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US HISTORY Class Notes 3/2 & 3/4

by: Meredith Johnson

US HISTORY Class Notes 3/2 & 3/4 1376

Marketplace > University of Houston > 1376 > US HISTORY Class Notes 3 2 3 4
Meredith Johnson
GPA 3.4
U.S History
Dr. Lawrence Curry

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Lecture notes from the week of March 2nd. Detailed & bulleted for easier understanding.
U.S History
Dr. Lawrence Curry
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meredith Johnson on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1376 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Curry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views.


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Date Created: 03/05/15
Notes History 1376 3215 TOPIC V Hamiltonianism and Jeffersonianism Jefferson environmentalist in uenced by environment believed rural living would be a positive in uence amp weaken people39s quotinclination to corruptionquot Jefferson39s Beliefs American society in late 18th century was a good society a society that quotstimulated virtue rationalityquot Urbanism esp as seen in France seemed to have opposite effects Since society approximated the idealized society that Jefferson favored Saw no need for a strong aggressive government no need for the government to change things 0 Except to preserve the quotgood societyquot that already existed o quotIf it ain39t broke don39t x itquot Contrast to Hamilton39s vision of an industrialized agricultural society change Hamilton thought would necessary would require aggressive government Who should govern according to Jefferson 0 There must be popular participation in government quotEvery government degenerates when trusted to the rulers of the people alone The people themselves therefore are its only safe depositories And to render even them safe their minds must be improved to a certain degreequot Believed education of the people was an absolute necessity Hofstadter quotHamilton schemed to get the children into factories Jefferson planned schoolsquot 0 Jefferson amp Jeffersonians believed in an educated citizenry amp popular participation in governments However not democrats though they did have faith in man s capacity to participate in government Jefferson39s suggestion In Virginia the votes should be given to landowners only but the state should give 50 acres of land to every White adult male who had less than 50 acres 0 Only those with a stake in the society should share power but almost everybody white adult male should be given an opportunity to have a stake Education was necessary for all members of the community capable of absorbing education fostered understanding humanitarianism almost the keystone to Jefferson39s quotgood societyquot Jefferson wrote quotIf a nation expects to be ignorant and free in a state of civilization it expects what never was and never will bequot To be free you must be educated Epitaph quotHere was buried Thomas Jefferson Author of the Declaration of American Independence the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom and Father of the University of Virginiaquot Only these three not Secretary of State Vice President or President because quotby these three as testimonials that I have lived I wish most to be rememberedquot Jefferson memorial inscription quotl have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of manquot Jefferson s View to the last Education is critical amp essential Jeffersonians were not democrats but quotrepublicans edging towards democracyquot in sharp contrast with the Federalists in hysterics over popular participation quota possible disaster leaning to mob rulequot Jefferson39s essential political beliefs Prof Curry39s words 0 According to Jefferson amp the Jeffersonians it is up to the people alive at the time to shape amp change the laws to suit the legitimate needs amp purposes the quotendsquot of the day 0 Ends Life Liberty Happiness more important than the means to achieve those ends 0 Jeff not one who opposed change willing to accept even endorse willing to change the means of government though not the ends again life liberty happiness Jefferson memorial inscription What happened when the jeffersonians won control of executive amp legislative branches Thomas Jeff amp Aaron Burr both ran as Jeff Republicans Tied in Electoral college House of Representatives picked Jefferson 0 Surprising house was under control of the Federalists amp they picked Jefferson 3635 elected Jefferson Burr became Vice President Jefferson in 1801 is President between 1801 and 1815 one of the most important things happening was the change that was taking place in political parties Hamiltonian Federalists amp Jeffersonian Republicans 0 Both changed but remained somewhat the same o Federalist party after defeat in election of 1800 sometimes called the quotRevolution of 1800quot retained elitism antagonism towards the concept of democracy but abandoned aggressive nationalism amp moved towards localism o jeffersonian Republican party retained their faith in democracy quotbroadly based republicanismquot greater public participation not total democracy but began to move away from localism and move towards nationalism Thus in this 15 year period the members of the government in power emphasized the power of the central government while those out of power deemphasized the power of the central government 0 Those in power emphasize their power Those out of power de emphasized their opponents39 power 0 Two parties39 attitudes towards quotmeansquot ipped Between 1801 and 1828 jeffersonian reps took power in 1801 set out to implement oftstated philosophy quotleast government is the bet governmentquot 0 Reduce the size and the power of the central government 0 quotleast government is best governmentquot 0 Example jefferson s rst term as president Repealed Judiciary Act of 1801 passed by the Federalists during last days of Adams administration gave John Adams the change to appoint judges in 16 newlycreated circuit court 0 New judge new marshal new clerks all Federalists of course 0 Really an attempt to pack the judiciary with Federalists while they still had power 0 Political motivations clear but repealing the bill reduced the size of federal judiciary amp therefore the size of Federal government Some alien and sedition acts were allowed to expire those that remained were not enforced Repealed internal taxes eg whiskey rebellion Severe cutbacks in government spending balanced the budget 0 Closed overseas legations Left American representatives in London Paris Madrid all others closed down 0 Cut the federal military budget in half 1 mil 900 thou Reduces to approx 810 mil a year jeffersonians spending less than taking in jeff not only able to balance the budget able to pay off the entire national debt OTHER EXAMPLES IN THE TEXTBOOK 0 National Republicans very jeffersonian during Presidentjefferson39s rst term 0 quotGreatest Achievementquot according to Prof Curry contributed in the long run to a much stronger central gov t The Louisiana Purchase Louisiana Territory very very large between Mississippi and Rocky Mounts DOUBLED the size of the US Made US second largest nation in the world w total area No other single nation had as much tillable land awesome for Jeffersonians who LOVED yeomanfarmers quotGod39s Chosen Peoplequot remember Provided enough new land for all quotan empire for libertyquot made US a potential world power Strengthened the Jeffersonians39 sense of nationalism the fact that republicans presided over this accomplishment heightened their spirit of nationalism Jefferson himself had constitutional scruples buying land did not seem to be quotlegitimatequot o Looked through the Constitution amp did not nd anything that said the government could buy land nor was buying land he believed a result of power granted by the constitution What Do Went ahead with purchase anyway said quotif the people don39t like it they can repudiate itquot Proves more devoted to ends of gov39t rather than means 0 The Why LLH is More Important than the How Stimulated American nationalism By the end of his presidency Jeff saw Constitution as a exible document as dynamic probably a good thing moved from narrow strict instruction of constitution towards a broader exible constriction Represented a signi cant change Only strong opposition to the Louisiana Purchase came from the Federalists new England federalists feared the new territory to the west would eventually provide more votes to the Jeffersonians In their view frontier states democracy Republican voters Surviving remnants in 1803 the onetime party of Hamiltonian aggressive nationalism was becoming less national more local mainly for political reasons Flipped perspectives Changes in the two parties were obvious as early as 1803 tide of American affairs was moving towards democracy towards nationalism but the Hamiltonian federalists remained hostile towards democracy and were moving towards sectionalism These changes continued through Jefferson39s term amp James Madison s War of 1812 completed process as Republicans became as rm in nationalism as Federalists had been con rmed the abandonment of nationalism by Federalists Two symbolic events that underlined change of roles Hartford Convention Hartford Connect winter 1814 1815 O O Federalists protest against the war of 1812 planned for a convention of states to revise the US Constitution some quotArchFederalistsquot openly discussed secession quotOur country is too big for union too sordid for patriotism too democratic for libertyquot Moderate feds who were in control stopped all talk of secession but even approved the idea of states making amendments to the constitution when they felt a powerful and dangerous infraction had occurred While this was going on the war was ending Emergence of Andrew Jackson quotOld Hickoryquot as popular hero in Battle of New Orleans 8 Jan 1815 O O In late December of 3914 British general Packingham began major military campaign against New Orleans then defended by a much smaller American force of militiamen under command ofJackson 2 weeks later Packingham ordered allout assault on NO the outcome shocked all Total defeat for the British army over 2000 British soldiers killed or wounded Including Packingham amp 2 other generals 500 more British soldiers captured 8Americans killed 14 wounded Jackson seemed to symbolize the greatness of American people quotglorious termination of the most glorious war ever waged by any peoplequot More Praise quotI cannot sir perhaps language cannot do justice to the merit of General Jackson and the men under his command it was the yeomen of the country marching towards New Orleans leaving their women and children at the reside at a moment39s notice the farmers of the country defeating the conquerors of the conqueror lcame IsaW lconquered says the American farmer fresh from his plow enemies scattered as chaff before the wind Europe will see that it is only necessary that we employ the means that God and nature have bountifully placed at our disposalquot American Farmers led by Old Hickory represented goodness and naturally God is on America s side After war of 1812 there was an increased spirit of nationalism exuberance peace in the world country enjoying prosperity land boom amp cotton boom Jefferson amp Adams began writing each other political enemies uniting Monroe had no trouble winning Apparently end of political strife quotthe Era of Good Feelingquot Monroe wrote Jackson quotthe existence of political parties is not necessary to a free governmentquot Almost all politicians calling themselves Republicans declaring nationalism as their main interest 1815 a new generation of politicians all of whom focused on nationalism Founding Fathers all gone replaced by young leaders men who were quotdifferentquot 0 Henry Clay 0 John C Calhoun 0 Daniel Webster 0 Andrew Jackson the oldest he was 42 o All were young enough never to have been under British control all eager to build a strong American nation aggressive nationalists all calling themselves Republicans Republican leadership changing policies changing too Last years of Madison s presidency during Monroe39s 8 years old Jeffersonian policies came tumbling down as Republicans advanced a new for them national policy Examples textbook has more details 0 Supported Tariffs quotto support our infant industriesquot Called for creation of the national bank thatJefferson had once called quota device for gamblers and corruptionquot created Second Bank of the United States the Why is more important than the How 0 Growing support for internal improvements sponsored by the Federal Government infrastructure improvements improve roads and canals By 1828 had changed much in the 30 years since Virginia amp Kentucky resolutions Judicial branch amp nationalism as promoted by US Supreme Court While Republicans promoting nationalism via legislation and executive action government also being strengthened by judicial branch decisions John Marshall on Supreme Court furthering the growth of nationalism in the rst third of 19th cent 0 Like Jefferson Virginian Unlike Jefferson Federalist Jefferson s lifelong political foe never wavered from his political views like Hamilton he was an ardent nationalist Appointing Marshall onto SC was one of the last things Adams did 0 Chief lustice of S C for 34 years Federalist party had effectiver died before his term expired but Marshall almost singehandedy preserved the Federalist party39s devotion to aggressive nationalism by his quotmastery of the Supreme Courtquot 0 Some decisions handed down by Marshall did as much as anything to strengthen the power of the central government often at the expense of the states Next Time How these decisions strengthened the power of the central government Notes History 1376 3415 Remember Marshall almost singlehandedly preserved Federalist devotion to nationalism decisions he handed down did as much as anything else to strengthen the power of national government often done at expense of the states 0 0 Judicial review established Supreme Court declared an act by Congress to be unconstitutional Supreme Court not any other branch of government nor states group of states can declare law by president or congress to be constitutional or not Called Supreme Court39s quotsupreme powerquot impied mentioned nowhere in the constitution Interesting note applied for the rst time in Marbury v Madison but never used doctrine again during Marshall s time as chief justice to declare federal laws unconstitutional just state laws Hmm Fletcher v Peck 1810 0 US courts superiority to state courts proclaimed Dartmouth Colleoe v Woodward 1819 0 Economic nationalism enhanced prohibited states from interfering with contractual obligation between parties 0 lmplied powers con rmed as part of quotsupreme law of the landquot Hamilton found when he read the Constitution state of Maryland tried to tax the bank of the US out of existence Marshall used broad construction of Constitution to defend bank of the US from action by a state denying Maryland the right amp power to tax the bank 39Plagiarized39 Hamilton s defense of the bank quotLet the end be legitimate let it be constitutional and all means which are appropriate which are plainly adapted to that end which are not prohibited but consistent with the letter and spirit of the Constitution are constitutionalquot quotThe power to tax is the power to destroy and states do not have the right to destroy federal agenciesquot 0 Established federal supremacy over the states in areas implicity reserved to the federal government by the constitution under the quotnecessary and properquot clause Gibbons v Odden 1824 0 Federal control of interstate commerce established 0 Supreme Court declared that the federal government had control over interstate commerce which included not just buyingselling goods but transportation of goods through states Marshall39s decisions often very unpopular Strongly nationalistic bias 0 Localism not as strong as it had been but was still there 0 Decisions seemed very elitist seemed to favor the quothavesquot and not the quothavenotsquot Seemed to re ect mistrust of the people39s ability to rule themselves when he ruled actions by state governments to be unconstitutional A mistrust of democracy NEVERTHELESS decisions are signi cant because they increased the federal power over states Hamiltonian federalism ourished on the supreme court for the rst 3ml of the 19th century Marshall39s judicial nationalism important force in growth of American nationalism A Few Last Words Federalist party ceased to exist as national party Republican party embraced degree of nationalism necessary one thought Republicans might remain in power inde nitely but no alas Rival factions developed within the Republican party quotEra of Good Feelingquot over by 1828 John Q Adams was defeated in bid for second term in White House just as his father before him Succeeded by AndrewJackson remember New Orleans quotOld Hickoryquot Jackson called himself a Republican but represented a new political force amp new set of traditions so new they came to identify a new era in American History an era called quotthe Age ofJacksonquot TOPIC VI Ideaism and Reaism in American Foreign Policy In very general terms foreign policy of any nation is determined by 1 of 2 approaches Realistic Approach 0 Foreign policy is seen as a means to advance or maintain the essential national interests of a country Task of the national leaders is to determine what are the vital interests of the nations What must be advanced and protected at all costs Defensible frontiers Foreign trade 0 Must also determine which national interests are not essential amp vital secondary interests thus proper matters for negotiation compromise Maintaining a democratic regime in a neighboring country End starvation nice but maybe not essential ldealisticMoralistic Approach 0 Means to achieve certain moral or philosophical ends less country interests more quotinterests common to all mankindquot Win or maintain freedomjusticeselfgovernment for other countries even if they have no direct relation to the best interests of the US Examples of both approaches in American foreign policy Sometimes used together but for the most part incompatible countries must generally use one or the other From 17891828 foreign policy was generally approached realistically believed that every nation in the world pursued their own interests in power politics the intrusion of moralityideology was quotdangerousquot Committed US to genuinely amoral worldview maximize new nations changes of survival amp freedom to pursue its own national interests stay out of the affairs of other nations George Washington Realistic approach DOES NOT MEAN that the Founding Fathers were unprincipled men they had ideals However they emphasized realism Particular goal of the Feds was to avoid permanent alliances with other nations George Washington Not an easy policy to follow new nation soon faced major foreign policy problem What should be its appropriate relationship with its old ally France 0 France and England ghting each other in Europe 0 France asked US to help in war against England Remember France had come to aid of colonies during Revolutionary War 0 Without French help the colonies probably would have lost 0 Now France wanted US to repay the favor BUT 0 US did not want to go to war and get involved in a European war between England and France 0 In their view that war seemed to have no direct connection to US interests 0 Most Americans believed that being involved in the war would have been AGAINST US interests 0 But there was a problem US had a formal treaty with France signed during American Revolution in which the US promised to assist the French in the future if asked 0 Would the US honor its treaty obligations Con icting opinions amongst GW39s principal advisors 0 Jefferson said yes US had made a commitment was honorbound to honor it quotIt39s the right thing to do come to the aid of the Frenchquot 0 Hamilton said no Argued quotbottom line US should not honor it because it39s not in the interest of the US to honor it makes no sensequot Realism should prevail Washington sided with Hamilton released what amounted to a neutrality proclamation Declared he would not get involved in the war Underscored his decision in farewell address that pushed the idea of a exible foreign policy that allowed US to pursue interests wherever it saw them whenever it saw them Washington quotThe nation which indulges toward another an habitual hatred or an habitual fondness is in some degree a slave It is a slave to its animosity or its affection either of which is suf cient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest Washington quotThe great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connections as possible So far as we have already formed engagements let them be ful lled with perfect good faith Here let us stopquot Adams succeeded GW attempted to reduce tensions between France and US failed XYZ affair After XYZ some Feds demanded that US go to war with France to defend against the insult defend America39s honor Adams refused Knew it would have been an unrealistic thing to do 0 Adams in time considered his success in avoiding war with France to be high point of political career So the Federalists under Washington and Adams during country s rst 12 years of Constitution pursued foreign policy guided by realism What about Jefferson and the Republicans After revolution of 1800 PresidentJefferson accepted realistic tradition he inherited from Federalists added to it First inaugural address quotpeace commerce and honest friendship with all nation entanging alliances with nonequot GW T no permanent entanainq alliances A basic principal of American foreign policy from 1777 to 1949 Foreign policy during Jeff39s presidency First term 18011805 good 0 Acquired Louisiana territory 0 Tamed Barbary pirates Second term 18051809 not so good 0 war again between Great Britain and France 0 US quotfreedom of seasquot challenged both countries attacking US ships to prevent trade between US and either country 0 US claimed that as free country had right to trade anything with anybody without restrictions Freedom of the seas 0 Some ofJeff39s advisors advised him to go to war with France or GB or both idiots 0 Jeff opposed war in general as quotirrational actquot chose another way short of war economic sanctions a trade embargo 0 Under embargo cut off all trade with France and England Hoped that this would hurt both countries so much they would be forced to recognize US freedom of the seas Turned out to be a serious miscalculation Embargo had no effect on France and England almost destroyed American commerce abroad look in textbook Effect negative no US 0 A few days before Jeff39s second term ended agreed to repeal the embargo When Jefferson left of ce the embargo ended but the foreign problems remained Fell into lap of PresidentJames Madison 0 When Madison became president in 1809 he faced perplexing problem what should the US do about the continuing harassment by both French and English ships of American shipping o It violated national honor caused economic depression in South and West denied US rightful place in world affairs 0 While Americans resented both English and French resented English more England had greater control of the high seas were harassing Americans more Also represented a patronizing attitude on part of the English towards their former colonies Madison looked for peaceful solution but did not nd one after trying unsuccessfully to convince England to stop harassment gave up and asked Congress to declare war on Great Britain 0 Congress did so on 18th ofJune 1812 o Madison s reason British had violated America s neutral rights Impressed American sailors interfered with mutual shipping Congress agreed to declare war Vote not unanimous some in Congress objected 0 while most affected by harassment a large number of congressmen from New England voted against this declaration of war This policy did not seem realistic to them knew that US was too weak to ght against British Navy 0 Support came mostly from Westerners and Southerners from younger members of congress came to be called quotWar Hawksquot Why Not freedom of the seas Henry Clay speaker of the House of Representatives was leaders of the War Hawks in congress Clay amp other members who supported had other goals than freedom of the seas Two main goals acquire new land in the west a nd possibly Canada Fighting and defeating the English who were arming and supporting lndians on American frontier would open more land for American settlement in the west and of course Canada more info in textbook 0 Was war against England a realistic approach Perhaps supporters thought so but looking back now probably was not Idealistc US was clearly not ready to ght a war against E jeffersonians had reduced the size of army and navy Congress declared war but then adjourned without voting any taxes to pay for it So how did the US do in 1812 The US suffered many defeats attacked Canada but failed to capture it suffered major attacks from the British ln august of 1814 in retaliation for US attacks on Canada the British attacked and captured Washington DC burned White House Capitol other cities moved on towards Baltimore After 25hour bombardment failed to capture Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor StarSpangled Banner written by an observer of the battle against Fort McHenry describes quotwhat happenedquot Francis Scott Key 1814 Some historians called 1812 a quotcomicopera con ictquot came to an end when the British and Americans signed a treaty the Treaty of Ghent 1815 Status Quo Ante Belum the same conditions exist as before the war started The treaty did not even mention the causes of the war no freedom of the seas impressment two sides just decided to stop ghting and restore prewar status Strange war the US didn39t lose it but it didn39t win it either The war of 1812 did not allow the US to acquire any new territory Later it would get lots of land in war against Mexico And yet What people thought was true at the time is always important perception of reality becomes reality For many people in America maybe most the War of 1812 seemed to be an American victory even though the US got no new land did not capture Canada Why Several reasons American diplomats happy because after war US agreed to negotiation future differences diplomatically a long period of diplomatic cooperation with Great Britain began Many Americans saw it as a victory because it established once and for all the US as an independent nation seemed to many Americans to be a second war for American independence For many people Am victory was victory because of the Battle of New Orleans which occurred after the war was over The great victory of American militia over British regulars seemed to be great American victory even though the treaty had already been signed Was early American foreign policy realistic or idealistic Essentially it was realistic not always an easy policy to follow though Not easy before 1812 not easy after 1815 Example Background early 18205 Greeks rebelled against ottoman Turks Turks had ruled Greeks since mid14005 Revolution in Greece was of great interest to Americans because Americans had been taught that Greece was cradle of democracy thought that what happened to Greeks was important to ALL of western civ Image of Greeks ghting for freedom against evil barbarous Turks resounded with Americans pretty clear to Americans who the good guysbad guys were Many Americans sympathized with Greeks hoped that US government would go to the aid of the Greeks help their rebellion against the Turks newspapers urged American intervention public meetings were helped members of President Monroe39s cabinet urged him Daniel Webster one of greatest speeches spoke of aiding the valiant Greek ghters for freedom quotTeach the Greeks that they are not wholly forgotten by the civ world inspire them with constancyquot HOWEVER one person opposed US intervention in Monroe39s cabinet quotno vital interest to the US involvedquot no matter how the Americans might sympathize no vital American interest was involved Secretary of State John Quincy Adams quotAmerica should abstain from interference the concerns of others even when the con ict has been for principles to which she clings as to the last vital drop of blood that visits the heartquot quotShe goes not abroad in search of monsters to destroy She is the wellwisher to the freedom and independence of all She is the champion and vindicator only of her ownquot Exempli es early American foreign policy Guided American foreign policy for the rst 100 years of its existence


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