Exam #2 Lecture Notes - Week of 3/3
Exam #2 Lecture Notes - Week of 3/3 PSY 290
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 290 at University of Miami taught by Rick Stuetzle in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 272 views. For similar materials see Intro to Research Methods in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/05/15
33 Lecture Notes PSY290 PSY 290 Lecture Notes Single amp Multilevel Designed Studies Beneen IV betweensubjects or withinsubjects I IV manipulated or subject variable I I Within IV manipulated or subject variable Manipulated by Manipulated Subject definition I Forming GIOqu How often tested equivalent mtnnsucally per condition groups by not equal I I I I p l39bl 39 39 055139 9 Once gt Once Random Matching mamth to I I assignment redtace quoton39 eqU39Valence Completepartial Reverseblock counterbalance counterbalance IHdeDGNdem MaTChed Nonequivalent Repeated QFOUDS QFOUDS groups measures 1factor 1factor 1factor 1 factor design design design design TABLE 7 1 Attributes of Four SingleFactor Designs Minimum Independent Levels of Variable Independent Creating Types of Independent Between Variable Equivalent Design Variable or Vithin Type Groups Independent 2 between manipulated random groups assignment Matched groups 2 between manipulated matching N onequivalent 2 between subject matching may groups reduce nonequivalence Repeated measures 2 within manipulated n a PSY 290 Lecture Notes Kasser amp Sheldon 2000 Intended to study insecurity amp materialistic leanings Randomly assigned participants to 2 groups Mortaity Salience Wrote about feelingsthoughts concerning their own death Second group Wrote about thoughts amp feelings regarding listening to music Both groups asked to think about their lives 15 years in the future IV Topic that participants wrote about DV estimates they gave of future income value of future homespossessions etc Prediction that mortalitysalience group would feel temporarily insecure amp insecurity would trigger greater estimateshopes of future nancial wellbeing Those who wrote about death estimated higher future worth amp leisurely spending Second study tested for greed MS group showed higher levels Researchers determined that concern about inevitable doom creates insecurity leading to search for super cial security thru material goods amp consumption Excluded 3 outliers participants whose future salary estimates were 15 SD above the mean abnormally signi cant insecurity Blagrove 1996 Matched groups design testing whether sleepdeprived ppl are in uenced by leading questions Recruited 3 samples of college students divided into 2 levels matched by selfreported habitual sleep durations Sleep deprivation experimental No sleep deprivation control More in uenced by leading questions More likely to change answers Most likely when sleep deprived for 43 rather than 21 hrs All participants given standardized test listened to a story then responded to misleading questions Then given negative feedback about responses amp questioned again to observe for changes in answers McDonald amp Flanagan 2004 Investigated abilities of 34 subjects w TBI traumatic brain injury to processunderstand social interactions Selected control group subjects matched on age education amp gender Both groups viewed videos from quotThe Awareness of Social Inference Testquot Tested if subjects w TBI would be impaired in ability to Accurately detect basic emotions Distinguish sincere from sarcastic comments Distinguish diplomatic lies from lies told sarcastically Those w TBI were signi cantly impaired in abilities to recognize emotions amp lack of sincerity as compared to participants wo TBI Concerns Externa validity To what extent did experimental subjects represent typical TBI conditions Researchers selected participants who as a group re ected usual attributes of TBI PSY 290 Lecture Notes Lewis Terman Longest longitudinal study on gifted children over 40 years Example of a longitudinal study done right Took social employment cognitive measures etc One of the US39s most comprehensive longitudinal studies Sample size of almost 1000 children at the start of the study Cohort Effects Cohort a group of ppl that share characteristics same age environment etc Also share experiences Big concern during crosssectional amp longitudinal studies betweensubjects study Statistics Statisticians view ppl as sources of data samples are representatives of scores Interested in the difference btwn mean scores lnferential statistics Hypothesis testing tells you whether the difference in scores is larger than you expect due to chance alone Testing is backwards Want to nd evidence against the negation of your hypothesis Measures probability of whether your obtained results are due to chance or an actual effect occurring 3 steps 1 Predict what should happen under certain circumstances if we know what the null is we know what the outcome should be assume null is true quotInnocent until proven guiltyquot 2 Collect data nd out what actually happened 3 Compare the two make a conclusion results due to chance or actual IV in uence TTests Compare means also try to nd a difference in initial amp nal scores Single Factor Design Examples Study on bulimia affecting perception of body size IV Presence of bulimia 2 levels DV Perception of body size drawing chosen that most closely represents their own body Betweensubjects design women with amp without bulimia Subject variable not manipulated Subjects matched on body size College students in a cognitive mapping study are asked to use a direction nder to point accurately to three unseen locations that differ in distance from the laboratory One is a nearby campus location one is a nearby city and the third is a distant city IV Perception of distance DV Accuracy of pointing Manipulated subject variable distance Three groups of preschoolers 50 per group assigned randomly are in a study of task perseverance in which the size of the delay of reward is varied The children in all three groups are given a dif cult puzzle and told to work on it as long as they would like One group is told that as payment they will be given 5 at the end of the session The second group will get the 5 after two days from the end of the session and the third will get the money after 4 days IV Amount oftime before award delay period 3 levels DV Task perseverance 3 PSY 290 Lecture Notes Betweensubjects design To examine whether crowding affects problemsolving performance participants are placed in either a large or a small room while attempting to solve a set of word puzzles Before assigning participants to the two conditions the researcher takes a measure of their verbal intelligence to ensure that the average verbal IQ of the groups is equivalent IV Room size 2 levels Though don39t know size of rooms DV Problemsolving performance Betweensubjects design either a large or small room Manipulated variable room size Singlefactor betweensubjects design w matching Demand characteristics Room size Order effect xed by counterbalancing half are tested in the small room rst other half tested in the large room rst Control Group Designs There are more than 1 kind of control group Placebo Control Group Placebo Substance that appears to have a speci c effect but in fact is pharmacologically inac ve Placebo control group Participants led to believe they are receiving a treatment when they actually aren39t Waiting List Control Group Used in treatment outcome studies Those in waitlist control group always get the treatment at the end of the study Random control groups not sufficient bc of anticipatory effect Yoked Control Group Yoke heavy piece of metal or wood that binds animals together frame attaching bullshorses to wagons Participants in experimental group exposed to varying number of events or for a variable amt of time Each member of control group is quotyokedquot matched to a member of the experimental group Pairs controlled for exposures to stimulus exactly the same Participants are matched on subject variables amp of exposures to stimuli Similar to giving an entire group 1 same grade for a project Result for groups as a whole time spent participating or types of events encountered are kept constant Stroop Study 1935 Stroop effect Reading is an overlearnedautomatic process amp interferes with color recognition when readers are instructed to name the color of ink in which the word is written rather than read the printed word itself First two experiments were withinsubjects design with 2 levels of 1 IV lst Experiment null 2 tasks involving reading the names of color words RCNb condition Reading Color Names printed in Black Participants read 100 color names printed in black as quickly amp accurately as they can PSY 290 Lecture Notes RCNd condition Reading Color Names where the color of the print amp word are Different 100 color names were printed in ink of a different color than the word E GREEN was printed in red ink Participants read the words amp ignored the color of the ink Sequence effects used reverse counterbalancing ABBA Divided each condition39s list into 2 sets of 50 words Half of the participants were tested in order of RCNbRCNdRCNdRCNb Other half of an equal number were tested on RCNdRCNbRCNbRCNd Resulted in no difference of performance btwn RCNb amp RCNd conditions Reading the color names in RCNd condition was unaffected by having been printed in different ink colors 2nd Experiment directional Stroop effect discovered Task required participants to name the colors of the words rather than read the words printed NC condition Naming Color test Participants named the color of square color patches NCWd Naming Color of Word test where word amp color of print are Different Participants ignored the word that was written amp named the color in which it was printed Resulted in a signi cantly larger amount of time participants needed to complete the NCWd condition discovery of stroop effect Lee amp Aronson 1974 Studied how we maintain balance in a moving environment Sample 7 children 1316 months Though 3 became distressed amp dropped out of the study IV Direction of moving the walls amp ceiling forward or backward creating the perception that one39s head is moving Hypothesis Moving the room would trigger the children to compensate by leaning in that direction DV Children39s movement swaying staggering falling Withinsubjects single factor repeatedmeasures design children each were exposed to both levels of IV the room moved forwards amp backwards ABAB alternation of conditions Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve 1900 Intended to study the time course of forgetting Strung together sequences of consonants vowels amp consonants CVC to create nonsense syllables Spent years memorizing amp recalling lists of over 2300 nonsense syllables Varied factors like of syllables per list of study trials per list amp cramming vs spaced out studying Memorized 8 13item lists of nonsense syllables Waited amp then attempted to relearn lists w time intervals of 20 min 1 hr 9 hrs 1 day 2 days 6 days amp 31 days Used metronome to pace reading CVCs Studied lists in the same environment the same time of day Only used repetition to memorize Discovered that decline in memory was a nonlinear curve Singlefactor multilevel withinsubject design Bransford amp Johnson 1972 PSY 290 Lecture Notes Studied context effects on understanding reading passages Singlefactor multilevel independent groups study 5 groups randomly assigned participants Control group No context 1 repetition Listened to paragraphs on tape 14 idea units Tried to recall ideas after listening on average remembered 36 2nd group No context 2 repetitions Heard each story twice to see if repetition improves recall On average only recalled 38 ideas Ruled out repetition improving recall 3rd group Context before listening Given 30 seconds to look cartoon before listening Recalled 8 ideas out of 14 Cartoon helped participants to understand amp recall paragraph using context 4th group Context after listening Saw the cartoon after the paragraph Recalled 36 ideas Context improves recall when shown before so initial processing of info is facilitated 5th group Partial context given cartoon w rearranged details t the story39s meaning less Recalled 4 ideas Context lacked meaningful relationship to story context only improves recall if it is meaningfully related to the paragraph Researchers added levels of IV to falsify various explanations Steele Bass Crook 1997 Replicated Rauscher39s Mozart study Tested whether exposing infants to Mozart music improves cognitive abilities IV Listening to Mozart 3 levels DV Digit span memory Counterbalance order Listening to Mozart for 10 min Listening to soothing environmental sounds for 10 min Silence for 10 min 36 participants tested in each condition Singlefactor multilevel repeated measures design Implemented 3x3 Latin square 12 participants assigned to each row Tested participants on memory task of repeating sequences of numbers backwards after listening to conditions Avg of digits recalled virtually identical for each condition Discovered practice effect Participants generally improved memorizations of the digits by their 3rd tests Mozart effect 30 min of listening to classical music stimulates some cognitive abilities PSY 290 Lecture Notes Langer amp Rodin 1976 Study on effects of personal control on health Experimental group Nursing home residents given increased control over daily planning Mentally amp physically healthier More likely to be alive by 18 month followup study Control group Daily planning done for residents by nurses Ethical implications for family memberspatients less likely to be alive Adler 1992 Researched effects of support groups on psychological amp physical health of women w breast cancer Found that women in support groups recovered faster amp lived longer Some researchers argued results didn39t re ect support group bene ts but rather harm of control group participants feeling rejectedleft out Merikle amp Skanes 1992 Combined placebo amp waitlist control doubleblind procedure 47 adult female participants 3 groups Experimental group given subliminal weightloss tape Placebo control group given subliminal dental anxiety tape Waitlist group told they39d be given weightloss tape at the end All 3 groups lost same amt of weight over the course of the study Waitlist group lost weight before even receiving tape Similar to Hawthorne effect Dunn Schwartz Hatfield Wiegele 1996 Study designed to evaluate effectiveness of psychotherapy technique Eye movement desensitization amp reprocessing EMDR Intended to treat anxiety amp PTSD Clint recalls personal traumatic event while following rapid hand movements w eyes Study tested whether placebo effect was reducing stress in patients Sampled 28 college students who experience mildly traumatic events Matchedyoked on age sex type of traumatic event reported Randomly assigned Experimental group underwent EMDR Followed procedures until they reported minimal stress levels Control group participants Yoked in terms of how long each session lasted Looked at a colored card rather than undergoing EMDR procedure 3rd yoked group Thought about trauma but did not undergo therapy treatments Cancelled on ethical grounds too stressful No signi cant difference in stress reduction for experimental EMDR amp control colored card groups Obtained same results for each ruled out effectiveness of EMDR Multilevel Designs Give more info than 2 level designs 2 level designs are limited Always display linear relationships only 2 points to be connected PSY 290 Lecture Notes Primarily useful for avoiding misinterpretation of relationships btwn variables Test for nonlinear effectsinteractions Problem with multilevel designs Computing multiple ttests to compare all possible pairs of conditions Can only give results for IV39s with 2 levels Does not test for all levels at once Can only test for linear relationships Can39t give info on interactions btwn multiple variables Percent chance of error increases w each additional ttest Also time consuming amp makes room for human error computing so many math problems Resolved by using One way ANOVA Posthoc followup tests Presenting Data 3 options Write out numbers Ok when IV only has 2 or 3 levels Hard to present clearly with gt3 levels Must be presented with units Make a table of results Good when you have many scores amp levels Make a graph Good for readers who prefer pictures over numbers Simpler is better when presenting data watch out for quotducksquot unnecessary decorations Easier to visually depict relationships Can be misleading due to scale exaggerations or minimizations of differences Tips for graphing Use bars for discrete variables Implies bias categorization Use line graphs for continuous variables Inappropriate when variables are categoricaldiscrete Marijuana effects Study on the effects of marijuana on immediate memory for word lists Experimental group MJ impairs recall Expectations about MJ have no effect on recall Placebo control group Expectations about MJ also reduce recall performance Straight control group Adverse effects of MJ on recall can be attributed entirely to placebo effects MJ shown to have no effects above expectations Both experimental amp placebo groups scored signi cantly lower than regular control group
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