EEBio Wk9 Notes
EEBio Wk9 Notes Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100
Popular in Introduction to Ecology and Behavior
Popular in Behavioral Sciences
This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Mayeda on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Johns in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Behavior in Behavioral Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.
Reviews for EEBio Wk9 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/05/15
Tuesday March 3 2015 EEBio Wk9 Lect1 Subject Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Mating Systems ll Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Robert Cooper holding extended office hours Thursday noon2 pm roughly Announcement recent study Hummingbirdsampflowers Why coevolveWhat advantage to each bird evolve to have longer beak to reach nectar why did flower evolve too want specialized bird to ensure gets the right pollen httpswwwsciencenewsorgarticletropicalplantknowswhosebillitsflowers httpwwwpnasorgcontentearly201502261419522112 Announcements Pollen tube growthL and nectar remaining Tuesday March 3 2015 Suggests what see how much nectar remains some hummingbirds more effective at getting nectar httpswwwsciencenewsorgarticletropicalplantknowswhosebillitsflowers httpwwwpnasorgcontentearly201502261419522112 Announcements Male hummingbirds territorial use bills in malemale contests What do we call this intrasexual selection but exaptation is term for trait evolve for something but also used for something else difference in bill shape between males and females pointyness index hummingbird males have pointier longer beaks differences between genders suggest differences in sex males use pointy bills to defend territory httpswwwsciencenewsorgarticehummingbirdstakestabrivalsdaggertipped bis httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontentearly20141017behecoaru182short Mating systems Regular patterns of courtship amp mating within species Ornaments Often on males httpwwwyoutubeco mwatchvhptrmlkk03E Tuesday March 3 2015 Wallace doubted mate choice was important how can the individual tastes of hundreds of successive generations of female birds produce any definite or constant effect is female choice important Demonstrating choice Longtailed widow bird Males have much longer tails than females Cut tail experiment long tail preferred by females how do we know its females preference over perhaps long tails making them scary Territoriality not affectedtrait maintained by female preference httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv299n5886abs299818aOhtml red wing black bird males establish territories early females come later build nests independently of male just wherever there are bugs females choosing where to build nest based on male Reminder female preference Notice We make no assumptions about females being conscious of decisions or about female cognition lf female behavioral differences influence what kind of male she mates with that indicates female mate choice or mate discrimination No teleologyfemales aren t consciously choosing males in order to accomplish some goal have better offspring eg Tuesday March 3 2015 Females that mate with certain kinds of males have fitness or evolutionary advantages those preference genes spread over time We do use a verbal shorthandwhat does a female want What do females prefer amp why Direct nongenetic benefits Nuptial giftsegfood High quality territories amp nest sites Parental care Parasite avoidance Male traits amp courtship behaviors could indicate non genetic benefits like health amp lack of parasites Northern harriers Males polygynousfemales settle on male territories Females have ranksmales provision females differently Females choose males based on expected provisioning httpwwwjstororgstable4414 all females laying about the same number of eggs are they successfully rearing offspring so that they can fly fledgling males can only provision certain females well females choose males on expected proviisioning httpinkspringercomarticle1010072FBF00299891 What do females prefer amp why lndirect genetic benefits Good genes Tuesday March 3 2015 Fisher runaway process sexy son What do females prefer amp why Indirect genetic benefits Good genes Females that prefer males with good genes have offspring more able to survive Males with traits that display good genes acquire more mates Ornaments indicate overall male quality Ornaments often costly why females that can identify costly treats avoid cheaters if have costly traits can t be cheated females hone into traits that males cannot fake example shiny feathers show don t have lice no diseases What do females prefer amp why Indirect genetic benefits Fisherian process sexy son Genetic variation in male trait and female preference Females with stronger preference tend to mate with males with a given trait Offspring have genes for both preference amp trait Leads to spread of preferenceamptrait Independent of any survival advantage can lead to spread of preference and trait Fisherian Process BIG gt CHOOSY males with big traits will get more mates even if females are not choosy Tuesday March 3 2015 SMALL gtNOT CHOOSY Fisherian Process TRAIT Association forms between genes for big and choosy traits look at graphs on slide Genes for big male trait spread So do genes for choosy females Genes for SMALL trait Genes for BIG trait Genes for CHOOSY Genes for NOT CHOOSY Fisherian Process Genes for big male trait spread So do genes for choosy females Activity What predictions can we make Good genes more elaborate males should sire offspring that survive better Fisherian runaway here males would have to have trait and females must have preference correlation between female preference and male trait within and among populations Fisherian process in sticklebacks Tuesday March 3 2015 Association between trait and preference within broods intensity of red color in sons relation between female preference and male trait females mate with males with most red sons are red Fisherian process in sticklebacks Association between redmale and red detection female across populations Lower detection threshold means stronger preference females have stronger preference for red preference and trait coevolve httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv411n6840figtab411944aOF1 html Good Genes Father s Eyespot Area mm Eyespot Number females prefer males with more eyespots more elaborate the trait higher number of offspring survival displaying that they have some genetic makeup that will help offspring survive Petrie et al 1991 Petrie 1994 Number of Mates Offspring Survive Peacock trains Darwin assumed that long trains interfered with male survival Testing assumptions amp peacock trains Do they The elaborate plumage in peacocks is not such a drag Birds withfilledand withoutopentrain how much lift can bird generate Tuesday March 3 2015 Butlow ranking males suffer predation anyway do data change amount of lift doesn t increase when train is snipped httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepii000334729290072H httpnewssciencemagorgbiology201409peacocksneednotsacrificeflying skillssexiness httpjebbiologistsorgcontent217183237abstract Alternative male strategies American elk males bugle the injured one bugle longer and louder how fit and large they are trying to show size is also a good display males can t fake size alternative male mating strategy httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvGUQcMZLpr8 Giraffe weevils Really long necks Giraffe weevils alternative behavioral mating strategies Sneaker male hides under mating pair A big male guards sneaker amp female B sneaker avoids detection by big male C Painting amp Hollwell 2014 Behav Ecol 25 14091416 httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent 2561409short Giraffe weevils alternative mating strategies Males sneak if they are small top And competing against Tuesday March 3 2015 males bigger than they are bottom Painting amp Hollwell 2014 Behav Ecol 25 14091416 httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent 2561409short Precopulatory competition Alternative mating strategies Majors and Minors minors are sneaky males that don t fight majors are big ones that fight different behavioral strategies step function in slides What can we hypothesize about relative fitness if have minors and majors in the pop at the same time both preserved through natural selection similar number of mates Similar fitness httpwwwjstororgstableinfo 1 01086444599 Precopulatory competition Alternative mating strategies Tradeoffs males with big horns have small testes httpwwwpnasorgcontent 1034416346abstract Postcopulatory competition Tuesday March 3 2015 90 of songbirds are socially monogamous but many of them not genetically monogamous Extrapair copulations Extrapair copulationEPCversus extrapair fertilization EPF sperm choice cryptic female choice females can store sperm may be competition after copulation postcopulatory competition Sperm storagereptiles7yearsbirds13year mammals 12 year max Can be hard to distinguish sperm competition from cryptic female choice Extrapair fertilization Many socially monogamous birds are not genetically monogamous Females engage in extrapair copulations Broods include individuals sired by other males Extrapair fertilization Extrapair copulation amp fertilization can be rampant 1520of Eastern Blue bird chicks are raised by own father Term cuckolded raising kids that aren t yours terms come from cuckoos that lay eggs in other bird s nests Only 10 of socially monogamous birds are genetically monogamous Multiple mating can be costly White blood cells are a measure of immune reaction Notice polyandry heredoesnotrefertothematingsystem but to females mating multiple times 10 11 Tuesday March 3 2015 Multiple mating can benefit females Depends on the organism and breeding system Female bluethroats and EPC s Wingswellingreferstoimmuneresponse EPYextrapairyoungWPYwithinpairyoung httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournal v406n6793full406296a0htm Female prairie dogs amp multiple mates Whatdoesthissuggest Whatotherinformationwouldbeuseful httpjmammaloxfordjournalsorgcontent 944731 Postcopulatory sperm competition Femalesoftenmatewithmultiplemales Difficulttodistinguishspermcompetition from cryptic female choice Possibiityofspermcompetitionshapes mae behaviors Guppies amp postcopulatory competition Precopulatoryfemalechoicefemaleslikebrightmales Post copulatoryspermcompetitionartificial insemination more colorful males fertilize more eggs httpwwwnaturecomnature journalv421n6921funature01367html Postcopulatory competition sperm competition SupeerairyWren top 57Mspermper ejaculate Tuesday March 3 2015 Relativesizeofape testes bottom Get there firstest with the mostest NB Forrest Postcopulatory competition sperm competition Male darkwinged damselflies have scrubbers on their penises Guard mates too PostCopulatory competition sperm competition Female discrimination among sperm Can lead to evolution of different sperm sizes Postcopulatory competition sperm Competition Female discrimination among sperm cryptic choice Can lead to evolution of different sperm sizes Here across populations of Drosophila mojavensis Hangingflies and nuptial gifts Sperm competition Nuptial gifts Postcopulatory sexual selection Nuptial gifts Duration of copulation as function of prey size Hangingflies and nuptial gifts Numberofspermtransferredasfunctionoftime Whatdoesthissuggest 12 Thursday March 5 2015 EEBio Wk 92 Subject Ecology and Behavior EEB 100 Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Group Living amp Social Behavavior Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Robert Cooper holding extended office hours Thursday noon2 pm roughly Announcements Changes to Syllabus 05 amp 10 March social behavior Class 12 March TBA Review session 16 March 68 pm Moore 100 Discussion sections for Week 10 Extra office hours for review with TA s Test 18 March 11 30230 Ackerman Ballroom Watch email for other announcements Reminder extrapair copulations ExtrapaircopulationEPCversusextrapairfertilization EPF sperm competition cryptic female choice Spermstoragereptiles7yearsbirds13year mammals 12 year max Allowsforpossibilityofspermcompetitionamporcryptic female choice Canbehardtodistinguishspermcompetitionfrom cryptic female choice Reminder extrapair fertilization Thursday March 5 2015 Manysocialymonogamousbirdsarenotgenetically sexually monogamous Femalesengageinextrapaircopulations Broodsincludeindividualssiredbyothermales Reminder extrapair fertilization Extrapair copulation amp fertilization can be rampant 1520ofEasternBluebirdchicksareraisedbyownfather Term cuckoded Ony10 of socially monogamous birds are genetically monogamous social mating system not a good descriptor Multiple mating can be costly White blood cells are a measure of immune reaction Notice polyandry here does not refer to the mating system but to females mating multiple times Multiple mating can benefit females Depends on the organism and breeding system polyandry helpful against infanticide kill babies to ensure mating with female but if female mate with multiple malesmae doesn t want to kill own child so may lower risk Female bluethroats and EPC s Wing swelling refers to immune response bigger swelling bigger immune responsecompetence having multiple partners might increase fitness of children Thursday March 5 2015 EPY extrapair youngWPY withinpair young httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv406n6793full406296a0html Female prairie dogs amp multiple mates What does this suggest What other information would be useful httpjmammaloxfordjournalsorgcontent944731 y axis is number of mates x axis is number of pups more mates higher chance of surviving offspring might be that females that mate with multiple males may be more fertile there is a fertility advantage More pups in the litter not just more pups surviving Postcopulatory sperm competition Females often mate with multiple males Difficult to distinguish sperm competition from cryptic female choice Possibility of sperm competition shapes male behaviors Guppies amp postcopulatory competition Precopulatory female choicefemaes like bright males Postcopulatory competitionartificial inseminationmore colorful males fertilize more eggs brighter males and smaller males generate more babies even just when have artificial insemination females not even choosing them they are just able to sire more babies genetic advantage crazy httpwwwnaturecomnaturejournalv421n6921fulnature01367html Thursday March 5 2015 Postcopulatory competition sperm competition Superb Fairy Wren top 57M sperm per ejaculate a lot males with largest ejaculate have more advantage in sperm competition Relative size of ape testes bottom Get there firstest with the mostest NB Forrest chimps and bonobos have larger proportional testes than humans because their females mate with many males good for competition gorilla try to dominate many females so have smaller testes Postcopulatory competition sperm competition Male darkwinged damselflies have scrubbers on their penises males have clasps that come from abdomen grabbing female head or eyes females grab penis scrub out sperm from prior males bursa copulatrix copulatory pocket Guard mates too males stay around as she lays her egg make sure that no one else tries to fertilize her postcopulatory competition PostCopulatory competition sperm competition drosophila make super long sperm thread way fthrough super long sperm storage organ Female discrimination among sperm can basically filter out too short sperm maybe choosing sperm like the way females choose males with long tails in peacocks except in postcopulatory competition Thursday March 5 2015 Can lead to evolution of different sperm sizes see which females have short or long organs kill offspring he didn t want artificially choose males by female receptacle length if choose long receptacle get sons with long sperm Postcopulatory competition sperm Competition Female discrimination among sperm cryptic choice Can lead to evolution of different sperm sizes Here across populations of Drosophila mojavensis different copulations have different preferences can know female preference based on length of receptacle Hanging flies and nuptial gifts Sperm competition Nuptial gifts male comes with present and female eats it and male gets to mate esp in insects hanging flies hang from things and catch small organisms in hind legs and bring to female better fed female will have ability to lay more eggs fertility tested hand nuptial gift and while eating male mate Postcopulatory sexual selection Nuptial gifts larger gift male can stay in copulation for longer but males can t stay any longer than a certain point despite how big gift males transfer more sperm with longer copulation to a point Hangingflies and nuptial gifts Thursday March 5 2015 Number of sperm transferred as function of time What does this suggest only bring enough food to stay long enough to leave entire ejaculate female will drop wings when see food alternative male strategy some males will see other male with gift drop wings and other male will mistake him for female give him the gift and male with steal gift for female some males can t find own gift or steal other gifts males do this to release full ejaculate NOT for fertility advantage Duration of copulation as function of prey size Social Behavior Groups Aggregates of individuals Afew to thousands Stable or ephemeral Active aggregationsanimals come together Passive aggregationEgplanktoniclarvae distributed by ocean currents Costs and benefits of groups Benefits Acquiring food Reducing predation risk Costs Increased competition Thursday March 5 2015 Reproductive suppression Risk of parasites amp disease transmission Resource acquisition passive attraction Butterfly aggregation at salt deposit area where male urinate Resource acquisition passive attraction Butterfly aggregation at saltdeposit Grouping around resource patches last as long as resource last Often flexible Maybe multispecies groups and ephemeral Last as long as the resources lasts Group members often unrelatednot families Group size limited by Amount of food How defensible food is Presence of other known patches Widely scattered food less defensible Less defensible food supports larger groups Other food related benefits Groups of insectivores or carnivores may flush more prey and have greater foraging success Group hunting in carnivores lnformationcentersampinformation transfer in birds Thursday March 5 2015 httpwwwoutsideonlinecomnewsfromthefieldWATCH FalconWearsa CameraGoes Huntinghtml httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvBQSoaNdJKx8 crows are smarter crow tries to fly higher than falcon but not as strong a flier crow tries to go to trees but most go slower and go downwards endangering itself as falcons try to attack from above Resource acquisition information transfer Birds figure out where food is by watching the rbirds How to test Resource acquisition information transfer Osprey and foraging directioncapture of alewivesfish Resource acquisition group foraging Gulls forage more effectively in small flocks Resource acquisition cooperative hunting List advantages amp disadvantages Larger prey vssharing Resource acquisition cooperative hunting Harris hawks and effect of group size can hunt bigger prey but have to share trade off maybe optimal group size must have a lot of birds to get enough bunnies to actually feed themselves Pack size in wild dogs Variation in group size Cooperative hunting httpyoutubedean8LzOt7m21s Tradeoff cooperative hunting vs competition Group size should find some optimum Pack size in wild dogs Group size does find some optimum Groups and predation risk Selfish herdampdiution effects Egpenguins and predators vigilance Detection of predatorsmore eyes amp ears httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvr3RElQWsh34 Prob Killed by predator Groups and predation risk Thursday March 5 2015 Tammar wallabies increase foraging amp decrease vigilance with group size more in group more can do Except in New Zealand rightbottom No predators in New Zealand httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent135657full Zone of danger around predators Coyote Raptor Thursday March 5 2015 Area around a predator where prey likely to be killed Depends on predator speed amp agility use gps on sheep to test Prey in groups may be safer in center of group selfish use friend as buffer Zone of danger around predators Coyotes are terrestrialand influences which prey they can attack Selfish sheep seek centeregSay that 10timesfast httpnewssciencemagorg201207selfishsheepseekcenter httpwwwsciencedirectcomsciencearticlepii80960982212005295 Raptors have a different range Group defensive behaviors Mobbing crows mob bigger birds in groups to protect eggs Alarm callssignaling squirrel make alarm call to others Group benefits thermoregulation Emperor penguins Change shape of huddle based on wind direction shuffle around so there are few penguins with backs to the wind httpyoutubeOL70507U4Gst10s httpthenaturalhistoriancom20121228huddlingpenguinsheatsharingselfish behavior httpjournalsplosorgplosonearticleid101371journalpone0050277 1O 11 Thursday March 5 2015 Group benefits thermoregulation Many bats here Myotis bats huddle together Alpine marmots Group benefits aerohydrodynamios Migratory bird flock shape aerodynamics draft off each other Dolphins drafting httpinkspringeroomartiole101186jbiol2 httpwwwpnasorgoontent1127211 5
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'