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Physiology 215 Week 15 Notes

by: Maddie Butkus

Physiology 215 Week 15 Notes phys 215

Marketplace > Ball State University > phys 215 > Physiology 215 Week 15 Notes
Maddie Butkus
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover lecture from week 15
Human Physiology
Dr. Kelly-Worden
Class Notes
PHYS215, Worden
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
 The Endocrine System  1. Regulating metabolism and water and electrolyte balance  2. Adaptive changes to help the body cope with stress  3. Growth and development  4. Controlling reproduction  5. Regulating red blood cell production  6. Digestion and absorption  Complexity of Hormones  A single gland can release multiple hormones  A single hormone may be secreted by more than one gland  A single hormone can have more than one target  A hormone may be released at different rates over time  A single target cell may be influenced by more than one hormone  Complexity of Hormones (continued)  The same chemical messenger may be considered a hormone or a neurotransmitter depending on how it is released and where it acts  Some organs only release hormones  Classifications of Hormones  Protein or Peptide hormones  Made from two or more amino acids  Majority of all hormones  Dissolved in and carried by the plasma  Steroid Hormones  Made from cholesterol  Transported in the plasma bound to plasma proteins  Amine Hormones  Derived from tyrosine  Can be, in the case of catecholamines, both dissolved in plasma and bound to plasma proteins  Activation by Hormones  Hydrophilic (water loving) hormones  Act through second messenger pathways  G-protein receptors  Lipophilic (lipid loving) hormones  Enhance synthesis of enzymatic or structural proteins  Act on receptors inside the cell, commonly in the nucleus  Hormone with receptor binds to DNA at the “Hormone Response Element” site  Binding activates specific genes  Protein synthesis begins  Improper Hormone Secretion  Hyposecretion- decreased release or loss of a particular hormone  Treated by replacement therapy  Hypersecretion- oversecretion of a given hormone  Can be caused by tumors or over stimulation  Treated by  Surgical removal of the tumor or radiation or chemotherapy  Or in the case of over stimulation by drugs that block synthesis or inhibit secretion  Pineal Gland  Secretes melatonin  Circadian rhythm- biological cycle for night and day regulated by the SCN (suprachiasmic nucleus)  Melatonin secretion increases at night in the absence of light  Induces sleep  Inhibits hormones that stimulate reproductive activity  Is an antioxidant  Enhances the immune system  Hypothalamic Hormones  TRH-thyrotropin releasing hormone  Stimulates release of TSH and prolactin  CRH-corticotropin releasing hormone  Stimulates release of ACTH  GnRH-gonadotropin releasing hormone  Stimulates release of FSH and LH  GHRH-growth hormone releasing hormone  Stimulates release of growth hormone  GHIH-growth hormone inhibiting hormone  Inhibits the release of growth hormone  Hypothalamic Hormones (cont.)  PRH- prolactin releasing hormone  Stimulates release of prolactin  PIH-prolactin inhibiting hormone  Inhibits the release of prolactin  Hypothalamus and the Pituitary  The hypothalamus is directly connected to the posterior pituitary  The pituitary has two parts  Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) which buds off from the roof of the mouth  Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) which is formed as an outgrowth of the brain  The hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary form a neurosecretory system  The neurosecretory cell bodies lie in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus  Posterior Pituitary Hormones  Made up of the axon terminals of the hypothalamic neurons  Stores 2 hormones produced by the hypothalamus  Oxytocin- contraction of the uterus during childbirth and ejection of milk from the mammary glands  Vasopressin (again!)- aka ADH, enhances retention of water by incorporation of water channels in the distal tubules and collecting ducts and causes contraction of arteriole smooth muscle  Hypothalamus and the Anterior Pituitary  Hypothalamic hormones enter the hypothalamic capillaries  The hypothalamic capillaries rejoin the hypophyseal portal system  In the anterior pituitary the hypophyseal portal branches into anterior pituitary capillaries  The hormones leave the blood stream and enter the anterior pituitary  The hormones interacts with targets and alter the release of hormones stored in the anterior pituitary  If the hypothalamic hormone is stimulatory for a given anterior pituitary hormone(s), that hormone(s) is released and travels through the anterior pituitary capillaries that rejoin to form a vein  Target Hormones  Hormones that are secreted by the pituitary will act on a target gland  That gland may also secrete hormones  These hormones may produce Negative Feedback  They act on a site in the hypothalamus or pituitary to stop the secretion of the hypothalamic or pituitary hormone in the pathway  Example: CRH acts on the anterior pituitary à stimulates ACTH secretion à acts at the adrenal cortex to stimulate cortisol secretion à acts at the hypothalamus to stop CRH secretion  Anterior Pituitary Hormones  Growth Hormone (GH)  Responsible for body growth and involved in metabolism  Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)  Stimulates release of thyroid hormone and thyroid growth  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)  Stimulates cortisol secretion and promotes growth of the adrenal cortex  Anterior Pituitary Hormones (cont.)  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)  Females- stimulates growth and development of the ovarian follicles and promotes secretion of estrogen by the ovaries  Males- sperm production  Luteinizing hormone (LH)  Females- ovulation and luteinization (we will discuss this in the next chapter) and regulates secretion of estrogen and progesterone  Males- secretion of testosterone from the Leydig cells of the testes  Prolactin (PRL)  Females- production of milk and development of the breasts  Growth  Genetic determination  Adequate diet  Health  Emotional balance  cortisol released from prolonged stress inhibits growth by blocking secretion of GH and breaking down proteins  Hormone balance  Rapid Growth Periods  Fetal growth is dependent on placental hormones  GH acts only after birth  Postnatal growth spurt- first 2 years of life  Pubertal growth spurt- during adolescence  Increased release of GH  Lengthening of the long bones  Increase in androgen release (testosterone)  Promotion of protein synthesis  Testosterone and estrogen halt bone growth by the end of puberty  Actions of GH  Direct effect- binds it’s receptor at the target cell  GH receptors on adipose tissue promoting the breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids  Indirect effect- binds a receptor on the liver or other tissue which generally releases IGF-1 (insulin growth factor 1) which acts at the target tissue  GH and Growth  The major role of growth hormone in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-1.  IGF-1 stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth.  Growth hormone does seem to have a direct effect on bone growth in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes.  IGF-1 also appears to be the key player in muscle growth.  stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts.  stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues.  Bone Development  Bones grow in length at the epiphyseal plate  Cartilage in the region of the epiphyseal plate next to the epiphysis continues to grow by mitosis.  The chondrocytes, in the region next to the diaphysis, age and degenerate.  Osteoblasts move in and ossify the matrix to form bone.  The process continues throughout childhood and the adolescent years until the cartilage growth slows and finally stops.  Metabolic Effects of GH  Protein metabolism:  Increased amino acid uptake  Protein synthesis  Fat metabolism:  Stimulates triglyceride breakdown in adipocytes  Increases free fatty acids  Carbohydrate metabolism:  Maintains blood glucose within a normal range  Suppresses the abilities of insulin to stimulate uptake of glucose in peripheral tissues  Saves glucose for the brain  Enhances glucose synthesis in the liver  Control of GH Secretion  Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)  stimulates both the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone.  GHIH (Somatostatin; SS)  inhibits growth hormone release in response to GHRH and to other stimulatory factors such as low blood glucose concentration.  Ghrelin (peptide hormone secreted from the stomach).  binds receptors and potently stimulates secretion of growth hormone.  Abnormal GH Secretion  Deficiency in growth hormone or receptor defects  Growth retardation or dwarfism  Short stature due to retarded skeletal growth  Poorly developed musculature and excess fat  Excessive secretion of growth hormone- two distinctive disorders:  Giantism- excessive growth hormone secretion that begins in young children or adolescents.  very rare disorder, usually resulting from a tumor  One of the most famous giants was a man named Robert Wadlow. He weighed 8.5 pounds at birth, but by 5 years of age was 105 pounds and 5 feet 4 inches tall. Robert reached an adult weight of 490 pounds and 8 feet 11 inches in height. He died at age 22.  Acromegaly- excessive secretion of growth hormone in adults.  overgrowth of bone and connective tissue leads to a change in appearance, obvious in the face .  excessive growth hormone and IGF-1 also lead to metabolic derangements, including glucose intolerance.


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