Psych 102 Lecture Notes for Week of 3/1/2015
Psych 102 Lecture Notes for Week of 3/1/2015 PSY-P 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Kahn on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 102 at Indiana University taught by Jim Cuellar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/05/15
Lecture Notes for Week of 31 2015 Social Psychology Understanding Prejudice 0 negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group 0 important points 0 racial and ethnic groups are far more alike than are different 0 any difference that may exist between members of different racial and ethnic groups are far smaller than differences among various members of the same group 0 Social Identity Theory Tajfel 1979 0 states that hone you re assigned to a group you automatically think of that group as ingorup for you Social Categorization we categorize people in order to understand them and to predict their behavior We then define behavior appropriate to the group based on norms we believe define a groups attitudes and behavior Social Identification we adopt the identify of the group which we belong and then follow the norms of that gouger the more emotionally bound we are to the group the more your self esteem is tied to group membership Social Comparison once we identify our group membership we then begin comparing our group to theories in order to maintain self esteem we need to compare favorably 0 other groups sometimes by reducing the status of other groups when compared to our group 0 From Stereotypes to Prejudice o in groups and out gorups social categories can be defined by relatively objective characteristics age language religion notational origin and ethnic group etc stereotypes typically include unites that are unrelated to the objective criteria the tendency to stereotype is a natural cognitive process to simplify social information o Stereotypes can cause problems can blind us to the courses of events stereotype threat once formed stereotypes are hard to shake stereotypic beliefs become expectations that are applied to all members of a given group can be both misleading and damaging creating expectations allow people to maintain stereotypes in the face of contradictory evidence The Out Group Homogeneity Effect 0 social categories ln group bias tendency to make favorable attributions to members of your in group ethnocentrism is one type of in group bias Merica is the best Out Group homogeneity effect tendency to see members of the out group as all alike The Extreme Emotion of Prejudice o prejudice and intergroup hostility increase when different groups are competing for scare resources 0 prejudice and intergroup hostility are also likely to increase during the times of social change 0 people are often prejudiced against groups that are perceived as threatening important in group norms and values example homophobia religious prejudice 0 Class Room Experiment with color of eyes Stereotype Threat o ironically can course a person to behave in ways that confirm the stereotype This is a particularly true if one feels that they are being judged by others such as in a testing situation Overcoming Prejudice How to o The Robbers Cave Experimentt Sheriff conducted with 11 to 12 year old boys at camp boys were divided into two groups and kept separate from one another researchers arranged fro the groups to meet in a series of competitive games fierce rivalry quickly developed demonstrated the ease with which mutually hostile groups could be created nasty incidents occurred each group took characteristics of distinct social groups with leaders rules norms of behavior and nicknames simple increased contact did not reduce hostility harmony between the groups was established by having two groups cooperate to achieve a common goal but might have not worked if the two artificial groups were not homogeneous all were white and middle class o The Jigsaw Classroom promoting cooperation adapted Robber s Cave techniques to a newly integrated schools Aronson 1992 brought together students in small ethnically diverse groups to work on a mutual project each student had a unique contribution to make toward the success of the gourd interdependence and cooperation replaced competition called the Jigsaw classroom technique Results children in the jigsaw classrooms had higher self esteem and a greater liking for children in other ethnic groups than those in traditional classrooms less negative stereotypes and prejudice and a reduction in intergroup hostility cooperation changes our tendency to categorize the out group from 39those people39 to 39we people39quot 0 Aggression o FrustrationAggression Principle frustration the blocking of some goal generates aggression can be a response to an unpleased state aversive stimuli such as pain heat insults and bad smells can evoke hostility and aggression Social Influences on Behavior 0 Conformity 0 Definition adjusting your opinions judgment or behavior so that it matches that of other people or the norms of a social group or situation 0 social influences the psychological study of how our behavior is influence by the social environment and other people 0 Asch s Experiment all bu one in a group was confederate seating was rigged asked to rate which line matched a standard line confederates were instructed to pick the wrong line 12of the 18 times Results Asch found that 76 participants conformed to at least one wrong choice subjects gave wrong answer conformed 37 of the critical trials remember that on about twothirds of trials participants stuck to their guns 0 Why did they conform to clearly wrong choices informational influence subjects reported having doubted their won perceptual abilities which lead to their conformity 0 Factors Influencing Conformity Three basic reasons hedonic motive person rewards food sex and attention normative social influence the desire to be accepted as part of a group leads that group having an influence informational social influence other people can provide useful and crucial information Asch identified several reasons that promote conformity facing an unanimous group giving your response in front of a group doubting your abilities or knowledge factors wich decrease conformity having an ally any dissent lessens conformity even if some dissent is incorrect 0 Culture and Conformity conformity is higher in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures individualistic cultures individualistic cultures tend to emphasize independence conformity tends to carry a negative connotation Collectivistic cultures 0 Obedience 0 Definition the performance of a behavior in response to a direct command typically an authority figure or a person of higher status such as a teacher or supervisor gives the command 0 Stanley Milligram he was curious about the holocaust and the nazi s obedience to Hitler and how they could obey orders even though they went against their moral code 0 Milgram s Original Obedience Experiment Procedure Volunteers were recruited for a lab experiment investigating learning re ethics deception Participants were 40 males aged between 20 and 50 whose jobs ranged from unskilled to professional from the New Haven area They were paid 450 for just turning up At the beginning of the experiment they were introduced to another participant who was actually a confederate of the experimenter Milgram They drew straws to determine their roles learner or teacher although this was fixed and the confederate was always the learner There was also an experimenter dressed in a grey lab coat played by an actor not Milgram Two rooms in the Yale Interaction Laboratory were used one for the learner with an electric chair and another for the teacher and experimenter with an electric shock generator The learner Mr Wallace was strapped to a chair with electrodes After he has learned a list of word pairs given him to learn the quotteacherquot tests him by naming a word and asking the learner to recall its partnerpair from a list of four possible choices o bystander effect 0 deindividuation The teacher is told to administer an electric shock every time the learner makes a mistake increasing the level of shock each time There were 30 switches on the shock generator marked from 15 volts slight shock to 450 danger severe shock The learner gave mainly wrong answers on purpose and for each of these the teacher gave him an electric shock When the teacher refused to administer a shock the experimenter was to give a series of orders prods to ensure they continued There were 4 prods and if one was not obeyed then the experimenter Mr Williams read out the next prod and so on Prod 1 please continue Prod 2 the experiment requires you to continue Prod 3 It is absolutely essential that you continue Prod 4 you have no other choice but to continue Results 65 twothirds of participants ie teachers continued to the highest level of 450 volts All the participants continued to 300 volts Milgram did more than one experiment he carried out 18 variations of his study All he did was alter the situation IV to see how this affected obedience DV Conclusion Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure even to the extent of killing an innocent human being Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up People tend to obey orders from other people if they recognize their authority as morally right and or legally based This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations for example in the family school and workplace 0 social facilitation 0 social loafing 0 group polarization
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