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PSYC 2010- Chapter 12 Notes

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 12 Notes Psyc 2010-003

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psyc 2010-003 > PSYC 2010 Chapter 12 Notes
Morgan Dimery

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These notes will be on our final exam this Friday!
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 04/25/16
Chapter  12     Social  Behavior     Personal  perception  is  the  process  of  forming  impressions  of  others.  Physical   attractiveness  plays  a  huge  role  in  the  impressions  people  make  on  others.  Attractive   people  tend  to  be  associated  with  more  positive  characteristics  rather  than  people   who  are  less  attractive.  Stereotypes  can  also  affect  the  way  a  person  is  viewed.  These   are  the  beliefs  that  a  person  has  a  set  of  characteristics  just  because  they  are  apart  of   a  particular  group.  There  are  gender,  ethnic,  and  occupational  stereotypes.   Stereotypes  cause  people  to  have  certain  expectations  of  others.  People  tend  to  see   what  they  expect  to  see,  and  also  overestimate  how  often  they  see  certain  things.   This  is  called  illusory  correlation.  Evolutionary  theorists  say  that  humans   automatically  categorize  certain  people  into  groups  because  things  that  our  distant   ancestors  did.  They  classified  people  as  being  in  the  ingroup,  a  group  that  one   belongs  to  and  identifies  with,  or  in  the  outgroup,  a  group  that  one  does  not  belong   to  or  identify  with.  Ingroup  members  tend  to  be  viewed  with  positive   characteristics,  and  outgroup  members  tend  to  be  viewed  with  negative   characteristics.       Humans  make  attributions  to  explain  certain  behaviors.  These  are  inferences  that   people  draw  about  the  causes  of  events,  others’  behavior,  and  their  own  behavior.   Attributions  are  necessary  to  have  an  understanding  of  experiences.  Fritz  Heider   was  the  first  person  to  describe  how  people  make  attributions.  He  said  that  there   are  both  internal  and  external  attributions.  Internal  attributions  ascribe  the  cause   of  behavior  to  personal  dispositions,  traits,  abilities,  and  feelings.  External   attributions  ascribe  the  causes  of  behavior  to  situational  demands  and   environmental  conditions.  Bernard  Weiner  included  stability  with  attribution.  He   said  that  you  could  have  both  unstable  and  stable  internal  and  external  attributions.   Stable  things  are  things  that  are  permanent  and  unstable  things  are  temporary.   Sometimes  attributions  are  not  the  correct  explanations  for  events.  Actor-­‐observer   bias  is  about  how  a  person  might  view  himself  or  herself  differently  then  someone   who  is  observing  them.  The  fundamental  attribution  error  refers  to  observers’   bias  in  favor  of  internal  attributions  in  explaining  others’  behavior.  In  general,  actors   favor  external  attributions  for  their  behavior,  while  observers  are  more  likely  to   explain  the  same  behavior  with  internal  attributions.  Self-­‐serving  bias  comes  into   play  when  people  try  to  explain  their  successes  and  failures.  This  is  the  tendency  to   attribute  one’s  successes  to  personal  factors  and  one’s  failures  to  situational  factors.   Attribute  tendencies  are  also  influenced  by  individualism  and  collectivism.   Individualism  involves  putting  personal  goals  ahead  of  group  goals  and  defining   one’s  identity  in  terms  of  personal  attributes  rather  than  group  memberships.   Collectivism  involves  putting  group  goals  ahead  of  personal  goals  and  defining   one’s  identity  in  terms  of  the  groups  one  belongs  to.  Collectivistic  cultures  seem  to   experience  the  fundamental  attribution  error  less  often  than  individualistic  cultures.   Self-­‐serving  bias  seems  to  be  prevalent  in  individualistic  cultures.  Western  society   tends  to  be  more  individualistic.       Interpersonal  attraction  refers  to  positive  feelings  toward  another  person.   Research  has  shown  that  the  key  determinant  for  physical  attraction  is  physical   appearance.  The  matching  hypothesis  states  that  males  and  females  of  about  equal   physical  attractiveness  are  likely  to  select  each  other  as  partners.  Even  though  many   times  people  say,  “opposites  attract,”  research  has  shown  that  actually  people  who   are  more  similar  to  each  other  tend  to  attract  to  each  other  more.  Research  has  also   shown  that  people  tend  to  gradually  modify  their  attitudes  in  ways  that  make  them   more  like  the  other  person.  This  is  known  as  attitude  alignment.       Psychologists  say  that  there  are  many  different  types  of  love.  One  of  them  is   passionate  and  another  is  companionate  love.  These  are  the  types  that  romantic   relationships  have.  Passionate  love  is  a  complete  absorption  in  another  that   includes  tender  sexual  feelings  and  the  agony  and  ecstasy  of  intense  emotion.   Companionate  love  is  warm,  trusting,  tolerant  feelings  for  another  whose  life  is   intertwined  with  one’s  own.  These  types  of  love  can  coexist,  but  they  do  not  have  to   go  hand  in  hand.  Love  is  brought  about  by  major  dopamine  release  that  activates   pleasure  centers  all  over  the  brain.  Another  type  of  love  is  love  as  attachment.  This   is  similar  to  the  infant-­‐caregiver  attachment  discussed  in  the  previous  chapter.   Hazan  and  Shaver  said  that  romantic  love  is  an  attachment  process.  They  said  that  it   resembles  the  same  attachment  formed  in  infancy.  If  there  was  a  secure  attachment   with  their  mother,  then  the  adult  will  most  likely  find  it  pretty  easy  to  get  close  to   others  and  have  feelings  of  love  and  trust.  If  the  child  was  anxious-­‐ambivalent,  then   as  an  adult  they  will  most  likely  have  a  lot  of  feelings  of  rejection  and  jealousy.  If  the   child  was  avoidant,  then  as  an  adult  they  will  find  it  hard  to  get  close  to  other   people.  People  from  different  cultures  tend  to  still  look  for  the  same  types  of  things   in  their  partner.  The  basis  for  love  tends  to  differ  in  some  cultures,  though.  In   Western  society,  passionate  love  seems  to  be  the  basis,  but  in  collectivistic  societies   marriages  tend  to  be  arranged.         There  are  a  few  key  things  that  researchers  feel  play  apart  in  making  someone   attractive.  Facial  symmetry  is  a  key  element  in  someone  being  attractive  because   abnormalities  tend  to  imply  poor  genes  or  health.  Men  also  seem  to  look  at  a   women’s  waist  to  hip  ratio.  Most  of  the  time  men  prefer  women  to  have  an   hourglass  figure.  Men  seem  to  place  more  emphasis  on  the  youthfulness  and   physical  attractiveness  in  their  mates,  and  women  seem  to  place  more  emphasis  on   social  status,  ambition,  and  financial  potential  in  their  mates.       Attitudes  are  positive  or  negative  evaluations  of  objects  of  thought.  These  can   include  social  issues,  groups,  institutions,  or  people.  Attitudes  are  made  up  into   three  components:   • Cognitive  component-­‐  made  up  of  the  beliefs  people  hold  about  the  object   of  an  attitude   • Affective  component-­‐  emotional  feelings  stimulated  by  an  object  of  thought   • Behavioral  component-­‐  predispositions  to  act  in  certain  ways  toward  an   attitude  object     The  two  main  types  of  attitudes  are  explicit  attitudes  and  implicit  attitudes.   Explicit  attitudes  are  attitudes  that  one  holds  consciously  and  can  readily   describe.  Implicit  attitudes  are  covert  attitudes  that  are  expressed  in  subtle   automatic  responses  over  which  one  has  little  conscious  control.  The   correlation  between  a  person’s  attitude  and  a  person’s  behavior  is  weak  at   best.  Certain  circumstances  can  influence  one’s  attitude  and  cause  them  to   behave  differently  than  they  normally  would.  There  are  many  things  going   on  day-­‐to-­‐day  that  are  trying  to  change  your  attitude.  The  source  is  the   person  who  sends  a  communication.  The  receiver  is  the  person  to  whom  the   message  is  sent,  and  whose  attitude  is  trying  to  be  changed.  The  message  is   the  information  transmitted  by  the  source,  and  the  channel  is  the  medium   through  which  the  message  is  sent.  A  source  that  has  high  credibility,   trustworthiness,  and  likability  is  more  likely  to  influence  someone’s  attitude   to  change.  The  way  that  a  message  is  presented  also  influences  how  well  it   will  make  someone  change  their  attitude.  The  mere  exposure  effect  is  the   finding  that  repeated  exposures  to  a  stimulus  promote  a  greater  likely  of  the   stimulus.  The  type  of  attitude  of  the  receiver  also  has  an  influence.  Stronger   attitudes  are  more  resistant  to  change  than  weaker  attitudes.  Leon  Festinger   has  the  dissonance  theory.  This  assumes  that  inconsistency  among  attitudes   propels  people  in  the  direction  of  attitude  change.  His  experiment  showed   that  it  was  possible  to  influence  someone  to  do  something  that  they  feel   negatively  about  by  telling  him  or  her  positive  things  about  it.  He  said  that   cognitive  dissonance  exists  when  related  attitudes  or  beliefs  are   inconsistent-­‐  when  they  contradict  each  other.  This  can  explain  why  some   people  come  to  believe  their  own  lies.       Solomon  Asch  did  a  study  of  conformity.  Conformity  occurs  when  people   yield  to  real  or  imagined  social  pressure.  He  did  this  by  showing  a  line  on  a   piece  of  paper,  and  then  showing  three  other  lines  and  asking  which  of  these   lines  were  the  same  as  the  first  line.  Six  of  the  people  were  working  with   him,  and  one  person  was  not.  All  of  the  six  people  working  with  him  were   told  to  answer  incorrectly.  It  was  found  that  37%  of  the  time  the  seventh   person  would  conform  and  answer  incorrectly  even  if  they  knew  that  was   the  wrong  answer.       Stanley  Milgram  did  a  study  of  obedience  by  using  a  fake  electrocution.   Milgram  was  the  experimenter,  and  he  assigned  a  teacher  and  a  learner.  The   learned  had  to  answer  an  analogy  question  correctly,  or  they  would  be   electrocuted.  Each  time  a  question  was  answered  incorrectly  the  shock   would  be  worse  and  worse.  The  learner  was  told  by  the  experimenter  to   answer  the  first  one  correctly,  and  then  get  the  rest  of  the  questions  wrong   on  purpose.  There  was  not  actually  an  electrocution.  There  was  a  recording   that  was  played  each  time  the  learner  was  “electrocuted.”  The  teacher  would   begin  to  get  worried  as  the  screams  because  worse  and  worse.  The   experimenter  would  assure  them  that  there  was  a  shock,  but  that  the  learner   was  not  actually  experiencing  any  pain.  65%  of  the  teachers  in  this   experiment  listened  to  the  experimenter  and  did  all  of  the  electrocutions.   This  shows  that  we  are  more  obedient  than  we  would  like  to  admit.  There   were  many  ethical  concerns  associated  with  this  experiment.       Phillip  Zimbardo  did  an  experiment  on  the  power  of  situation.  24  college   students  were  selected  to  take  part  in  a  life  in  prison  study.  Some  were   assigned  as  guards,  and  others  as  prisoners.  The  prisoners  were  arrested  at   their  homes  and  then  taken  to  the  jail  and  treated  just  like  an  actual  prisoner   would  be.  The  guards  were  told  to  treat  the  prisoners  like  actual  prisoners   would  be  treated,  except  not  to  inflict  harm  on  them.  It  turned  out  that  the   roles  were  played  just  like  they  would  actually  be  in  real  life.  He  attributed   the  roles  to  the  enormous  influence  that  social  roles  have  on  behavior.  Social   roles  are  widely  shared  expectations  about  how  people  in  certain  positions   are  supposed  to  behave.       Behavior  of  individuals  can  also  be  different  when  they  are  in  groups.  There   seems  to  be  low  productivity  when  working  in  groups.  The  bystander  effect   is  that  people  are  less  likely  to  provide  needed  help  when  they  are  in  groups   than  when  they  are  alone.  Social  loafing  is  a  reduction  in  effort  by   individuals  when  they  work  in  groups  as  compared  with  when  they  work  by   themselves.  There  are  also  some  things  that  explain  decision-­‐making  in   groups.  Group  polarization  occurs  when  group  discussion  strengthens  a   group’s  dominant  point  of  view  and  produces  a  shift  toward  more  extreme   decision  in  that  direction.  Groupthink  occurs  when  members  of  a  cohesive   group  emphasize  concurrence  at  the  expense  of  critical  thinking  in  arriving   at  a  decision.  Group  cohesiveness  refers  to  the  strength  of  the  liking   relationships  linking  group  members  to  each  other  and  to  the  group  itself.       Personal  Application-­‐  Understanding  Prejudice       • Prejudice  is  a  negative  attitude  held  toward  members  of  a  group   • Discrimination  involves  behaving  differently,  usually  unfairly,   towards  the  members  of  a  group    


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