Sociology 101- Chapter 14 Notes
Sociology 101- Chapter 14 Notes SOC101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lesley Williams Reid in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views.
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Date Created: 03/05/15
Rachel Counce February 26 2015 Sociology 101 Exam 2 Chapter 14 O Race a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important O 0000 0 Many people classify race based on physical characteristics such as skin color facial features hair texture and body shape Used to be based on living in different geographical regions See many variations of genetic traits today as the product of migration Socially constructed concept Race comes into the picture when a society decides what physical features matter People are more willingly to define themselves as multiracial O Etiiiiiccity a shared cultural heritage O O O 0 Based on common ancestry language or religion US is a multiethnic society Socially constructed being important because society makes it so Importance of ethnic differences can change over time Race biological traits ethnicity cultural traits O Minority any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates O O Minorities are a majority in California Hawaii Texas and New Mexico Minority population is steadily increasing Two important characteristics 0 O 1 Share a distinctive identity based on physical or cultural traits 2 Subordination Typically have lower income lower occupational prestige and limited schooling Race or ethnicity often serves as a master status that overshadows personal accomplishments People make such a big deal out of racial differences because placing people into categories allows societies to create hierarchies in which some people have greater access to things of value than other people Rachel Counce February 26 2015 O Prejaolice a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people 0 0 May target based on social class sex sexual orientation age political affiliation physical disability race or ethnicity Prejudgments that can be either positive or negative Often takes the form of a stereawpe a simplified description applied to every person in some category Stereotypes are especially harmful to minorities in the workplace O Social Distance 0 One measure of prejudice is social distance or how closely people are willing to interact with members of some category Social Distance Scale by Emory Bogardus According to Bogardus people feel much more social distance from some categories than from others closer to some distant to others Recent studies show 1 Student opinion shows a trend toward greater social acceptance 2 People see less difference between various minorities 3 The terrorists attacks on September 11 2001 may have reduced social acceptance of Arabs and Muslims O Racism the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another 0 O 0 Has existed throughout world history Still remains as a social problem According to research conducted by sociologist Thomas Sowell racial differences in IQ scores result not from biology but from environment O Theories of Prejudice 1 Scapegoat Theory holds that prejudice springs from frustration from people who are themselves disadvantaged 0 Ex a white woman blaming her minority coworker for her low wages instead of blaming her boss who could fire her 0 Scapegoat is a person or category of people typically with little power whom people unfairly blame for their own troubles 2 Authoritarian Personality Theory say that people who show strong prejudice towards one minority are usually intolerant of all minorities o Theodor Adorno o Authoritarian personalities rigidly conform to conventional cultural values and see moral issues as clearcut matters of right and wrong 0 View society as naturally competitive and hierarchical o Adorno also found the opposite to be true people who accept one minority accept all minorities 3 Culture Theory claims that although extreme prejudice is may be found in some people some prejudice is found in everyone Rachel Counce February 26 2015 o Prejudice is part of our culture 0 Bogardus Social Distance helps prove this 4 Con ict Theory proposes that prejudice is used as a tool by powerful people to oppress others 0 Ex Anglos who look down on Latino immigrants in the Southwest can get away with paying the immigrants low wages for long hours of hard work 0 Argument made by Shelby Steele states that minorities themselves encourage race consciousness to win greater power and privileges ie victims Ccicrmiinci Racism disregard of racial characteristics reluctance to talk about race Is race something essential or merely an illusion 0 Neither race is a sociohistorical process 0 Omi and Winant s racial formation theory Can there be racism without racists 0 Yes according to BonillaSilva s research on colorblind racism O Discriminaticn unequal treatment of various categories of people 0 Prejudice attitudes discrimination matter of actions 0 Discrimination can be either positive providing special advantages or negative creating obstacles o Prejudice and discrimination reinforce each other Thomas Theorem 0 Thomas Theorem states that situations that are defined as real become real in their consequences O institntinnai prejnciice anci ciiscriminaticn bias built into the operation of society s institutions including schools hospitals the police and the workplace 0 Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton pointed out the harm from institutional prejudice and discrimination 0 Ex banks reject home mortgage applications from minorities at a higher rate than those from white people even when income is held constant 0 Carmichael and Hamilton state that people are slow to condemn or even recognize institutional prejudice and discrimination because it often involves respected public officials and longestablished traditions 0 Ex Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka court case Rachel Counce February 26 2015 Stage 1 Prejudice and discrimination Stage 3 Stage 2 Belief in minority39s Social innate inferiority disadvantage Stage 1 Prejudice and discrimination begin often as an expression of ethnocentrism or an attempt to justify economic exploitation Stage 2 As a result of prejudice and discrimination a minority is socially disadvantaged occupying a low position in the system of social stratification Stage 3 This social disadvantage is then interpreted not as the result of earlier prejudice and discrimination but as evidence that the minority is innater inferior unleashing renewed prejudice and discrimination by which the cycle repeats itself 0 Patterns of Interaction 1 Pluralism is a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing 0 United States is mostly pluralistic except for Although most people value their cultural heritage few want to live exclusively with others like themselves Our tolerance of social diversity only goes so far People of various colors and cultures do not have equal social standing Encourages distinctiveness without disadvantage 2 Assimilation the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant cultures 0 Can involve changing dress values religion language and friends 0 Multiculturalist oppose assimilation because it suggest that minorities are a problem and need to be the ones changing o Involves the changing of ethnicity not race 0 Miscegenation biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories Rachel Counce February 26 2015 3 Segregation the physical and social separation of categories of people 0 Enforces separation that harms a minority 0 Although at a decline segregation still exists in the US o Hypersegregation means having little contact of any kind with people outside the local community 4 Genocide the systematic killing of one category of people by another 0 Ex Rule of the Ottoman Empire Holocaust and Iosef Stalin s violent rule 0 Genocide continues in the modern world O Native Americans 0 O Refers to the hundreds of societies that first settled the Western Hemisphere Europeans arrived in the late fifteenth century taking Native American s land and even forming acts of genocide millions 9 250000 After Revolutionary War Americans took pluralistic approach by gaining land through treaties Eventually declared Native Americans wards of the government and relocated them to quotreservationsquot or a strategy of forced assimilation 1924 9 Native Americans are granted US citizenship Ioan Albon linked low Native American social standing to a range of cultural factors noncompetitive view of life 9 White AngloSaxon Protestants O O 0 Soon dominated after European settlement began WASPs are found at all class levels WASPs were highly skilled and motivated to achieve 9 were not subject to the prejudice and discrimination experienced by other categories of immigrants WASPs were never one single group but joined together in the nineteenth century to oppose the arrivals of undesirables WASP culture remains English is the country s dominant language and Protestantism is its majority religion also re ected in our legal system Q African Americans 0 Between 1619 1865 being African American was closely related to being a slave Dred Scott case of 1857 addressed the idea of slaves as citizens by saying they are not citizens and therefore cannot claim any of the privileges of citizens 9 Gunnar Myrdal called this the American Dilemmaquot a democratic society s denial of basic rights and freedom to one category of people 1865 13th amendment to the constitution outlawed slavery 1868 14th amendment reversed the Dred Scott case giving citizenship to anyone born in the US Him Crow laws classic cases of institutional discrimination segregated US society into two racial castes Rachel Counce O 0 February 26 2015 African Americans still continue to occupy a lower social standing in America but African American community is economically diverse African Americans are more likely to experience downward mobility O Asian Americans 0 O O O Enormous cultural diversity characterizes this category of people Asian Americans represent the largest number and share of immigrants to the US The largest category of Asian Americans is people of Chinese ancestry Many have made economic and social gains give rise to a model minorityquot 9 Chinese Americans 0 0 Demand for cheap labor attracted Chinese immigrants 9 hardworking Chinese are seen as a threat to the white workforce 1882 the US government passed the first of several laws limited Chinese immigration 9 caused domestic hardship more men than women Need for labor during WW2 prompted President Roosevelt to lift Chinese immigration ban and extend rights to those born in the US Many Chinese Americans today hold high prestige jobs and more than 50 are college graduates 9 Japanese Americans 0 Immigration began slowly in 1860 then increased around 1900 when Japanese men came over as a source for cheap labor Not until 1952 did the US extend citizenship to foreignborn Iapanese Immigrants from Japan and China differed in 1 There were fewer Iapanese immigrants so they escaped some of the hostility directed towards the more numerous Chinese 2 The Japanese knew more about the US which helped them assimilate 3 Japanese immigrants preferred rural farming to clustered cities which made them less visible Japanese Americans faced their biggest crisis after the bombing of Pearl Harbor 9 Roosevelt signed an executive order which detained people of Japanese ancestry 90 of all US Japanese 9 Congress awarded 20000 to victims for their hardship Why Iapanese internment was criticized 1 It targeted an entire category of people not a single one of whom was known to have committed an act of disloyalty 2 Most of those imprisoned were US citizens by birth Nisei 3 The US was also at war with Germany and Italy but no comparable action was taken against people of German or Italian descent Japanese Americans have made a dramatic recovery high income low poverty Rachel Counce February 26 2015 9 Recent Asian Immigration 0 Asian American population more than doubled between 1990 and 2011 0 Currently accounts for more than 40 of all immigration to the US 0 Entrepreneurial spirit and a high level of schooling is the reason Asian Americans are so successful 9 Hispanic AmericansLatinos o Hispanics are the largest racial or ethnic minority o Cluster of distinct populations identifying with a specific ancestral nation 0 Most of the immigrants entering the US today come from Asia and Latin America O Mexican Americans 0 Currently more immigrants come to the US from Mexico than any other country 0 Most work as lowwage laborers on farms and in factories 0 Have a high dropout rate and on average receive much less schooling 9 Puerto Ricans o In 1917 Congress passed the Iones Act which made Puerto Ricans but not the Filipinos US citizens and made Puerto Rico a territory of the US New York City is home to many This community is severely disadvantaged Adjusting to culture patterns like learning English is a challenge Puerto Ricans with darker skin experience prejudice and discrimination More people return to Puerto Rico each year than arrive this revolving doorquot pattern limits assimilation 0 Puerto Ricans remain the most socially disadvantaged Hispanic minority 9 Cuban Americans 0 Within a decade after the Marxist Revolution 400000 Cubans ed to the US 0 Many were highly educated and professional who didn t hesitate maintaining that in the US 0 Managed a balancing act achieving in the larger society while holding on to traditional culture 00000 9 Arab Americans 0 Ancestors live in a variety of countries 0 Widespread use of Arabic alphabet and language and Islam as their religion 0 Arab an ethnic category Muslim a follower of Islam 0 Culturally diverse population people of all social classes but higher than average poverty rate 0 Have an increasing number of hate crimes towards them and feel they are subject to ethnic profilingquot Rachel Counce February 26 2015 O White Ethnic Americans 0 Term White ethnicsquot recognizes the ethnic heritage and social disadvantages of many white people NonWASPS whose ancestors lived in Germany Ireland Poland Italy and other European countries More than half of US population Also endured prejudice and discrimination supportive residential enclaves Now lead more comfortable lives their ethnic heritage has become a source of pride
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