Psych Week of 3/2/15 Notes
Psych Week of 3/2/15 Notes 0010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Poston on Friday March 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Cynthia Lausberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views.
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Date Created: 03/06/15
Intro to Psych Tuesday Genetics and Development DNA molecule containing organism s genetic materialchemical elements amines Gene section of DNA certain sequence of amines 0 Located on chromosome tightly wound strand of DNA 0 There are dominant will be expressed if paired with a recessive and recessive genes will be expressed only if two recessives are present Prenatal Development follow book Twins 0 Monozygotic one egg one sperm and egg divides Infants of same sex have identical features and same set of 46 chromosomes 0 Dizygotic two eggs two sperm No more genetically similar than other siblings would be Critical Periods times during which environmental events can have an impact positive or negative on development Ex Language must be learned during the toddler years or it will never be learned as well at any other point in life Teratogens environmental agents that can cause deviations in development and may lead to serious abnormalities Ex drugalcohol use by the mother while the baby is in the womb Newborn Re exes adaptive Nourishment Connect with caregivers 0 Avoid harm 1 Stepping motions the baby will already move its legs as if it s walking even though it can t actually walk as a newborn 2 Grasping the baby will hang onto a caregiver s nger 3 Morostartle a baby will splay its arms and legs if it feels startled 4 Sucking necessary for feeding 5 Rooting a baby will lean towards touch Motor Milestones Raising head 24 months 0 Rolling over 25 months Sitting up 46 months with support 67 months without support Crawling 78 months Walking 815 months Developing Brain Complexity of neural networks increases with age Stages of Language Development 2 months cooing making vowel sounds 6 months adding consonant sounds 12 monthsoneword speech holophrases 18 months telegraphic speech just the essential words are spoken Preschool age whole sentences 6 years of age grammatically correct sentences take shape Cognitive Development thinking skills Piaget s Stage Theory Schemas Concept or framework to be built upon Organizes and interprets information Assimilation New knowledgeljincorporated intoexisting schema Ex A child has an existing schema for a dog four legs fur etc and is able to distinguish a dog from other animals even if a beagle is the only dog he s ever seen Accomodation New knowledgeljlproduces changes inljexisting schema Modify information you already have Sensorimotor Stage a Birth 2 years b Children explore using senses c Object permanence requires ability to mentally represent something Preoperational Stage a Ages 27 b Egocentrism they have little ability to see things from others perspectives why sharing is so hard c Magical thinking they believe they can in uence things that they cannot d Symbolic function use mental representations in more sophisticated ways than just object permanence e quotConservation taskquot a child is shown two amounts of liquid that are exactly the same but the shape of the liquids is then changed and they cannot recognize that the amount is the same Once this task is accomplished they are in the next stage Concrete Operational Stage 0 Ages 712 0 Conservation Task is able to be achieved 0 Classi cation of objects based on similarities Concrete logic can only think based on what s right in front of them Formal Operational Stage 0 Ages 12adulthood 0 Abstract thinking the child is able to think hypothetically Hypothesis testing quotwhat ifquot Vygotsky focused on the social environment s impacts on cognitive development 0 Zone of Proximal Development the area between what the child could do by herself and what she could do with the assistance of a teacher Scaffolding social interaction between child and expert to build up the child s skills Temperament behavior characteristics established at birth 0 Easy very adaptable hard to upset o Difficult it s hard to establish a schedule easily upset 0 Slow to warm up between easy and difficult o Attachment strong emotional connection develops early in life between infants and their caregivers Studied by John Bowlby who found a lack of attachment led to negative consequences 0 Separation Anxiety 0 Failure to thrive Mary Ainsworth developed the quotstrange situationquota child and its caregiver are brought into the lab and a stranger is introduced What does the child do When the caregiver leaves what does the child do When caregiver returns what does the child do Thursday Attachment styles Secure feel comfortable exploring know their needs will be met When in the strange situation the child will be calm when the stranger comes in but will become upset when the caregiver leaves Insecure 3 different types 0 Avoidant caregiver is unresponsive to needs Child explores but does not come back to caregiver They don t seem to mind when the caregiver comes and goes in the strange situation 0 Ambivalent child can be clingy at rst but may not care when the caregiver returns Displays mixed feelings when interacting o Disorganized there is little pattern in how the child behaves with the caregiver Harry Harlow separated infant monkeys from their mother at birth and put them with two different types of surrogate mothers for 165 days One had a wire body a harsh face and a feeding bottle while the other had a body made of cloth and a more friendly face but no feeding bottle Harlow observed how the infant monkeys behaved with each of these arti cial mothers He found that the infant monkeys nearly always chose the softer and friendlier mother even though it had no nourishment This led him to conclude that nourishment was not more important than contact comfort Eric Erikson studied psychosocial development Proposed there were 8 stages of development with a crisis and resolution at each stage 1 Trust vs Mistrust a Birth to 1 year b Learn to trust or to not trust c Regularity of care love and affection 2 Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt a 13 years b Children realize they can direct their own behavior c Learn to express will and independence d Child will either exercise some control and make some choices or doubt self 3 Initiative vs Guilt a 35 years b Challenged to control behavior c Begin to initiate activities and complete tasks d Enjoy own abilitiesor feel guilty 4 Industry vs lnferiority a 512 years b Pride in accomplishmentsor feelings of inferiority 5 Identity vs Role confusion a Adolescence b Develop sense of self c Form valid identityor confused about quotwho am Iquot 6 Intimacy vs Isolation a Early adulthood b Develop ability to share with care for and commit to another personor feel isolated 7 Generativity vs Stagnation a Middle adulthood b Contribute to next generation raise children artistic creations volunteering etc or feel lack of purpose 8 Ego Integrity vs Despair a Late adulthood b Life review c Satisfactionor despair Pa renting Styles Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience Children of these parents tend to have low selfesteem and lesser social skills Permissive parents submit to children s demands Children of these parents tend to be aggressive and selfcentered Authoritative parents are demanding but responsive to children Children of these parents have higher selfesteem are more selfreliant and independent and have better social skills Moral Development Preconventional aka Premoral consequences determine morality Reward good punishment bad Conventional morality involves conforming to society s rules and laws Postconventional aka Principled morality decided upon by individual even if they con ict with society s rules and laws l Hines Dilemma Adulthood is broken up into 3 stages Early Middle Late Physical and Psychological Aging Theories Cellular clock 0 Wear and tear Free radical Social Psychology It is the scienti c study of how we think about in uence and relate to one another Norms rules about how to act Roles parts you play in life Culture program of shared rules that govern a community or society Conformity adjusting one s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Solomon Asch collected a group of individuals and told them to determine the length of drawn lines Each individual was placed at a table with other people who were part of the research team Each member of the team would make an answer that was not correct but the individual would agree anyways just to conform This study con rmed the fact that there is group pressure to conform An in uence resulting from one s willingness to accept others opinions about reality Conditions that strengthen conformity One is made to feel incompetent or insecure Group has at least 3 people 0 Group is unanimous One admires group s status and attractiveness One has no prior commitment or response 0 Group observes one s behavior One s culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard
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