Popular in Mythologies of the World
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassandra Miller on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CC 205 1 at Ball State University taught by King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Mythologies of the World in Classical Studies at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Hades is the Chief god of death He has an invisible cap representing how you can't see death coming God of fertility / wealth Roman name Dis Orcus = confinement Cerberus - three headed dog Saliva mixes with the ground to make poison He would mal life people who came to the underworld He wanted the daughter of the fertility goddess for a wife Persephone They never have any children Hades cannot have children because death brings end to life not life Hecate - goddess of witchcraft, moon, night and ghosts Artemis equivalent Persephone communicates with her instead of Hades The Furies - Goddesses of vengeance Born form Uranus' genitals Personification of Death Thanatos Peaceful death Butterfly is a symbol Keres Violent death Fates - they appear at the birth of each man Each person has a thread of life The fates decide how long they live Libation - sacrifices to Gods of the dead, Deceased heroes or family The gods of the death are located below the earth so they couldn’t smell meat burning People made sacrifices to them by forcing blood of animals into the ground The Greek and Roman Underworld Homer and Vergil Greeks believed that a persons "psyche" is what gave them life Once it left them it was called "Eidolon" (shade or shadow) Can only talk to humans after they have drank blood of a sacrifice Sails to the end of the world, sacrifices a black sheep and the souls come to him Roman Aeneus makes sacrifices to Athena, Persephone and Hades Five Rivers Styx Cocytus Acheron Charon is the boat man that takes people across the river into the underworld Three judges Mino Rhadamanthys Aeacuse Realms of the Underworld Elysium - Islands of the blessed State of forever spring Asphodel Meadows - bleak limbo Ordinary souls Tartarus - place of punishment Titans Sisyphus - rolls the rock up a hill over and over again Tantalus - hung by a tree and can never have water or food Cooked his son and tried to feed it to the gods Ixion - spun around on a wheel of fire Tried to rap Hera Was a bad host Death Takeaways Hated and not looked forward to by Greeks and Romans Generally brought a state of limbo for the soul It was a whim of the Gods as to if you went to the good or bad place Death 2 Greek and Mesopotamia Wednesday, April 20, 2016 11:01 AM Final Topics - family, death, apocalypses Make an argument as to whether the study of mythology has shown you the similarities or differences between cultures Choose three - name specific myths Greek Orpheus and Eurydice Muses - dance, music Queen of the muses, Calliope Her son is Orpheus He was one of Jason's Argonauts Most famous singer and poet ever He could sooth anyone with a song Rationality, knowledge and prophesies (Apollo) Orpheus can be considered an enemy of Dionysius Mysteries, bring people up (Dionysius) Orpheus was supposed to be married to Eurydice She is bite by a snake and dies Orpheus descends into the underworld He sang a song about his love for Eurydice while on the river of Styx The underworld stopped They agree to give back Eurydice Orpheus is the only soul to persuade Hades to give a soul back Taboo - Orpheus cannot look back as he leaves He ends up looking back because of love for Eurydice or fear of her health Maenads - worshipers of Dionysius They are mad that he is singing sad songs They tear him apart limb by limb Tragic - he losses his wife's and his own life The muses bury his limbs honorably His shade descends to the underworld and reunites with Eurydice Takeaways A hero-quest about the hope of cheating death Death's power in the taboo The same characteristic that enables the hero to cheat death also instigates his failure Love survives life into death Mesopotamia Inanna = Ishtar Earlier version of Ishtar Ancestor of Aphrodite Associated with the home (Storehouse of grain), rain (brings the grain), chariot (war), sky, stars, sexuality (night) Brings prosperity, victory in war Dumuzi (Tammuz), the shepherd, related to beer, meats, springs They are married Inanna is the most powerful, she ends up causing the death of Dumuzi Ereshkigal - Inanna's sister Infertility, queen of the great below Inanna goes into the underworld for an unknown reason Possibly knowledge Possibly a power trip - confront Ereshkigal Inanna abandons the 7 cities that she has been ruling over She wears jewels and armor She tell Ninshubur that if she has not returned in 3 days he should tell the other gods that Inanna is dead and must be revived Shows that she fears death like humans Alludes to her impending death Ereshkigal only lets Inanna come to the underground if she removes her adornment The stripping represents her preparation for death Mesopotamian people believed you could not take anything in to the next life Unlike Greek and Roman underworld, all souls are punished in the underworld Inanna is sentenced to death by Ereshkigal Even the goddess of war and fertility cannot conquer death Reviving Inanna Ninshubur gets Enki to help her Enki conjures two creature form the ground They have the tree of life and the water of life They slip into the underworld Find Ereshkigal on her throne crying She offers they gifts they refuse and ask for Inanna instead They sprinkle the tree of life and the water of life Misery loves company They need to find a substitute for Inanna Demons accompany Inanna and Enki Dumuzi is not mourning Inanna - he is sitting in her throne and wearing a beautiful robe Inanna orders the demons to take him away Dumuzi(beer) spends 6 months, his sister Gestianna (wine) spends the other 6 months Dumuzi's time on earth is the harvest season Takeaways Death is unconquerable Do humans long to conquer death? Reason for Inanna to go to the underworld Humans can take nothing with then in death Death is unwilling to release anyone unilaterally Is morality relevant? But a substitute can be negotiated at least by the queen of heaven Death is a reverse of birth Death is associated with agricultural cycle Death Egyptian, Hopi Myths Friday, April 22, 2016 10:59 AM Egyptian Dat and Osiris Death is a passing not a final destination Cycles - the sun rises and sets The Nile floods and recedes Dat is where the sun goes when it is under the earth or dark side of the moon Egyptians are not sure where it is Located between the world of the dead and the world of the living Darkness and terrifying beings Ra is the sun god who accompanies the souls Field of Reeds Crops grow to enormous heights Cleansed souls can go Osiris - died and lived again They pray to him to do this as well (souls live after their bodies die) Worshiped throughout Egypt Judging souls: 1st the hall of double truth Soul is confronted by 42 gods Must make a negative confession declaring that they have not committed bad deeds Must have lived a just and moral life 2nd weighing of the heart Weights the heart against a feather Heart is the persons thought and emotions Should not be heavy with evil deeds Feather is justice and righteousness If souls pass these two tests they get to go to the underworld Change over time - began with only kinds then changed to all people The book of the dead Spells to get to the underworld Buried with the dead to help them with their journey Takeaways Death is a passing Death is associated with fertility and civilization Because of the association with Osiris Fertile ground around the nile Understandings of death development through time Geography of death changes A good afterlife becomes more widely available over time (for a price) Morality determines one's place in death You must live a good life to get into the underworld But it is believed possible to cheat death Hobi Native American The Kachinas Age classes are important to the Hobi Native Americans Kachinas: ancestor spirits Masked dancing divinities Live with the Hobi people from December to July Associated with fertility and death Death brought on a new kind of life Evil witches - Two Hearts Human and animal heart, associated with owls Hated and feared Sacrifice other people's families Hobi Believe you must be the best possible human being you can to ward off the evil spirts Tale of the husband and wife Wife's relatives keep dying off He goes to look for his mother-in-law (quest) Gets captured by a two heart The man keeps repeating that he believes the Kachinas will protect him He found the mother-in-law with the other two hearts Sun God Kachinas was there and saves the man The mother-in-law comes back and slowly dies Takeaways Immorality is associated with death Good and bad supernatural creatures govern death Piety brings salvation form immorality and death Piety is doing what you are supposed to for the gods Immorality and death are located in the family (usually it is the individual that determines their own fate) A bad family member can bring death to a family As the mother in law does A good family member can save the family As the husband does
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