimensional bodies within a believable architectural setting He did not use gold in the drapery folds of the Madonna The depiction of drapery takes a secondary role to the depiction of figures in simple volumetric shapes Facial expressions and gestures are more naturalistic than Cimabue’s His work is believable in its illusionistic space due to Mary sitting slightly off center in her throne Giotto’s use of asymmetry is most dramatic in the curve of Mary’s halo and the curve of the tabernacle where she sits Wavy and permanent Iconographic Program of the Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel, Padua Dedicated to the Madonna of charity It served as a private place of worship for the Scrovegni family and a site for family burials Often called the arena chapel due to it being built on top of a demolished Roman arena Giotto created the fresco decoration of the walls and ceiling The chapel is a long barrel vaulted space with an apse Giotto might have been the architect for the chapel as well Scrovegni ordered Giotto to paint scenes depicting the redemption of humanity The cycle begins the annunciation of the virgin, continues through the life of the virgin, the life of Christ, and the passion of Christ on the side walls ending with a last judgment scene on the entrance wall of the chapel The annunciation scene shows god at the top promising salvation for humanity through the birth of Christ Giotto used a unified system of perspective for the annunciation wall, which makes each scene appear to be happening within an illusionistic space while also giving the illusion that each space is interrelated The cycles of the life of the virgin, the life of Christ and the passion of Christ are placed in rectangular scenes on the walls that run clockwise from the annunciation scene around the chapel The bottom register is decorated with painted panels that imitate marble inlay which frame images of the virtues on one side of the chapel with there corresponding vices on the other side o The virtues and vices are done in gresi meaning that they are painted in shades of grey o They strongly resemble relief sculptures Life and passion of Christ detail o At the top left is a depiction of one of Christ’s miracles the wedding of Cana and on the right is the raising of Lazarus from the dead o The bottom left is the lamentation of Christ’s followers crying over his body and on the right is nolia mentangari which refers to the scene of Christ telling Mary Magdalene touch me not o The lamentation focuses on Mary holding her dead son Giotto used the diagonal of the rock background to draw the attention to Mary The followers emotions are echoed in the angels faces o They are put into rectangular scenes with each one framed by a band of blue and red o They are also separated by an illusionistic border painted to look like marble inlay o Quatrefoils in between the main scenes contain additional images that relate to the narrative cycle o The quatrefoil before the raising of Lazarus shows god creating Adam Christ was seen as the new Adam o The quatrefoil below shows a scene found in medieval bestiaries a lioness breathing life into her cubs This illustrates the belief that lions were believed to be born dead and had to have life breathed into them by their mother at birth This quatrefoil directly relates to the theme of death and resurrection Arrest of Christ detail o Shows Judas betraying Christ with a kiss in the center of the scene o Saint Peter is cutting off the ear of a Roman soldier on the left o It is a crowded scene that focuses attention on a few figures in the foreground o The torches and other weapons bring the attention to the most important scene of the kiss of Judas o Judas’ yellow cloak stands out against the reds around it while the drapery brings the eye upward towards the kiss 14 Century Siena and France Lecture Importance of the Virgin Mary to the People of Siena There was a festival held every summer to honor the virgin Mary, which included a religious procession They attributed a victory against Florence to Mary making her the patron saint of the city Duccio’s Maesta Duccio was one of the greatest Sienize painters This work replaces the early miracle working Madonna piece the people of Siena attributed their victory over Florence with He signed a contract to create a alter piece for the main alter at the cathedral in Siena The contract mentions nothing about the nature of the painting o No discussion of size, composition or iconography o He was paid a little each day and was asked not to work on any other commissions until it was completed o He agreed to work without assistants o A later contract changes his payments to per scene and took out the no assistants part At that time it was located beneath the dome The alter piece is known as the Maesta, made up of many individual scene The piece was visible from all sides since it was located beneath the dome In 1775 it was taken down and sawed a part into several pieces with some pieces now lost The center panel shows the virgin enthroned holding the Christ child who are surrounded saints and angels o The 4 kneeling saints in the foreground are the patron saints of the city of Siena who were later replaced by Mary after the defeat of Florence o Duccio signed his name on the bottom of Mary’s throne The piece above that are scenes of the apostles Above the apostles are scene depicting the life of the virgin The empty spaces in the reconstruction probably contained images of angels Down below in the predella are scenes of the childhood of Christ The rear of the maesta depict the life and passion of Christ o The crucifixion is the largest and the central scene Scholars have identified the work of Duccio’s assistants in the rear works Scholars believe that after visiting France Duccio was influenced by the courtly style when creating the maesta o It can be seen in the drapery He also used the Italo Byzantine style in the use of gold to delineate the folds of the virgins red dress beneath her robes and also in the Christ child’s robes The symmetrical composition with ranks of saints and angels flanking the architectonic throne is also part of the Italo Byzantine tradition Predella detail o The two figures are Isaiah and Ezekiel o Duccio fused the northern and Italo Byzantine traditions which is shown in the placement of the nativity o The nativity takes place in a shed in the northern tradition and within a cave in the byzantine tradition o The appearance of the Christ child is in the manger and below also adhering to the two traditions o The graceful poses of the figures and flowing drapery is in the northern tradition o The attempt to show the nativity within a readable space with the manger as an object that recedes in space are indications of the renaissance Process of Making a Fresco Buon fresco- wet fresco o Pigments are applied to damp plaster and as the plaster dries the pigments bond with the plaster making it very durable o The artist has to work quickly applying paint before it dries Fresco secco- dry fresco o Paint is applied to dry plaster and is not as durable They divided there fresco into sections with each one being a days (journata) work The wall had to be prepared carefully, first with a rough layer of plaster called the arriccio was applied to the wall The arriccio layer was left rough so that the intonaco layer would adhere well Intonaco layer- smooth surface that received the paint After the arriccio was put up the artist would make a sketch on the wall called the sinopia which was often based off a cartoon (refers to a sketch executed on paper) Holes would be punched in the cartoon along the main lines of the composition and then use powdered charcoal to transfer the image to the arriccio The artist would fill in more details with a red pigment called the sinopia drawing Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s Fresco Cycle Located in the Sala della Pace (chamber of peace) in the Palazzo Pubblico (city hall of Siena) A rectangular room which was used as a meeting room for the 9- a council who lead the Siena government with the membership changing every 2 months The room consists of 3 frescos each one taking up an entire wall The allegory of good government, the allegory of good government in the city and country, and the allegory of bad government and its effects on the city The bad government fresco occupies the long wall on the opposite of the allegory of good government in the city and country The council would be surrounded by works depicting good and bad government as they made their decisions The quatrefoils below the frescos are decorated with images of famous citizens of Siena throughout history Beneath the allegory of good government is an inscription that names Ambrogio Lorenzetti as the painter of the cycle Detail of the allegory of good government o Used hieratic scale to show the importance of each figure o The largest figure is an enthroned male who is identified in gold lettering as SCCV (Sienize commune city of the virgin) and flanked on the left and right by 6 female personifications of the virtues each one labeled in gold lettering above their heads o The left virtue is peace o Above the male is three winged figures each one representing a cardinal virtue of faith, hope and charity o The lettering and blue background was done using the fresco secco technique o The message is that good government in the form of the Sienize commune manifests the ideal Christian virtues o He used a compositional arrangement normally used in a last judgment scene with the figure of good government occupying the place of god as judge o Below his feet on the right are upstanding citizens and prisoners on the left just like those bound for heaven and those bound for hell in the last judgment o On the left side of the painting is the female figure of justice and sits in a similar pose to the male figure Allegory of bad judgment o Consists of a nearly identical composition to the allegory of good government o Shows evil, destruction and tyranny o Tyranny is largest in the composition and sits enthroned flanked by vices o It shows the city crumbling due to the effect of bad government Allegory of good government in the city detail o Shows a busy scene of urban life o Masons and builders are working on new buildings in the upper center o Cobblers are making shoes and a teacher is teaching a class in the lower center o Visitors are shown on the left o The dome and campanile of the cathedral are visible in the top left o The porta Romana (one of the main city gates) is on the top right o Siena is shown as productive, inviting and prosperous enjoying good government o The figures are done in the courtly style as tall, graceful and richly dressed Allegory of good government in the country detail o Guarding the entrance to the city is the figure of security at the top left o Security is holding a scroll asking those who enter to come in peace and she is above the gallows referring to those who did not come in peace o There are peasants bringing in harvest The fresco has shifts in perspective and scale, but made everything appear to be a part of one coherent composition 8 years after the fresco cycle was finished the plague came to Siena which threw the city and countryside into disorder Book of Hours of Jeanne D’ Evreux Created by Jean Pucelle The book was commissioned by Jeanne D’Evreux’s husband king Charles IV The figures are intricately worked A book of hours was private prayer book intended for everyday use It contained prayers for each hour of the day This book had 209 folios (two sided pages) with 25 full page illustrations The scenes fall into two narrative cycles of the joys and sorrows of the virgin and the other cycle shows the recently canonized saint Louis The additional images below the main image serve to provide additional narrative or commentary on the scenes above The illustrations were done in gresi (shades of grey) with few highlights of color His modeling makes his figures appear sculptural His figures are graceful and delicate similar to the French courtly style There are foliage borders like the ones in English gothic art Arrest of Christ from the Hours of Jeanne D’Evreux Part of the joys and sorrows cycle Refers to the ultimate salvation of humanity Below the main image shows two knights riding and jousting ridiculing the soldiers part of the arrest of Christ Annunciation from the Hours of Jeanne D’Evreux Part of the joys and sorrows cycle Refers to the ultimate salvation of humanity The scene at the bottom shows children playing a game o If the game is love tag it refers to Mary as the chosen one of the annunciation o If it is another game it refers to the mocking of Christ or Judas’ betrayal of Christ Also below the main scene is a historiated initial containing an image of Jeanne in prayer combined with the angel on the other side means that the image above might be a vision brought on by Jeanne’s meditation rather than being an illustration of a biblical event Working Conditions in a Goldsmith Workshop Techniques Used on the Virgin of Jeanne D’Evreux The inscription on the pedestal says that it was a gift presented to the abbey of saint Denis It is a reliquary statue that holds and presents a small reliquary to the viewer The reliquary is the silver gild, crystal and pearl fleur du lei held in the virgin’s right hand It contained relics of the virgin’s hair The virgin was originally crowned The crown and fleur du lei served to identify Mary as queen of heaven and to relate her to the queen of France The statue is made of gilded silver because it is a harder metal than gold Most goldsmiths made their work in silver and then gilded it using the method of fire gilding Fire gilding- involved the goldsmith making an amalgam of finely ground gold liquid mercury which would be painted onto the surface of the silver o When the amalgam was exposed to high levels of heat the mercury burnt off o The thin layer of gold would be made into a fine sheet o Fire gilding could also be done on copper and bronze The artist created the bodies using the repousse technique The box base is composed of pieces that are cut along with cast pieces There are little lions that hold up the base, these were probably cast as well as the buttresses that separate the plaques on the box There are 14 plagues that represent the childhood and passion of Christ beginning with the annunciation o Each plaque is made in translucent enamel on a gilded silver base The artist engraved the general details of each scene and then applied translucent enamel in shades of dark blue, green, yellow and red The virgin has been done in the courtly style with a graceful S curve pose and heavy elegant drapery She is more substantial than other courtly style works and has a natural expression instead of smiling The Christ child is depicted with human emotions Importance of Troubador Poetry and Courtly Love in Secular Art It is an ivory box carved in relief showing a scene of the attack on the castle of love Reflects the popular taste of romance and for depictions of poetry th As early as the 12 century romance was the subject of popular stories and songs Stories of romance were popular because marriages were made for political standing not romance It shows a scene with knights armed with flowers who siege the castle of love which is occupied by women These use weapons to throw roses into the castle The defending women are helped by the god of love who is armed with a bow and arrow It is a metaphor for sexual conquest with the male figures seeking to break the barriers of the women which is symbolized by the walls England, Germany and Bohemia Lecture Opus Anglicanum English work Usually covers the hole of a cloth in which it was worked leaving only small areas of the background visible It was a type of embroidery Embroidery was done with colored silk and metallic threads Most of the major workshops were in London They made religious and secular textiles Patrons commissioned works of religious art in order to demonstrate their wealth and religious devotion during their lifetime while also being remembered in prayers by the clergy after their death Chasuble A vestment worn by a priest, bishop or archbishop in the celebration of the mass It was usually made of the richest materials possible At the top is the coronation of the virgin The middle is the adoration of the magi The bottom is the annunciation The scenes are placed within a framework of intertwining oak branches decorated with animal faces and hanging acorns fashioned from pearls The arches are ogee arches meaning that each side of the pointed arch is curved like an S New Features Found in 14 thCentury English Gothic Perpendicular Style Simple and restrained shapes Decorated Style This is the English version of the French Rayonnant style Building History of Exeter Cathedral The transept tower was built in the Norman Romanesque style with rounded arches The cathedral was rebuilt in the decorated style This monument is important because it is the most completed building in the decorated style that is still standing This cathedral holds an archive with detailed records on the people who worked on the cathedral, what they were paid, the origin and price of materials, how materials were transported, etc. The first building campaign started around 1265 was the erection of a lady chapel Lady chapel- was a chapel dedicated to the virgin that was built onto the eastern end of the cathedral The choir was first rebuilt around 1310 and redecorated when the nave was rebuilt in the decorated style in 1313 Master Thomas of Whitney was appointed master to Exeter Cathedral in 1316 o He added a triforium level to the choir elevation in order to bring the design in line with the nave The choir and the nave have dark accents of Purbeck marble Master Thomas’ design exploits the expressive power of compound piers, calumniates and ribs o Each element has been multiplied to create a sculptural effect, but beneath it all is a basic gothic structure with quadripartite vaulting The addition of extra ribs called tiercerons are used to delineated the curving form of the vaults and the addition of carved bosses where the ribs meet makes for a sculptural and lacey effect that disguises the vaulting 14 century buildings started with making the gothic approach of light, height and vaulting then tried to make it more expressive after the basics were completed Master Thomas also designed the bishops throne in 1312 o It was carved, erected and painted o It is one of the finest works of medieval woodwork to be found o It is topped with gothic architecture that is made up of curves, ogee arches, nodding arches, pinnacles and crockets The only piece of pre reformation glass in the cathedral is in the great east window o The window was done in the perpendicular style Building History of the Church of the Holy Cross, Schwaebisch Gmuend The citizens of the town of Gmuend began a major rebuilding campaign on their church dedicated to the Holy Cross They started with a new façade and plans for a new basilica When the façade was half finished and the western most bay partially completed the design changed to a hall church Scholars believe that the change in plan came with the new architect Heinrich Parler of Cologne Scholars assume he is responsible for the design of the nave east of the western most bay The person responsible for the choir design and its ambulatory was Peter Parler o He made them the same width as the nave and the aisles while completely changing the vaulting making it much more complex and geometric o He used the space in between the flying buttresses for a string of rectangular vaulted chapels The first building campaign included the façade and the first bay of the nave The second campaign included the nave which was made with intricate star like vaults The last part of the building campaign was the choir with complex vaults and more star like patterns The existing vaults are part of the 16 century, scholars have used evidence from the piers and impost blocks of the choir to determine that Peter Parler’s design had star like patterns in its vaulting Peter Parler’s Style A characteristic of his designs is very clear, crisp linear details that are much more angular that the French high gothic style He used geometric elements in his designs referencing that he has been well educated in geometry His gothic style is characterized by a new liveliness with which he reinterpreted traditional gothic elements making them much more expressive and intricate The tabernacle at saint Vitus is a miniature design of his style in medieval architecture as well as being a decorative container for the host Charles IV’s Patronage in the Roman Empire King Charles was born in Prague Made king of Germany and later king of Bohemia He became emperor in 1355 He managed to reconsolidate and strengthen the empire He reabsorbed many independent principalities that had drifted away from the holy Roman empire Many of his achievement were through diplomacy, not war He wanted to transform Prague through patronage He donated many relics to the cathedral of saint Vitus in Prague in order to make the church an important pilgrimage site He expanded the city with the new town Prague became one of the largest cities in all of Europe Holy Cross Chapel Charles Stone referred to the emperor and Charlemagne A castle that held the religious treasures of the empire Decorated with semi precious stones on the walls Decorated with 130 images of the saints Held relics of over 100 saints which were kept in reliquary, installed into special niches near the alter, placed inside the frames of the saints portraits and plastered into the wall Had Master Theodoric paint the entire chapel o He designed the walls as a mosaic made up of panel paintings along the walls o At least 30 of the most important paintings were completed by him and the rest were divided up to other master painters in the area Saint Luke detail o Since saint Luke is the patron saint of painters scholars believe that the painting depicts Theodoric as saint Luke o The gaze is one that would be produced from a painter painting a mirror image of himself Saint Vitus in Prague Peter Parler was responsible for the completion of the choir and the construction of another church in the city The chapel inside the church holds the grave of the saint There is also a gilded tabernacle in the chapel made of iron and created by Peter Parler o It is a miniature style of Peter Parler’s style of medieval architecture while also holding the host The wall decorations are done in Jasper, Amethyst and gold The chapel is decorated like a medieval reliquary Beautiful Style A merging of master Theodoric’s style and the French gothic style Started at the end of the 14 century Heavy swaying form which is engulfed in long folds of drapery Richly quaff hairstyle is typical of this style Style of Andachtsbilder Andachtsbilder- a devotional image It is meant to inspire the viewer to sympathize with Christ’s suffering in his final hours Vesperbild from the Middle Rhine (now in Bonn) It is a andachtsbilder, a type of devotional image meant to make the viewer sympathize with Christ’s suffering We are invited to share both Christ’s and Mary’s pain Very strong depiction of blood Mary looks like she will collapse from the suffering of her son
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