3/3 Lecture and Chapter 8 Reading Notes
3/3 Lecture and Chapter 8 Reading Notes SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chloe Lall on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1300 - DORSEY at University of Houston taught by Patricia Dorsey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see SOC 1300 in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/04/15
33 Lecture Notes What draws people to cities 0 Urban population density 1000 people per sqmile surrounding area 500 per sqmile 0 Rural everything else Urbanization Census Growth in proportion of population living in cities and urban areas Soc perspective how cities and communities form change How dimensions of place affect interactions 0 Kingsley Davis Process of urbanization follows quot8 curvequot driven by a timing of industrialization EX great migration of African Americans from rural south to industrial cities of north 0 New urban forms Conurbs side by side continuous areas DallasFort Worth Megacities pop of 10 mil Mexico City Megaregion Northeast corridor of US 0 Suburban changes Before 20th century gt low population density bedroom communities annexation White flight Moved to northeast Midwest and later in West Redlining defining who can live where covenant laws EX Levittown Urban sprawl developing of new areas Edge Cities actual places where there is business shopping entertainment Neighborhoods and urban change 0 The Chicago school Different segments of population sort themselves into area of city in which they thrive 0 Park and Burgess Concentric Zones Map of Chicago As indiv Assimilate and move upward they move outward to residential zones City as Growth Machine 0 Urban change is a direct result of political and economic interests working to promote growth O 0 To grow the local govs regulate use and distribution of land within city through taxes policing and regulation Houston TIRZ Tax Increment Reinvestment Zone People of wealth start interacting with local govs and request from the state to have a special taxing area to redevelop that land lnteractionism O Simmel quotThe strangerquot Studied what city and urban life was all about City dwellers found both freedom and isolation Wirth City is quotlarge dense permanent settlement of heterogeneous indivquot Occupants interact in largely anonymous superficial and transitory ways gt liberating Gans Argued differences due to demographic and economic differences between groups Background and status in life Jacobs Physical layout of neighborhoods influences quality of life New urbanism supports return to mixeduse walkable urban communities Chapter 8 Reading Notes What draws people to cities 0 Urban areas areas with a population density of at least 1000 people per square mile plus all the surrounding areas that have an overall density of at least 500 people per square mile Everything else is a rural area Urbanization growth in the proportion of the population living in cities and urban areas Sociologists look at how other dimensions of places affect the way that people interact with each other how they form friendship ties and communities Where and how they work and produce goods How they generate culture and subcultures Kingsley Davis The process of urbanization follows an quotsquot curve whose shape is driven by the timing of industrialization Before widespread industry the pace of urbanization was slow and gradual gt this is the long tail at the bottom of the S After industrialization cities grew rapidly gt this is steep upward slow of the S After cities reach carrying capacity migration into the city slows gt this is flat top of the S Cities first arose over 5000 years ago Mostly trading centers and capitals for empires Not built for growth That meant most people were living in the rural areas Britain was first nation to industrialize Great Migration the migration of African Americans from the rural south to the industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest US The individuals and families that migrated out of the south were driven by declining agricultural opportunities African Americans did have new opportunities for economic mobility outside of the South they flourished in cities through the Midwest and Northeast Racial segregation became a problem in cities throughout the country Conurbs continuous urban regions extending across city and suburban political boundaries EX SeattleTacoma DallasFort Work Megacities cities with populations of over 10 milion people EX Mexico City Lagos Nigeria Tokyo These forms are in a larger megaregion where two or more large cities in geographical proximity are linked together through infrastructure and through economic activity EX Areas in Northeast corridor gt Boston through NYC to Philadelphia and Baltimore to Washington DC Over 20 of the human population is concentrated in 40 mega regions across the world Largest developing in India and China Suburbs areas within metropolitan regions but outside the political boundaries of central cities Before 20th century suburbs were not densely populated Specialized in trade and agriculture Were later called quotbedroom communitiesquot where workers lived but did not work there started to form around these urban areas These suburban areas become annexed by the urban areas and most of the suburban area is incorporated into the city Gov change with the inclusion building of highways along with ownership of cars and homes Played a role in supporting home ownership by guaranteeing or providing mortgages directly White flight refers to the movement of white families out of central cities and into the suburbs Driven by the changing demographics of cities who experience an influx of African Americans or other racial and ethnic minorities o Redlining emerged from the system used to determine areas ineligible for loans 0 Suburban sprawl the boundaries of suburbs have stretched further and further away from central cities Edge city selfcontained worlds typically located at the junctions of major freeways and featuring businesses and social and cultural spaces condensed in a small geographical area EX Valencia California gt 30 miles north of downtown LA Mostly people come and go o Latinos and Asians have been the fastest growing ethnic groups in rural America How Do Neighborhoods Form and Change 0 quotChicago Schoolquot One of the central ideas is that the form of cities can be understood as the result of a process in which different segments of the population sort themselves into the areas of the city which is urban ecology Laid out mostly in the work of Robert Park and Ernest Burgess Burgess created the quotloopquot AKA Central business district Was seen as the eye of metropolis where businesses highend shopping and high culture museums and symphonies were located Surrounding was the quotfactory zonequot which featured low quality housing for new immigrants and the poor The model was criticized because it was too rigid Did not account for variation in the spatial structure of cities outside of the Northeast and Midwest ldea that organisms adjust to their surroundings and find the best fit within their environment 0 Growth machine where investors and governments work to increase the size of the city39s population and the level of economic activity occurring within it Growth provides Retailers with more businesses Newspaper editors wither wider readerships Larger applicant pools for universities Provides gov with Larger tax base Greater ability to request funding from state and federal governments Local govs regulate use and distribution of land within the city through establishment of taxation rates Through policing and protection of private property Through city39s responses to demands Regulation of utilities and transportation Policy decisions are influenced by tight group of elites EX best represented in LA 0 Urban change can be thought of as a direct result of political and economic interests working to promote growth 0 Mike Davis Documented the way that quotgrowth coalitionsquot sought to keep poor African American and Latino populations from spreading into spaces Labeled LA metropolis a quotfortress of exclusionquot The city removed homeless shelters and mental health facilities for the wealthy property owners to be able to develop new real estate City even put it new park benches and but stops that were designed to be physically uncomfortable in order to prevent homeless people from loitering Does Living in Cities Influence Who We Are Who Our Friends Are and How We Live 0 Eric Klinenburg Documented growth in the number of Americans living alone Many have great satisfaction with their living situation and remain close with family and friends 0 Social isolation lack of interpersonal connections and a decline in civic life 0 Louis Wirth quot a large dense and permanent settlement of heterogeneous individuals These are the essential characteristics of cities gt they alter the lives of individuals and the nature of social interactions within them Diversity in cities does not necessarily lead to interaction among different groups living in close proximity ldeas relate to Georg Simmel He noted that the large scale migration to cities that occurred all over Europe during the 19th century had a shift in the environment surrounding A substantial portion of the population has consequences on the ways individuals act and interact Also argued that the barrage of stimuli found in the urban setting and the impersonal character of economic interactions lead individuals to live life with a blase attitude which provides a shield against the chaos of the city The city allows individuals to have freedom to express themselves in new ways and to escape conformity found in the small towns Individuals find freedom and isolation in city 0 Herbert Gans Studied community life in a diverse array of urban and suburban settings also found isolation and alienation but also found strong ties between neighbors and active community life The differences between the type of life in nonurban and urban areas are Age Race Occupation Income of individuals We should focus on demographic and economic differences between groups in different places as opposed to the ecological factors like size density and heterogeneity 0 Claude Fischer Cities encourage unconventional behavior The size and density of urban spaces lead individuals into subcultures with similar interests or occupations Cities have higher rates of artistic innovation High rates in crime More extreme lifestyles 0 Jane Jacobs Argued that vibrant neighborhoods that use public spaces can foster social connections interactions and public safety Fought to save her neighborhood gt New York39s Greenwich Village O O Neighborhoods physical layout has a lot to do with the quality of life in them Her ideas are seen in the school of urban design gt quotNew urbanismquot They call for a return to mixeduse walkable urban communities as a response to the growing suburban sprawl Community the degree to which individuals connect with support and interact with each other Barry Wellman Classic conceptions of community that focused entirely on the space surrounding an individual Social ties individuals within cities or various types of connections that individuals make with other people no matter what the setting IS Thinking strictly about geography and layouts of neighborhoods limited urban sociology39s focus gt made it unable to fully capture how a community works When sociologists see a lack of community cohesion it was because they didn39t see the wider networks in which the individuals are in cohesion Community was liberated gt individuals in cities do not lack strong intimate ties In cities people rely on different sets of family friends neighbors and colleagues for different reasons Form social networks the study of the ties that link people and groups together Online networks may expand and enhance our offline networks by strengthening social ties that provide support and creating new ties that provide access to new info and potentially useful contacts Enhances social capital resources available to individuals through their relationships and networks Most useful ties are ones that connect people to new networks of individuals Mark Granovetter quotThe Strength of Weak Tiesquot Found that professionals he interviewed did not hear about their job through contacts that they saw or interacted with equen y Got word of their potential employment from contacts who they rarely saw The weak ties were useful because they had access to unique info and contacts which opened up new opportunities for jobs for the seeker Communities who have a high level of cohesion and trust are more able to organize as a community and enforce common norms of behavior O Due to this there is lower levels of crime and violence even if the community is poor The city is home to some of society39s social problems such as Crime Violence Severe poverty Why Are So Many Social Problems Found in Cities 0 Urban renewal destruction of poor and workingclass neighborhoods in cities and the replacement of these communities with carefully planned areas featuring new commercial space transportation infrastructure and highrise apartments Used in many cities to consolidate growing populations of African Americans Chicago built highrise public housing projects that were constructed to house the growing black population Was then later isolate from the white sections of the city Later known as the Urban ghetto refers to sections of cities that are characterized by sever racial or ethnic segregation and deep poverty New urban poverty can be distinguished by new features Growing concentration of the urban poor within a small number of extremely highpoverty neighborhoods Persistence of sever racial segregation despite fair housing laws William Julius Wilson His theory began by documenting how manufacturing jobs began to disappear from cities in the Northeast and Midwest Left minority populations without stable working class jobs that drew them northward in the Great Migration concentration of poverty associated with high levels of violence homelessness joblessness and welfare receipt in the urban ghetto Segregation degree to which individuals from different racial and ethnic groups living within the same communities 1968 Fair Housing Act Made discrimination in the public and private housing markets illegal Global neighborhoods neighborhoods that contain members of several different racial and ethnic groups May chip away traditional boundaries separating whites and blacks Segmented assimilation immigrants follow one of many possible pathways of assimilation One path is traditional trajectory of upward mobility and cultural assimilation into the mainstream Another path involves downward economic mobility and assimilation into the urban poor Another path is to integrate into the economic mainstream while sustaining ties to culture in the origin community while remaining within residential enclaves How Will Cities Change in an Increasingly Connected World 0 Humans cross national boundaries to live and work in greater numbers than before About 43 million immigrants are now estimated to live in the US Remittances money sent from migrant workers to family and friends at home flows from the US every year Immigrants are beginning to locate directly in suburban areas However major cities in America continue to be primary points of entry for a majority of the immigrants Global city urban center where the headquarters of transnational firms that create and control the international flow of info and commerce are located They are hubs of international finance and technology Some quotglobalizingquot cities now are Sao Paulo Brazil Jakarta Indonesia Moscow Russia
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