Week 8 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Edelstein on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr Osborne in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views.
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Date Created: 03/04/15
Sociology 1001 Chapter 5 Notes Social Interaction a term sociologists use to refer to the ways in which people respond to one another whether facetoface or over the phone or on the computerinternet Social Structure the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships Herbert Blumer Sociologist 196979 said that the distinctive characteristic of social interaction among people is that quothuman beings interpret or de ne each other s actions instead of merely reacting to each other s actionsquot l in other words our response to someone s behavior is based on the meaning we attach to his or her actions Reality is shaped by our perceptions evaluations and de nitions Meanings usually re ect the norms and values of the dominant culture and our socialization experiences within that culture lAs interactionists emphasize the meanings that we attach to people s behavior are shaped by our interactions with them and the larger society The nature of social interaction and what constitutes reality varies across cultures Elements of Social Structure lAll social interactions occur in a social structure including interactions that rede ne social reality We can break down any social structure into six elements that make up social structure and are developed through a lifelong process of socialization Status any of the full range of socially de ne positions within a large group or society from the lowest to the highest 0 Ascribed Status assigned to a person by society without regard for a person s unique talents or characteristics l takes place at birth race gender and age 0 Achieved Status comes to us largely through our efforts our occupations are achieved statuses We must do something to acquire an achieved status 0 Master Status a status that dominates others and thereby determines a person s general position in society 0 Our society gives so much importance to gender and race that they tend to dominate our lives so our ascribed status tend to determined our achieved status Social Roles a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status ex We expect cab drivers to know how to get around a city Each distinctive social status whether ascribed or achieved comes with particular role expectations Role Con ict happens when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person lfulfillment of the roles associated with one status may directly violate the roles linked to a second status lalso occurs when people move into occupations that are not common among people of their ascribed status Role Strain a term used by sociologists to describe the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes con icting demands and expectations Role Exit developed by Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh 1998 to describe the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one s selfidentity lFour stages of role exit 1 Doubt the person experiences frustration burnout or unhappiness with an accustomed status and the roles associated with the social position 2 Search for Alternatives a person who is unhappy with his or her career may take leave of absence an unhappily married couple may begin what they see as a temporary separation 3 Action Stage or Departure a clear turning point that makes people feel it is essential to take nal action and leave theirjobs end their marriages or engage in another type of role exit 4 Creation of a New Identity participating in a role exit like going from high school to college l leaving behind the role of offspring living at home to the role of a somewhat independent college student living with peers in a dorm Groups any number of people with similar norms values and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis lgroups play a vital role in society s social structure because so many of our social interactions take place within groups and are in uenced by their norms and sanctions Primary groups a small group characterized by intimate face toface association and cooperation These groups play a pivotal role both in the socialization process and in the development of roles and statuses Secondary groups formal impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding l they often emerge in the workplace among those who share special understandings about their occupation lngroups any group or category to which people feel they belong comprises everyone who is regarded as we or quotusquot Outgroup a group or category to which people feel they do not belong Reference Groups any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior Two basic purposes they serve a normative function by setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief and may help the process of anticipatory socialization Coalition a temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal can be broad based or narrow and can take on many different objectives Social Networks a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others and through them indirectly to still more people they are one of the six basic elements of social structure and can center on virtually any activity
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