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by: Katarina Fielding

ASCI 141 WEEK 8 ASCI 141

Katarina Fielding
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals
Feng-Qi Zhao
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology, ASCI141, UVM, Animal physiology, animal anatomy, animal anatomy and physiology
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This 91 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katarina Fielding on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASCI 141 at University of Vermont taught by Feng-Qi Zhao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Vermont.

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Date Created: 04/24/16
The Muscular System . shorten or contract : refers to muscle generally, such as:h as: Muscular Tissue • M•MlyosiSeicoamaofmihecfmtusaemtofu Myo- Sarco- – – is made of cells that can • Musc •leTieomninofthe f:ur basic tissues of the body. It Types of Muscle Skeletal Muscle and urinary tracts Functions of Skeletal Musclein body temperature ) fibers cells or • Muscle tissue (skeletal muscle)arbling) Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fascicle MuFsber Epimysium Skmlualle EpiEndummysiumysium ) ). fascicle ) or a broad tendon aponeurosis incom partseofts (mnlsfiseiderceantd Three layeEpimysiummysiumtEndomysiummuscllayerndcem(e together to form a connective tissues • • The collagen fibers in three ) Skeletal Muscle Fibers (Cells) fuionsodermColctnsredis of • AreDverylonthroechme very large Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers T tubule Sarcolemma actionugh cell. musurorftenostneial(95tmrs)lrsolatliaieluiaomtuscle. – Plasma membrane or–fFormed by inwardmit • Sarcolemma: • Transverse tubules Myofibril Myofibrils : : actin myosin Thin lhickflaments cottonsshndsflfm–yoti:ria.rmrespenfiilecon • C•indrcamlstonefbtsr.f bu•lCaofactively shorten and Triad Tecinanae : calcium ER Sacroplasmic Reticulum (SR) from the sarcoplasm either +eaf tTbtl.ule. – expandedpahrofterminal cisternae • Sm oeohod•rk of •bules•andntinually pumpshcaieusior; Concept Check • Page 181, Figure 10.1 . : . . Myofibril besueetrsyioicolnietsfoowenCiom0roc0ilfbneit –Segment of m –Eoaihrl yofFril–visible patterns •Sarcomeres Sarcomeres : thin : contains no : entire length of poflomnentcicdrshifkileMents.diaetwentn. the – M line – H Z–oneone of overlap • A bandick filaments. Sarcomeres the ends o: the : : betaeefmamrantsnteadhheknfantesitstot • mark• nteroonn•arythid from the tips of – Z line – Titin •I bandflomtenesraphtre thiyk . G actin spirals along Thin :ilaments (4 Proteins) globuanbictitoaiehihafcamnent.raneeintetder. – is 2– Each G actin containsand of 1.F actin 2.Nebulin (4 Proteins) Thin filaments : : anmdporsnritertition.tis.omtoospoGnirtienooomtilnb.inds a – Cover– is a double-–stOn–eesubsect–didubtohirdsdbsunit has a 3. Tropomyos 4i. Troponin subunits myosin Thick Filamentsthat recoil after stretching titin • Contain twisted for cross-bridge binds to other myosin a shral,rachsdiciteoicforamien.sih noimanosin heads. – Myosin h–eaPdrasctarrutgedhitowzrdnheincludes a central •ail:o•ecuaes. The Myosin Molecule PLAY Summary Level 1: Skeletal Muscle Level 2: Muscle Fascicle Level 3: Muscle Fiber Level 4: Myofibril PLAY Level 5: Sarcomere Concept Check • PaPeaPe2,F1,Fi,10n1e.4t Map II PLAY PLAY Muscle Contraction • Is caused•bSytructures ofactions of thick satcwardrMsldesemseclsthetogether Contraction– thin ambetteene wdtZolfAs move theory: • Sliding filament : 2+ tension excitation– The Process of Ccontraction couplingnrfltcients – causes – which –rconrsuming ATP and sarcolemma r:lease Ca • Neural st•im uistirnaof of SR . synaptic neurotransmitter . The Neuromuscular Junction acis acholine (ACh) with wpihrccelitytachinerigger wifobmhnepumterminalieoAcs vesicles filled • A singleaxEancbr•ncheaseidstrt inal: ) : increase its : that bind ACh. motor end plate The Neuromutheopsuaftcetameilalfoml thefewtschhbieaptoaose(ACC – a narrow spa–eCsepainsigembrane contains • Synaptic cle•t: otor end plate action (suddenly changes Steps of Neural Stimulation poineptatntanaponctrmfetnoo,entiaaeetrsoodimlnrteeachrac • A neuron sends ansiiCgfACgeCntowtsrpeoftieriopuhse across in and . increase of calcium Excitation-ContrthcalmieoriayfroeRtaettfe triads.. – An acti–np00tfnial triggersion of contraction cycle •iaksamcosememhentelitohsoartof a :  bind to troponin  Exposure ofatttvemsint of cross-bridges: The Contraction Cycletering theites on thiPLAY • Step 1: • Step 2:cries-oniheisilidetoexposed PLAY :   the myosin ATdetachment of cross-n PivoDetchmReactivation of myosin The• St• Step 4: • Step 5:TP into ADP + P head . to calcium runs out of ATP AChE breaks down ACh Excitation-Contraction Couplingraction continuestvr (2) the •Relaxation: The Contraction Cycle PLAY in Skeletal Muscle Contraction A Summary of the Steps Involved Test Yourself • PaPeage3,Fi,Coe10e5t Map III is either : muscle depends on: a muscle fiber a whole T ension Production all–or–none principal contracted o(rolxedunits) – as a w–lt–etraqlenmcyorfftmusclonfibers stimulated • The • T ension of Page 4 twitch  Contraction of Whole Muscle  Iercave Physiology Frequency of Stimulationquciionaory repeated stimuli • A singl• Seusralistd mluticulproconc nerve Twitch levels fall, tension falls to 2+ imtilgetaceandooldresting levels.incurs. relaxasilnfsiequence in amsec):tsusconitadctinss.le: • A single stimulus-contractio Anll normal activities involve age 10 Contraction of Whole Muscle  IMescurve Physiology : 50/second immreldiatilnapcoritareasnigwtihsion The Frequency o–Repeated stim –uClatsens a series of •Treppe : before summation of relaxation 50/second The Frequency of Stimulationnsftnitrhes> – Repeated – Causes increasing •Wave summation : : to relax, and is in Stimulation tecoanrduhiematdieecxneigh,umulo.ltnet –A muscle produ–Ifstmeaation frequency is The Freque•Incomplete te •anomsplete Tetanus . Contraction of Motor Units motor unit Page 3 fibbysaesingnlehunmdrsdltoebeas e time • All the muscl• Contain• That contract athysiology Motor Units in a Skeletal Muscle Motor Units theimoyetprncilri;otmeisammsnliprtaiabehfetaila • The sm•alhetahgeThehmerscffbeosfioefsanoamuotio is produced by slowly Stimulated Incinrtmulgtsi.e or number of motor units a rotating summation): –During a sustained tetanic contraction, • Recruitmen t mAuytclermnousrunotor unit summation: The Number of Muscle Fibers ) KEY CONCEPT sustailenumebsniofibiructoedsofotor units • Volunta• Force is increased by increasing the Muscle T one musclpoatrontetitolctmneronused, even at rest • The • MusclIncnissictmelsmlaioaeof a Concept Check CD E • LaABl each r•gHar: heaeyimthisfunu  Energe• A single muscle fiber may contain 15 ATP + creatine (“recharge”) CP CP ADP +  muscle fiber ADP + P; major energy storage  ATP Sources of energy in a typicalreatine ADP + ATPP (crGtncoghen:phate): • • • of fatty acids in them A TP Generation aeroitchoerabicilycolysis – – • Cells produce ATP in 2 ways: . 2 pyruvic  require oxygen (glycolysis) not Glucose + 2 ATP tocytuvlasmcioiathell.tiesdrvrmplfiyl.omgen in Anaerobic Metabolismdown of glucosecose for glycolysis and 2 2 38 ATP Aerobic Metabolism requires mitochondria and O wabtrt, via pyruvic acid; a process that yields large amount of ATP • The co•mplete breakdown of organic substrates into CO : ATP by Muscle Activiy CP + glycogen  Energy Use andoxygeneravfor energy storage. In resting muscleidsh • Muscle Activity . : Energy Use and theATdoeprthlmiiibnftxygoelosTc;morteraledmis used – As the ateOxygeiTavindeiilraednptmarily •totf acmtviterate levels ; Muscle Activity can not 2/3 by  : alter functional generate ATPcharzymeestics of keyact Energy Use andOxbygcomeeabiabie;y:sccoasmrtantopactiiacii;ar pH At the peak levels ofTPyruvcerodilevels rise in • Heat Loss recapouhrsygnheolp)peihnumo.serilaaer • In the breakowkeolfglmcuscneorrtlase ~85% of the : : Muscle Fatigue acid;prolonged exertion nosoinuearcou.tacotdesusielmoaninueedunoctro • A ske •letal muscle •iber is fatigued when it can : The amount of oxygen required : The Recovery Period inglheoslobystrerm and is converted to retavatabneenadlwhten oxygen becomesrecyclingion muscle fibers • The ti•e req•ired after exertion for muscles to : the amount of time for which the : the maximum amount of tension Muscle Perfoproducindividual can perform a particular activity – Pow–eEnduran–cT–hPtypesalfonustlefbersrin • Considered •asD:etermined by: Muscle Fibers 3 Types of Skeletal 1. 2Fastliwefbreesdiate fibers , large glycogen reserves , (White fibers, Type IIb) Fast Fibers large diameter few mitochondria • C•ontav• Have strong contractions, fatigue quickly (red pigment, binds oxygen) Slow Fibers (Red fibers, Type I) myoglobin smalghioxygte,suorelmitochondria • Are• H•aContainract, slow to fatigue (Type IIa) Intermediate Fibers to fatigue • ArH•ad-liedmorecapillaries than fast fiber, slower The Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers of fiber types Pages 24-29  mixture dominated by fast fibers and metabolism : :ominated by slow fibers. : no sloMusclers in muscles of eye or hand; Interactive Physiology Muscle Performance and Distribution of Muscle Fibers Exmmaniback muscle are dominated by slow fibers. Whiappeadrspule.lesppear pink. • • • Most muscles contain a : : reteaiidg.ifcaete.inrretoslrionyclyytcernacr – An en–lrhemnunMuofreffbeeleedfbeipcmnereasctlo Muscle Hypertrophy and Atrophy atrophy • • . : stimulate muscle hypertrophy • ThThamamenwdorknuctsterform frequent, brief, intensive Physical Conditioning and Trainingning to improve anaerobic • fast by : ; fiirerprovlngtngrchavafoura. sunbstaletefsrdfmrubgeul.sairttony,inclu of muscle fibers: Physical– Determoirainpnimtarlypryvheaeavaiacbiiyu Aerobic endurance • Page 30  Muscle metabolism Summar & the Quiz page 1 Muscle Interactive Physiology cardiac muscle cells? What are the structural and and functional differences between Cardiac Muscle Tissue • F•oSndrnveylinahyhconrtol (high in intercalated discs 7 StructCardiocytes aerobic cisternaelobin, mitochondria) Characteristics of 1. a.rhamha5esih6lt,ridwushnbotesminal gap junctions . functional The entire muscle adjeistowand desmnectenenobsyncytiumwee cell, Intercalated Discs• Create• a direct electrical : Cardiac Tissue do not readily fatique – –concr–tioeonbyludtemurkerceusystnmns by cell membranes 4 Functional Chracteristics of 1. Auto 2m. VtcrtyElxtcndtractinntacniinn summation and throughout the body? What role does smoothtems muscles cause goose bumps arrector pili • regu•aeodblfdrmeovumencosfawctions – In –londr–prsddg:tveveiaegdlmrnutarssysttm other tissues in almost every organs. • Forms sheets, bundle, or sheaths around Smooth Muscle in Body Systems smooth muscle cells? What are the structural and and functional differences between Smooth Muscle Cells 8 Structural Characteristics of 1. 2.o3.,slaveengae,cspnrdlnucleusdroses transmit dense bodies Smooth Muscle Cells no T tubules, 8 Structuramyofifbisrorsarcameerhsdktfilaments from cell to 4. Have. Ha6e.Myateredberhoniiamments of Smooth Muscle Functional Characteristics 1. ExcC.aitoolofcmacscltinnupling : initiates calmodulin myosin light chain kinase contraction comeb fnmdsouihide the cell and 2+ 2+ triggersi–tacticontraction •Ca •a • Enzyme breaks down ATP, Excitation–Contraction Coupling : : Control of Co• conn•ct•ttytnotcedetlsnofartviyonsntrolled by pacesetter – multiuvitsm olotm oouhcleusele cells • Subdivisions: and Smooth Muscle Tissues A Comparison of Skeletal, Cardiac, The Muscular System be controlled voluntarily (~700). • Includes all the skeletal muscles that can


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