Psychology 110 Chapter 15
Psychology 110 Chapter 15 PSYC 110 - 008
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PSYC 110 - 008
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
4/18/16 Psych Notes 4/18/16 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Mood Disorders - Depression o Recurrent state of lingering depressed mood, diminished interest in pleasurable activities, and often somatic complaints (depressive episodes) o Chronic = Dysthymia o Intermittent = major depressive disorder o 20% of Americans will meet criteria for major depressive disorder at some time in their life o Biology of Depression Too much “Reuptake” of serotonin Dampens brain ability to “reward” for positive experiences Results in decreased likelihood of engaging in positive behaviors o Depression vs. “normal” sadness Adaptive role of sadness Obtaining necessary resources while in physical or psychological pain Recruits social relationships Produces drive in organism to behave differently in future situations Adaptive processes become overactive in depressive disorders Confirmation biases = reinforce negative thoughts about self and others Depressive behaviors contribute to negative outcomes 4/18/16 - Bipolar Disorder o Alterations between states of dramatically elevated mood and heightened energy (manic episode) and either normal functioning or depressive episodes o Highly genetically influenced - Suicide o Double the rate of homicide in the US correlated strongly with the presence of mood or personality disorders - Personality Disorders o Condition in which personality traits are inflexible, stable, and unadjusted across environmental or social situation o Appears in adolescence and continues into adulthood o Biology of Personality Disorders Issues with regulatory systems to promote survival Psychological dysfunction often stems from: Over activity of “stress centers” of brain Activity in stress centers demand compensatory mechanisms in frontal cortex Compensation expressed as behavioral or cognitive dysfunction o Borderline Personality disorder Chronic instability in mood, identity, and impulse control High risk of suicide and self-harm behaviors Unstable, emotionally manipulative relationships Often very treatment-resistant o Persona Antisocial personality disorder “Psychopathic personality” Chronic personality stability on traits of guiltlessness, dishonesty, manipulativeness, and self centeredness Often well-regulated when desired, and can present as charming and personable Biology of antisocial behavior o Arousal stages: low, medium, high 4/18/16 4/20/16 Psych Notes 4/20/16 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Dissociative Disorders - Dissociation o Disruption in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception o At least one experienced during lifetime by over half of adults in US o Can be due to: Blood disorders Changes in air pressure or exposure to inhalants Severe trauma o Must rule out neurological causes - Dissociative Identity Disorder o Condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct “identities” or personality states that recurrently express themselves in a person’s behavior o Condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct “identities” or personality states that recurrently express themselves in a person’s behavior Previous theories childhood abuse as cause of disorder o Evidence for it Difference in bodily reactions when “altered” from main personality Respiration rate Brain wave activity Seeing ability Skin Conductance Handwriting 4/20/16 o Evidence Against it No difference in implicit memory patterns when “altered” from main personality Increase in number of diagnoses after popular media Used to be diagnosed with questionable therapeutic techniques Example: Hypnosis Therapist belief might reinforce symptoms - Fugue o Disturbed state of consciousness in which the one affected seems to perform acts in full awareness but upon recovery can’t recollect the acts performed - Schizophrenia o Severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality o Psychotic symptoms Psychological symptoms indicated by distortions of reality Delusions Strongly held, fixed belief with no basis in reality Hallucinations Sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus Disorganized Speech o Three types: Paranoid Disorganized Catatonic o Biology of Schizophrenia Enlarged ventricles in brain Excess of dopamine receptors 4/20/16 Diathesis-stress theory Genetic vulnerability + environmental stress = development of disorder 4/22/16 Psych Notes 4/22/16 Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Pediatric Disorders - Autism o Disorder marked by severe deficits in language, social bonding, and imagination o Often accompanied by intellectual deficits o Controversy over origin of autism Vaccines Parenting Practices o Biology of Autism Mirror neurons Activated both when doing a behavior and when observing a behavior - Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder o Condition marked by excessive inattention, impulsivity, and activity Childhood = often overactivity and disruptive behavior Adolescence = often impulsivity, social and academic problems, and delinquency o Biology of ADHD Slower brain wave patterns Often expected to be too fast Causes difficulties witching attention from irrelevant stimuli Decreased activity in frontal cortex Issues with inhibiting impulses and reactions 4/22/16 - Behavior Disorders o Oppositional defiant disorder Often younger children Rule-breaking behavior o Conduct Disorder Often older children/adolescents ODD symptoms + aggression toward people and animals Emotion dysregulation o Diagnostic Considerations: “Normal” child behavior problems Family patterns Physiological problems - Psychosomatic Disorders o Conversion disorders more common in children than adults o Conversion Disorders Can include: Headaches Stomachaches Skin Rashes Pseudoseizures
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