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by: Adrianna Minichiello
Adrianna Minichiello
GPA 4.0
Biology 230
Kimberly Tanner, Johnathan Knight

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About this Document

Biology 230
Kimberly Tanner, Johnathan Knight
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrianna Minichiello on Friday March 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 74156 at San Francisco State University taught by Kimberly Tanner, Johnathan Knight in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Biology 230 in Biology at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 03/06/15
Lecture Notes Class 16 How are traits inherited March 2 2015 Agenda 0 Tumor progression how do tumors accumulate 0 Copying errors why don t we all have cancer Unpack twins assignment 0 Meiosis is like a slot machine How do tumors accumulate 0 Sometimes DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase make errors 0 Mutations occur at a low frequency during replication under normal circumstances 0 Cancer requires multiple mutations in the DNA one is never enough 0 Each mutation occurs in a single cell during S or M phase 0 Cells that divide faster outgrow the others Clicker Question If Herman s cancer began with a sporadic mutation in the APC gene and Herman has a child what are the chances he will pass the mutation onto his child A 0 Clicker Question If Herman s cancer began with a mutation in the APC gene that he inherited from his father and he has a child what are the chances he will pass the mutation onto his child C 50 0 Diploids 2 copies of each chromosome 0 Same genes but possibly different alleles Clicker Question Two sets of genetically identical twins marry Each couple has one child Assuming no new mutations and meiotic crossover what are the chances that two children will both be boys B 25 0 Count up all the possible outcomes I 4 possible outcomes 0 Odds of a boy odds of getting an X and a Y 0 What are the odds that a mom will pass a X chromosome to her child I 100 0 What are the odds that a dad will pass a Y chromosome to her child I 50 Clicker Question A couple has two kids of different ages Assuming no new mutations or meiotic crossover what are the chances that the second kid will receive the same chromosomes as the first D 12A46 Meiosis is like a slot machine 3 Key Ideas about Meiosis 1 Law of Segregation the maternal and paternal copies of a gene separate during meiosis and end up in different gametes 2 Independent Assortment the maternal or paternal chromosome of any homologous pair is equally likely to en dup in any gamete 3 Random Fertilization Clicker Question What s the probability in this organism that all the chromosomes in an egg would be from the egg producer s mother C 11024 Clicker Question What do you think is LEAST likely to happen E A couple having 2 kids that are genetically identical Is this the same as the twin s question 1 in 70 trillion 0 All of these calculation assume no crossing over Lecture Notes Class 17 How do dominant and recessive alleles work March 4 2015 Agenda 0 Meiosis activity 0 Recessive and dominant alleles 0 Genotype to phenotype Clicker Question How many different gametes are possible D 8 0 If there are 3 chromosomes 05 X 05 X 05 18 0 Punnett Squares 0 Sheep have 27 pairs of chromosomes 0 On one of those pairs is a gene called a black gene 0 Make a prediction what is the job of the protein encoded by Black 0 Student answer Enzyme that synthesizes that builds a black pigment 0 Student answer Hair follicle may be black dying the hair black 0 The black gene encodes a transcription factor that activates the genes for pigment production 0 Genotype Knowing what the Black protein does predict the phenotype Punnett Square BIl white BIl white BI2 black BIl BI2 BIl BI2 BI2 black BIl BI2 BIl BI2 The black gene is dominant to the white gene so all of the sheeps are black BI2 black BIl white BI2 black BI2 BI2 BIl BI2 BIl white BI2 BIl BIl BIl BI1 is recessive to BI2 BI2 is dominant to BIl Clicker Question Make a prediction what percentage of offspring of parents who can t roll their tongues will be able to roll their tongues A 0 0 The 0 is based off a wrong hypothesis according to using Punnett Squares New Hypothesis Tonguerolling is determined by a single gene I which the R allele is recessive to the NR allele Make a prediction What percentage of offspring of parents who can t roll their tongues Will be able to roll their tongues Possible nonrolling genotypes NRNR NRR Lecture Notes Class 18 Mendel s Peas March 6 2015 Agenda I Group discussion Mendel s Peas 0 Mini Lecture 0 Tongue Rolling Clicker Question When did Mendel publish his work with pea traits C In the 1860 s Clicker Question Which of the following statements is true about Mendel C He believed his ideas about genetics would apply equally to plants and animals Group Discussion about Mendel s Peas 0 Protein function and differences between the dominant as well as the recessive alleles 0 Stem Length Function of protein Student answers I How to tall or short plant would be I Catalyzing last reaction to make a hormone I Produces GA1 or known as Gibberellin 0 Stem Length Differences between the proteins Student answers I Substitution of amino acid I Loss of function I 20 times less good at its job 0 Flower Color Function of protein Student answers I Protein that accounts for the color of the ower I Protein is a transcription factor I WD40 I gene 0 Flower Color Differences between the proteins Student answers I Silent mutations and some amino acid changes I Frame shift I the protein is shorter nonsense mutation I What is the difference in DNA sequence between the dominant and recessive versions of the gene What is the difference in the amino acid sequences of the proteins encoded by two alleles 0 Stem Length Differences in DNA and amino acids Student answers I Substitution for an A and a T I Mutated enzyme s active site is changed I product of le gene is less efficient 0 Flower Color Difference in DNA and amino acids Student answers I Eight extra nucleotides in the gene I Recessive version I Premature stop codon Stem Length Slides 0 Stem Length Gene Le long stem dominant 0 16 short stem recessive 0 Gibberellins plant hormones that stimulate growth Flower Color Slides 0 The A gene encodes a BHLH transcription activator 0 A point mutation disrupts slicing in the a allele 0 8 extra nucleotides frame shift mutation 0 Can t bind to DNA I can t activate genes Clicker Question Which type of allele is most likely to result form a lossoffunction mutation A Recessive Tongue Rolling Possible nonrolling genotypes NRR amp NRR Punnett Square NR R NR NRNR Non rolling NRR Non rolling R NRR Non rolling RR Rolling Clicker Question Which of the following is most likely true C Tongue rolling is in uenced by many genes 0 A 1952 study of tongue rolling at 33 pairs of identical twins Some could roll their tongues and some could not


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