History Week 13 Notes
History Week 13 Notes HIST 1020
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
US Foreign Policy and the Cold War Nuremberg Trials (1945-1949) o Try to bury body parts of the Jewish people to add to their peace o Leaders were not brought to justice o The people on trial said that they didn’t have a choice Primo Levi (1919-1987) o Spandau Death by hanging or imprisonment o Mysteriously died (suicide, killed, etc.) o The poem at the beginning of the novel Clear insight into why he wrote the book Quote from Deuteronomy Remember these atrocities so not they are not repeated Tehran Conference (1943) o Attempting to rebuild global shattering o Big Three agree to open western front to relieve USSR Stalin (USSR), Roosevelt (US), Churchill (Great Britain) o USSR promises to join US in war against Japan after defeat of Germany o Everyone has own particular agenda o Multifront pressure on Hitler o Roosevelt leery about where Stalin’s head is Stalin mentions wants ultimate say over Eastern European countries Conflicting Visions of Postwar Europe o Emergence of the Cold War o Yalta (1945) Crimean Peninsula, Black Sea United Nations (April 1945) German Reparations = $20 billion Free Elections Issues Roosevelt in favor of capitalism and democracy in those regions Stalin sees as opportunity as buffer against Western powers o Potsdam (1945) Truman replaces Roosevelt Germany divided into 4 occupation zones Should France be given one = important player for securing stability France, England, USSR, US US ignores USSR request for $6 billion loan to USSR for economic recovery Message that they aren’t seeing eye to eye USSR hostile toward “Free elections” Want buffer zone of pro-soviet (communist) satellite countries Focus on Eastern wave of hostility o Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria o Fear from US perspective Domino Theory = if one country goes communist it will trickle down each country until all communist Choosing Sides: Truman Doctrine (1947) o Articulate global message that would reinforce where US stands during this era o Announces that every country has 1 choice US or Soviet way of life o 2 super powers, only one emerge supreme o Economics not mentioned (still very important) Marshall Plan (1947) o $13 billion European economic recovery plan But had ignored USSR request for recovering funds Financial payout if you choose wisely Insurance policy to be less enticed by Stalin’s way Huge insult to the Soviet and Stalin paints the picture that US is attempting to buy allies o US perspective Communism fed off of economic turmoil Policy directed against “Hunger, poverty, desperation, chaos” o Soviet Perspective Attempt to create bloc of states bound by obligations to the US Divided Germany o Further increase tension between Soviet Union and US o Berlin further divided into occupation zones Its located in USSR zone Tri-zone: West vs. East o French, English, and American zone start to combine o Bipolar world emerging rather than 4 players o Soviet union built Belin wall Want to contain tri-zone and exert their authority Soviet Blockade of Berlin (1948) o USSR attempt a power play Try to prevent their access to their zone Push back against blockade Berlin Airlift (1949) o Response to Soviet blockade (1948) o 13,000 tons of supplies flown daily to Berlin by American airplanes o Soviet blockade lifted May 1949 o Result: US + USSR begin to scramble to secure “spheres of influence” NATO (1949) vs. Warsaw Pact (1955) o West Vs. East o Democracy vs. Communism Construction of Berlin Wall (1961) o Built by soviets to contain the tri-zone o Soviet way associated = no freedom of movement/choice o Movement restricted across wall Not from East to West West better economically The Cold War and Polar Projection Maps o Projects from perspective of North Pole o Proximity of 2 powers Not much that separates them o Cold War War of words but constantly watching for military head (great fear) Fear that soviets have more than we do/insecurity Missile Gap Buy family fallout shelter Eastern European and Domino Effect o Fear becomes what if in Eastern European and specifically Latin America because it is too close to the US Platt Amendment (1901-1934) o Guantanamo Naval Base leased to US o Cuba may not enter into treaties with any other country than US o US has right to intervene in Cuba when deemed necessary Latin Las Vegas: Cuba in the 1950s o US and Cuba Corporate and political alliances General Fulgencio Batista US government a fan of him because US corporations are interested in investing (good for Cuban economy) o Tax exemptions Strong positive relationship Didn’t even need a passport to travel there Fidel Castro Ruz o Not a fan of Batista Felt he was selling out and threatening Cuba’s self- determination o Nationalist point of view o Batista shuts down the election and names himself President o Castro gathers young people for a revolution Gather then on the Eastern end of the Island Attack for weapons and radio (broadcast message to gains hearts of people) Eastern end is geographically distant from Batista in Havana Disaster Attack on Moncada Military Barracks (26 July 1953) o Only a few people survived o Castro arrested and placed on trial for treason History Will Absolve Me (1953-1955) o Castro stands before trail o Eventually imprisoned o Send pieces of history through women in letters that can be seen when ironed o Trying to gain mass support for his revolution The Revolution within the Revolution o Batista let Castro out of prison Failed to kill them because he doesn’t want them to be martyrs o Women helped secure Castro’s release Government didn’t target them Able to silently mobilize 26 of July Movement in Exile: Mexico and US o 1955 - 1956 o Go to Mexico to gather weapons and money o Che Guevara and Castro Gain strong relationship o Name movement after military failure Storming of the barracks Never forget lives lost in defense of cause complete revolution for those who died The Granma o Purchase rundown yacht o Make way back to Cuba Stage attack from East end of Island Mountain range that allowed safety Independence and Sovereignty o Unfulfilled dream of Jose Marti (1956-1958) o Rebel radio This is how US learns of Castro Noting alarming to US officials Portrayed as young republicans Revolution Triumphant (January 1959) o Image of them victorious over Batista government Not focused on the military Batista makes mistake to stop the rebels Attack civilian population who are supplying them with food and supplies These massacres cause US to withdraw military Batista goes into exile Internal support for rebels Message is still Nationalistic Hasta la Victoria Siempre: The Cuban Revolution Castro on American Television (February 1959) o Revolution becomes government Romanticizing and support for his cause New vision for future built Brief period Edward Murrow show to engage in informal discussion watched by families Attempt to create connection Don’t have to be worried about him yet Won’t cut beard until gain representative democracy Children’s’ costumes to be Cuban rebels (New Jersey) Shows that they are worthy of emulation Radical or Reformist Revolution? o Representative Democracy Core US value o Protection of domestic capital over foreign (US) investment May 1959 starts changing language Cuba for Cubans Take back what is ours / control Vast number of US corp. in Cuba danger o Agrarian Reform Law (1959) Huge moment / laws dealing with ownership / holding Expropriate 300,000 acres Seizure with compensation Targets US corp. and taking it back Castro new about corruption o Compensate them in 25 year bonds for company worth (even though not real worth) o Ridiculous tax records Nationalize Industry: Bacardi Rum Havana Club Texaco + Shell Oil CUPET ITT Cuban Telephone Co. Want to take over and claim for Cuba John F. Kennedy Elected US President o 20 January 1961 o Eisenhower government had plans to deal with Cuba Bay of Pigs (15 April 1961) o Plan to bring down Castro government Replace with government more friendly to US corporation interest Popular with people no invasion as first o Only 1,500 troops o Allen Dulles Director CIA o Cuban exile pilots (Brigade 2506) o CIA-trained in Nicaragua o Invasion troops land at Giron Beach (southern coast Cuba) Infiltrate to gain mass support Push way towards Havana o Killed 7 Cubans in process Speech at funeral (severs ties between 2 countries) First time Castro labels Cuban Revolution as Socialist Not going US way choosing Soviet way The Bay of Pigs Disaster (April 1961) o Castro knew it was going to happen = prepared Military failure o Battle lasts only 72 hours o 114 casualties o 1000 Cuban exiles captured Long negotiations to get back prisoners o Cost to US of release of prisoners + families 2 years of negotiations $53,000,000 In form of tractors and baby food instead of cash Redistribute to Cuban people (bolster support) because useful for Cubans Castro and Khrushschev (1962) o Formalize relationship with USSR Soviet Military Support to Cuba (summer 1962) o Part of Warsaw pact US will never pull a Bay of Pigs again o 40000 Soviet Troops o 40+ Aircraft/Tanks o 40+ Nuclear Missiles U2 Spy Plane Surveillance, Cuba (October 1962) o Long narrow tents scattered throughout jungle US Ambassador Adlai Stevenson at UN o Brought maps to show Whole expanse of island has been militarized by USSR Make point of proximity Concentric circles instead of arrows Everyone at risk Hemispheric threat DEFCON 2 to Negotiating Peace (October 1962) o Stands for Defense Readiness Condition o USSR agrees to pull missiles out of Cuba o US agrees never to attack Cuba o US (quietly) pulls missiles out of Turkey o Castro wasn’t consulted/not present Feels used Revolution or Reform? o Alliance for Progress = Marshall Plan for the Americas Promise not to invade Cuba = switch tactics Use money as a way to stop spread of communism Aid in countries who align with US Fear that revolution will get their first o Prevent domino effect in Americas o $500 million in aid to Latin America (over 10 years) o Target areas: Health Housing Sanitation Illiteracy Levels Stimulate private investment Vietnam War (1964-1973) o Money for Alliance for Progress shifted to new progress Revolution and Reform (1959-1975) o They don’t need help (Cuba for Cubans) o Agrarian Reform Law (1959) Expropriate 300,000 acres (sugar, United Fruit) Nationalize Industry: Bacardi Rum Havana Club Texaco + Shell Oil CUPET ITT Cuban Telephone Co. o National Literacy Campaign (1961) Model in other Latin American countries and Africa Teach 20 people to read and write; then those 20 teach others and it keeps going in a cycle Reduces illiteracy rate 25% 3.9% (1962) o Family Code (1975) Want to reshape Cuban family Day care centers for working mothers Men + women share household duties Became law Failure to share duties=grounds for divorce Exporting the Cuban Revolution: Che in Bolivia o Become domino pushers o Profit for revolution o Sit with map of Latin America Begins in Bolivia They are stuck in colonial Spanish past Feels they have things that can and should be changed Says he has brought them their revolution o Faulty thinking executed and broadcasted widely o Became an abstracted rebel If he had chosen different country like Nicaragua it could have been better = Sandinistas
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