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Psychology 110 Chapter 15

by: Katie Mayes

Psychology 110 Chapter 15 PSYC 110 - 008

Katie Mayes
GPA 3.56

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These notes include diagrams, pictures, vocabulary terms, examples we did in class, video links, and all the notes our professor went over! Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders
General Psychology -
Alexander Malik Khaddouma
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 04/24/16
4/18/16 Psych Notes 4/18/16 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Mood Disorders - Depression o Recurrent state of lingering depressed mood, diminished interest in pleasurable activities, and often somatic complaints (depressive episodes) o Chronic = Dysthymia o Intermittent = major depressive disorder o 20% of Americans will meet criteria for major depressive disorder at some time in their life o Biology of Depression  Too much “Reuptake” of serotonin  Dampens brain ability to “reward” for positive experiences  Results in decreased likelihood of engaging in positive behaviors o Depression vs. “normal” sadness  Adaptive role of sadness  Obtaining necessary resources while in physical or psychological pain  Recruits social relationships  Produces drive in organism to behave differently in future situations  Adaptive processes become overactive in depressive disorders  Confirmation biases = reinforce negative thoughts about self and others  Depressive behaviors contribute to negative outcomes 4/18/16 - Bipolar Disorder o Alterations between states of dramatically elevated mood and heightened energy (manic episode) and either normal functioning or depressive episodes o Highly genetically influenced - Suicide o Double the rate of homicide in the US correlated strongly with the presence of mood or personality disorders - Personality Disorders o Condition in which personality traits are inflexible, stable, and unadjusted across environmental or social situation o Appears in adolescence and continues into adulthood o Biology of Personality Disorders  Issues with regulatory systems to promote survival  Psychological dysfunction often stems from:  Over activity of “stress centers” of brain  Activity in stress centers demand compensatory mechanisms in frontal cortex  Compensation expressed as behavioral or cognitive dysfunction o Borderline Personality disorder  Chronic instability in mood, identity, and impulse control  High risk of suicide and self-harm behaviors  Unstable, emotionally manipulative relationships  Often very treatment-resistant o Persona  Antisocial personality disorder  “Psychopathic personality”  Chronic personality stability on traits of guiltlessness, dishonesty, manipulativeness, and self centeredness  Often well-regulated when desired, and can present as charming and personable  Biology of antisocial behavior o Arousal stages: low, medium, high 4/18/16 4/20/16 Psych Notes 4/20/16 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Dissociative Disorders - Dissociation o Disruption in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception o At least one experienced during lifetime by over half of adults in US o Can be due to:  Blood disorders  Changes in air pressure or exposure to inhalants  Severe trauma o Must rule out neurological causes - Dissociative Identity Disorder o Condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct “identities” or personality states that recurrently express themselves in a person’s behavior o Condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct “identities” or personality states that recurrently express themselves in a person’s behavior  Previous theories childhood abuse as cause of disorder o Evidence for it  Difference in bodily reactions when “altered” from main personality  Respiration rate  Brain wave activity  Seeing ability  Skin Conductance  Handwriting 4/20/16 o Evidence Against it  No difference in implicit memory patterns when “altered” from main personality  Increase in number of diagnoses after popular media  Used to be diagnosed with questionable therapeutic techniques  Example: Hypnosis  Therapist belief might reinforce symptoms - Fugue o Disturbed state of consciousness in which the one affected seems to perform acts in full awareness but upon recovery can’t recollect the acts performed - Schizophrenia o Severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality o Psychotic symptoms  Psychological symptoms indicated by distortions of reality  Delusions  Strongly held, fixed belief with no basis in reality  Hallucinations  Sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus  Disorganized Speech o Three types:  Paranoid  Disorganized  Catatonic o Biology of Schizophrenia  Enlarged ventricles in brain  Excess of dopamine receptors 4/20/16  Diathesis-stress theory  Genetic vulnerability + environmental stress = development of disorder 4/22/16 Psych Notes 4/22/16 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Pediatric Disorders - Autism o Disorder marked by severe deficits in language, social bonding, and imagination o Often accompanied by intellectual deficits o Controversy over origin of autism  Vaccines  Parenting Practices o Biology of Autism  Mirror neurons  Activated both when doing a behavior and when observing a behavior - Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder o Condition marked by excessive inattention, impulsivity, and activity  Childhood = often overactivity and disruptive behavior  Adolescence = often impulsivity, social and academic problems, and delinquency o Biology of ADHD  Slower brain wave patterns  Often expected to be too fast  Causes difficulties witching attention from irrelevant stimuli  Decreased activity in frontal cortex  Issues with inhibiting impulses and reactions 4/22/16 - Behavior Disorders o Oppositional defiant disorder  Often younger children  Rule-breaking behavior o Conduct Disorder  Often older children/adolescents  ODD symptoms + aggression toward people and animals  Emotion dysregulation o Diagnostic Considerations:  “Normal” child behavior problems  Family patterns  Physiological problems - Psychosomatic Disorders o Conversion disorders more common in children than adults o Conversion Disorders  Can include:  Headaches  Stomachaches  Skin Rashes  Pseudoseizures


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