Music as a World Phenomenon: Unit 4- Notes
Music as a World Phenomenon: Unit 4- Notes Mus 22121
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carla Notetaker on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus 22121 at Kent State University taught by Andrew Shahriari in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Music as a world phenomenon in Music at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Music as a World Phenomenon -1 Unit 5: Notes Unit 5: Covers Chapters 12 and 13. Notes Amazon- Amazon Indian Chant o Amazon is the second longest river in the world Nile in Egypt is first o One of the largest rainforests left on the planet A focal point of environmental and cultural awareness w/ regards to global warming and the displacement of indigenous populations. o Audio- “Eagle’s cry” followed by pulsating chant High pitch, pulsation in voice (slight volume amplification) articulates the basic rhythm often corresponding to dance movements o Unison signing is most common. o Kayapo- Xikrin Amazonians sing w/ a falling melodic contour. o Not in example- some instruments like bamboo stamping, tubes or small rattles are found to add rhythmic emphasis Sikuri- Peru o Machu Picchu- abandoned Inca archaeological site o Roman Catholicism is the prevalent religion in Peru o Music is accompanied by guitar and traditional instruments. o Audio- siku are panpipes (breathy timbre) o Musicians often tie two together to play an entire scale o Large bass drum (bombos) w/ an alpaca fare that keeps a steady beat o Smaller drum (cajas) used as well. Music as a World Phenomenon -2 Unit 5: Notes o Homophonic structure where melodic contour moves in parallel motion. Tango from Argentina o Buenos Aires was the first permanent settlement of the Spanish and eventually become a major seaport. o Local population encouraged to govern themselves after a citizen army overthrew the British which initially attacked in 1806. o Eva Peron “Evita” – model, film actress, radio star- wife of Juan Domingo Peron (who attained presidency in 1946 by appealing to the working class). She held much persuasion over her husband’s political agenda. o Audio- Can easily hear accordion playing the “mood” Created by fluctuations of tempo, phonic structure, key (major/minor) and dynamics. Musician keeps the mood off balance by frequently changing these musical aspects. Basic tango rhythm is 1 & _ & 3 _ in s four pulse, duple meter The syncopated rhythm adds to the off balance feeling Textbook example is a solo performance on the bandoneon (button- box accordion) o Tango was born at the seaports of Buenos Aires o People of the port- Portenos- where characterized as a speedy subculture by the influx of sailors who indulged in the bordellos and drinking taverns of the area. o Tango is both music and dance Includes sensual body contact and sultry (aggressive) movements Music as a World Phenomenon -3 Unit 5: Notes o Moody sounds correspond to passionate displays of the dance. o Astor Piazzolla (1921-1992) began composing tango compositions that still expressed the same passion, but primarily intended for listening Samba and Capoeira o Getulio Vargas- used samba music to create a strong sense of national identity. o Main singer w/ background support, drums and rattle (caxixi) o Rhythm from the berimbau- musical bow: rhythmic patterns are main focal for dancers during a performance. o Vocal organization is call and response and instruments follow polyrhythmic structure. o Capoeira utilizes foot for dance. Mariachi- Mexico o Festive “happy: music, uses a variety of guitars o Standard size guitar, vikuela (high range), guitarron (low range) accompanied by violins and trumpets. Marimba (type of xylophone) Voice- full w/ operatic vibrato and timbre, little to no improvisation o Melodic lines are clear, often catchy and typically in major keys o Jalisco is the birthplace of Mariachi Cape Breton Fiddling- Canada o Audio- sounds like Scottish fiddle, fiddle (European violin) carries the melody which is in limited range therefore pitches not commonly used. Infusion of harmony is common Ex. provides this in piano and guitar. Use of accents seems to make the music bounce along. Rhythm follows a steady compound meter. Lined Hymn Music as a World Phenomenon -4 Unit 5: Notes o Audio- sonic smudge refers to heterophonic structure o Lead voice (moderator) sings each line of the verse to a formulaic melodic phrase to prompt the congregation. Melody sung by congregation is stretched out to where the original melody & basic meter are largely unrecognizable. o No instruments heard song books contain only text. Shape Notes o Audio- reparative words sounds like many saying the same words over and over. o Unaccompanied vocal ensemble w/ steady beat and homophonic structure. Upper voices = nasal in timbre o Generally in four voices utilizing harmony o Melody in upper male voice called tenor and female harmony voices are in higher range. Bluegrass o Audio- high lonesome sound- upper voices that provides the harmony to the lower ranged main melodic voice “I hate to see that sunset…” o Prefer to used acoustic instruments, instrumental solo breaks o Urban “hillbilly” music, folk festivals o Bill Monroe and the Blue grass Boys is where the name genre is derived from. Spirituals (African- Americans) o Audio- Congregational church song, Lyrics are of hopeful texts – “come and go to that land” o Most follow meter, tempo is not generally rigid. Most often unaccompanied by instruments Music as a World Phenomenon -5 Unit 5: Notes o Heterophonic structure due to improvised ornament by some participates o Similar to Lined Hymn o Repetitive lyrics w/ short melody to be memorable Gospel (African- Americans) o Audio- “ Joyous” church choir, god is good lyrics w/ handclaps Celebrate good news o Tempo is upbeat & happy mood is intended o Lyrics and melody are typically simple and repetitive to include everyone in celebration Blues o Audio- “baby don’t you want to go”- lyrics w/ guitar o Emotion not musical complexity o Focus on hardships of present life o 12- bar blues is standard. Bars (measures) follow a regular harmonic progression o Blue notes that gall between the pitches of standard equal tempered tuning o Believed to derive from African tunings passed on orally among African descended populations in the US. Salsa “ Nuyorican” o Instruments inspired by jazz orchestras, emphasizing lower brass. Ex. has prominent flute solo. o Derived from Afro- Cuban sun (Ch. 11) o Use of reverse clave rhythm (2 & 3), easily discerned on a wood block at the beginning of Ec. As piano enters. Cajun Music as a World Phenomenon -6 Unit 5: Notes o Audio- unpleasant, bell ringing, accordion sound w/ singing o Derived from folk jigs and reeds associated w/ the French music tradition o Includes fiddle (main melodic instrument) & button box accordion, guitar, bass guitar- (electric); main percussion instrument is a metal triangle along w/ drum set. o Usually fairly short & simple, repeating often o Vocal soloist typically male though not necessarily. o Quick tempo w/ two- step rhythm- sounds busy Plains Chippewa Song o Audio- can hear beating of drum (heartbeat) and warbling voices o Warbling singing is due to slight variations in pitch and volume o Rhythm in voice is suggested by a pulsation amplifications at regular intervals. Drum rhythm is either a steady even pulse, or frequently a dotted- rhythm that imitates the heartbeat of Mother Earth- sound of drum = spiritual power o Unison singing is the norm, though polyrhythm is found in some tradition. Polyrhythm however is between voice & instrument rather than voices alone o Cascading melodic contour- descending shape Vocalist begin a phrase by emphasizing one or two notes in an upper range, then fall to middle range, and finally lower range. A strained vocal timbre is a desired, non-lexical (untranslatable) syllables is common. o Songs presumed to be understood in the spirit world. o Singing is taught to be understood in the spirit world. Music as a World Phenomenon -7 Unit 5: Notes o Singing is taught via oral tradition and many songs are believed to have originally been learned from spirits and then passed down through generations to today. o Regalia worn by a dancer is heavily laden w/ symbolism. Each item (feather/ beads) usually has some significance, often in relation to an ancestral spirit or totem. Native American flute o Audio- sounds of flute / wind o End- blow n flute like recorder giving airy timbre o More reverberation sounds like distance quality as if in canyon or echo on the wind o Clear melodic line, moderate to slow tempo o Interpretation of perform- fluctuate tempo.