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Biol 304- Stimulating Beverages

by: Alexandra Casey

Biol 304- Stimulating Beverages BIO 304

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Biology > BIO 304 > Biol 304 Stimulating Beverages
Alexandra Casey
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes cover all the notes about Coffee, Chocolate, and Tea.
Economic Botany
Garrie Landry
Class Notes
BIOL, UL, Lafayette, university of louisiana at lafayette
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Casey on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 304 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Garrie Landry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Economic Botany in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 04/24/16
Key Box: th April 12 ***: Know for test besides definitions Stimulating beverages ***: Definition  All naturally have caffeine (actual stimulate) ** **: Word origin/ o Coffee o Tea scientific name o Chocolate *** : Titles A. Caffeine mimics own body’s production of adrenaline within 5 minutes of drinking coffee: 1. Caffeine enters blood stream 2. Increase in heart rate 3. Increase in stomach acid 4. And then the whole body is effected B. Caffeine is addictive and has withdrawal symptoms Coffea arabica  genus for coffee  Comes from Ethiopia, Africa – but it thrives in South America (where most of our coffee today come from) o Mostly grown in the tropics A. Woody tropical plant- occurs naturally under the shade of other trees (this is called: Understory) a. They thrive in warm; NOT hot- rather mild temperature and high elevation B. Self-compatible (can produce more by itself) a. Even if one seed got in hands of competitors, they could produce same coffee plant C. First coffee brewed in 500 in Arabia; before this the plant’s leaves were chewed in order to receive the caffeine a. 1600s Europe was introduced to coffee  within a matter of decades coffee houses boomed and became places of religious and political debates b. Arabians (first place of brewed coffee) dipped seeds into hot water to sterilize the seed before roasting the seeds to stop competitors from making the same coffee i. East Indies broke the Arab coffee monopoly – they smuggled coffee seed out of Arabia D. 1 coffee plant was brought to the Americas from Paris, France to the Caribbean island of Martinique (1723)  brought a single plant – within a matter of years, a decade or so, there then were thousands of coffee plants a. From Martinique coffee spread from the Caribbean to South America i. Reached Brazil  now the place of the highest world production  Think about how much coffee we consume: o Every single coffee bean is picked by hand, NOT mechanically E. Because fruit ripens at different times, they have to be harvested by hand: Dark green fruit= unripen; Red= Ripe fruit/seeds=beans a. Once collected/harvested  let it sit for 24 hours, during this time a chemical reaction occurs –fermentation b. Afterward, place it in the sun to dry for one week – this reduces the sugar in the seeds c. Then the dried seeds are shipped to various coffee brewers d. Roasting varies from house/brewers. The roasting process is everything to the flavor of coffee i. Light Roast ---- 400F ii. Dark Roast ---- 425F 1. Not a large temperature change, but this slight difference greatly determines the flavor 2. Despite the type of roast, each flavor has the same amount of caffeine iii. Premium brands’ method of roasting: Once right temperature is reached, they cut off the heat and splash/spray the seeds with cold water = this is called uniform roasting and ensures that the seeds all stop from further heating F. Decaffeinating coffee a. A German chemist discovered three different methods: i. Water  soak the seeds in water ii. Steam  steam the seeds iii. Solvent  soak seeds in methyl chloride b. Caffeine is extracted from unroasted seeds – the most common form of decaffeinating coffee is by solvent  roasting removes any trace of the solvent c. 1 ton pounds of coffee = 44 pounds of caffeine i. A new industry emerged from this—the selling of caffeine ii. Most decaffeinating is done to extract caffeine for other purposes – medicine, coke, etc. d. When coffee was scarce, chicory root was added to extend the amount of coffee. Today, people still like that taste and put chicory in their coffee Theobroma Cacao = genus for Chocolate A. Comes from a tree native to the Andes in South America B. It was a major beverage in Aztec to give to the gods, the people didn’t drink it because it was considered scared a. Original beverage included roasted, ground up chocolate seeds with red pepper, corn meal, and other spices C. Christopher Columbus is responsible for bringing chocolate to Europe a. Europeans changed the way chocolate was consumed by adding sugar and vanilla b. Quickly boomed into other forms (other than drinks) and brought it elsewhere in the world D. Spain at one time held a monopoly on chocolate sales on the island of Trinidad and Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) a. This monopoly was short lived: The Dutch broke it by bringing the it to Africa and South East Asia b. African continent is one of the world’s largest producers of chocolate c. The plants did exceptionally well in places far from its native origin/home – this is due to the original predators at home are not in other locations E. It is a small tree that grows naturally under other trees in the shade a. It does something that tropical trees do that temperate trees do not do: i. Fruit of temperate plants produce on new growth branches ii. Fruit on tropical plants grow on trunk b. Chocolate pods with seeds inside ripen at different times (when ripe - the go from green to red). So, chocolate must be individually harvested/collected by hand when the pod is ripe c. Fruit: hard and if shaken, you can hear the seeds inside i. Crack fruit open – flat, round seed with fleshy covering (this covering/pulp taste kind of like a pineapple) F. After collecting pods and seeds: a. Allow the seed to ferment for 1 week – a chemical change occurs in seed bringing about the familiar chocolate flavors b. Then seeds are sun dried c. Afterward, seeds are polished = tumbling to remove fleshy covering d. Ship unroasted, yet dried and polished seeds to companies e. Companies than roast seeds. The roasting process brings about the final chocolate flavor G. Vendors in Mexico sell chocolate dried seeds, people take them home, grind the seeds, and make Mole’ H. Roasted seeds: a. If you smell them, they smell like what we would expect b. If you tasted the roasted seeds, you’d be surprised  they are bitter and filled with fats and oils c. Thus came Dutch chocolate: i. The Dutch invented pressure treating  outcome: 30% less fat and oil ii. 90% of chocolate in the market are/have been Dutched 1. The fat and oil removed in the treatment is used and not disposed of a. Valuable  the fats and oil= Coco butter b. Reduces scar tissue appearance c. Big in the cosmetic industry Camelia – popular shrub, blooms in the fall and winter time. Is an evergreen from South East Asia.  One species in particular gives us tea: Camelia Sinensis A. Consumed by more people than coffee : Every society drinks coffee, but popularity of tea came from the fact it was cheaper than coffee a. Ex: the British became accustomed to tea due to its cheapness B. Written records show that is was not only a good drink, but also plays a role in religious practices in the Far East C. Brits and others got most of their tea from China D. Tea plantations keep the plants small so that the people (tiny/short people) can reach around the entire bush a. The leaves are handpicked: i. Tea leaves that are suitable/good for making tea ripen at different times 1. The tender/youngest leaves at the tip of the stem are suitable because they have the highest caffeine content E. Both green tea and black tea come from the same plant a. Green tea: collect leaves, shredded and heat treatment to prevent any fermentation that would occur, then sold as is b. Black tea: collect leaves, allow leaves to wilt, roll and crush it, then a slow fermentation (don’t do anything for 24hours) i. The length of the fermentation process depicts the quality of tea F. 1904, World’s fair in St. Louis, MO a. The Brits tried to give out samples of their teas, but they found it too hot outside to sell hot tea… They then added ice to the tea. This was the invention of iced tea. G. Tea bag – began with a New York importer/ seller trying to give out samples. That too became popular H. The only country in the Americas that has any substantial tea commercial enterprise/producer is Argentina


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