SPAU 3305: WEEK of 4-18
SPAU 3305: WEEK of 4-18 spau 3305
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to spau 3305 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by E. Touchstone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
MOTIVATIONAL ISSUES To Teach Effectively Teachers need: o Knowledge of normative age trends o Factors that promote growth in skills Factors associated with learning outcomes: Family variables: o SES, parent education, parenting style, parent involvement Student characteristics: o Motivation, intelligence (are they teachable?) School variables: o Curriculum, instructional practices o The Teacher! (can’t underestimate the value of a good teacher) Success increases based on 2 conditions: o Exposure Condition (if children are readily available to reading material, chance of success increases); number of books in home study o Propensity Condition (how likely are you to take advantage of exposure) Motivation Ability (can increase or decrease motivation); i.e., swimming: Scandinavian adults less likely to know how to swim Motivation: Motivation: explains intention, direction and intensity of an individual’s behavior Engagement: being an active, attentive, curious and willing participant in the learning process Extrinsic Motivation (search for reward); important when little Intrinsic Motivation (Long Term Goal); far more effective GOALS o Nature of the goals: why people do what they do… o Types of goals: Learning (get something out of the process) vs. Performance (did I win) Proximal (short-term) vs. Distal (longer-term) Academic vs. Social ((go together – depends on the kid)) Process (interested in strategies) vs. Product (interested in the result) o Effects of goals: Depends on your approach – type of goal KNOWLEDGE o Know what you want and know how to get it. Re-think goals. o Intelligence is the ability to: Solve problems Learn from experiences Adapt (most of the time kids are better than adults at this) METACOGNITIVE PROCESSES o Monitoring of progress (keep it all in fact – so kids see the value of their action(s) not the value of their product(s) o Appraisal of actions: (evaluate the actions you have performed) Personal standards (what do you think is good enough?) Control beliefs (mindset kicks in; do you believe you have control over the outcome) Self-efficacy (belief that you can succeed; most kids have a high one) Ability beliefs (incongruence between self-efficacy & ability beliefs); some disconnect between what you think you can do; how self-aware you are Interests o Appraisal of outcomes: Expectations (how well do you manage your expectations) Causal attributions (requires you to think about yourself and admit your faults); intentionally looking backwards to figure out what you did wrong/right to change your behaviors in the future Values (do your outcomes match what’s important to you) Emotions (how do these outcomes make you feel emotionally) Facilitating Motivation Ames (1992) Focus on effort & learning Intrinsic over extrinsic Attribute success to effort and effort-based strategies Employ effective learning strategies Engage with students Demonstrate positive affect on high-effort tasks Demonstrate feelings of belongingness Develop appropriate levels of failure tolerance SOCIOCULTURAL ISSUES Gender Differences - What are you perceptions on gender differences? » Preschool: o Boys and girls have similar levels of vocabulary (McCarthur CDI) o Girls have more complex sentence constructions o Syntactic advantages did not translate into reading comprehension superiority - Time spent reading to children (all data by parents’ report); parents spend more time reading to little girls - Teacher attitudes? » Elementary: o Verbal fluency (boys) orthographic fluency (girls) compositional fluency (girls) » Adolescence: o Writing quality and quantity (girls); become wordier writers Reason for Gender Differences: o Genetics/biology? o Educator attitudes? o Motivation? SES: (*The #1 risk factor for low SES – single mother with kids) o Per research – SES is a “powerful determinant” for: » Spoken language » Reading » Writing Motivational Issues: o Exposure condition (less opportunity for exposure) o Propensity condition Motivation Ability Ethnicity: o Differences are present BUT… o Please, beware of ethnic gloss when you infer that all members of an ethnic group share similar experiences, culturally or otherwise Dyslexia (doesn’t discriminate) - Equally affects girls and boys - Equal distribution among ethnicities - What about the SES determinant vs. dyslexia? » The exposure condition has limited reading ability; tells you it’s flexible
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