Bio 1 Week of 3/2/15 Notes
Bio 1 Week of 3/2/15 Notes BIOSC 0150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Poston on Friday March 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOSC 0150 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Kaufman/McGreevy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views.
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Date Created: 03/06/15
Foundations of Biology l Week of 3215 Notes Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes We typically think of bacteria as only being bad but prokaryotes are both helpful to larger organisms symbiotic relationships AND harmful pathogenic How do we handle the pathogenic bacteria l Antibiotics are used to target and kill them but bacteria can easily evolve to survive the attacks of antibiotics Often they produce protective bio lms made of polysaccharides that make it impossible for the antibiotic to function properly This is where infections like MERSA come from Some prokaryotes called extremophies have the ability to survive in environments others could not They are categorized based on their particular environment that they thrive in halophile salt thermophile heat psychrophile cold acidophile acid alkaliphile basic xerophile water not necessary barophile pressure Memorize these terms Extremophiles have very different lipids in their plasma membranes allowing survival in extreme environments Again Form Function How do prokaryotes move 0 Swarming moving in large groups 0 Swimming moving individually Both require use of agella which are protein tails that move like a propeller Both take place in liquid Twitching proteins extend from cell and attach to surface and pull cell along one step at a time o Gliding similar to twitching but more efficient and smooth process Sliding spreading by growth not deliberate movement These modes of movement take place on a solid surface Prokaryotes exhibit metabolic diversity in methods of obtaining both energy and organic molecules 0 Autotrophs make energy all by themselves Heterotrophs get energy from other molecules produced by other organisms We can also engineer prokaryotes to clean up our messes through a process called bioremediation Ex An oil spill makes a habitat totally unlivable for the organisms that were originally living there We can put prokaryotes that DO like that kind of environment in the oil spill and they eat away the toxic parts until it is livable for other organisms again How do prokaryotes replicate Binary ssion the method for prokaryote reproduction going from 1 cell to 2 identical cells by copying the chromosome DNA of the parent Prokaryotes can also evolve through quothorizontal gene transferquot This process can happen in three different ways 1 TransformationThe donor cell dies and its DNA information oats around until a living cell nds it and decides to pick it up This may allow it to have traits it didn t have before 2 Transduction a bacteriophage virus goes through the lytic cycle in the donor cell and when the cell ruptures the bacteriophage infects another cell with the donor cell s DNA 3 Conjugation the donor cell does NOT die it gives away a piece of its DNA to another cell This is the process closest to sex for reproduction Prokaryotes can do all of these or just some of these methods Euka ryotes These cells are de ned by the presence of a nucleus as well as other membranebound organelles The nucleus has two membranes two bilayers around it The E endoplasmic reticulum has one membrane around it The Golgi apparatus has one membrane lThese three organelles are all connected by vesicles that allow communication between them In addition to the nucleus eukaryotic cells also contain many mitochondria which are the site of aerobic cellular respiration aka energy powerhouses Where did eukaryotes come from They are believed to have originated from an archaeal cell which engulfed an aerobic bacterium l Endosymbiosis