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This 75 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
BZ 101 Notes Chapter 1 notes to come next week after I get my textbook Chapter 2- Organic Molecules - 2.4- Organic Molecules - Lipid= fat - Organic molecules always contain carbon and hydrogen atoms • Carbon atoms often share electrons with other carbon atoms forming long hydrocarbon chains • Attached to the carbon chains are functional groups • functional group- a group of atoms that is attached to a molecule that reacts/ behaves in a predictable way and contains certain characteristics - Macromolecules contain many molecules joined together • Monomers- simple organic molecules that exist individually - ex. monosaccharide, fatty acids, amino acid, nucleotide • Polymers- large organic molecules formed by combining monomers - ex. carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid - Cells have common mechanism for joining monomers and degrading polymers • Dehydration Reaction- an -OH and -H are removed as a water molecule • Hydrolysis(water splitting) Reaction- the components of water are added, the chemical bond that is holding the monomers together is split by adding water. This includes chemical breakdowns in the small intestine. - 2.5- Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates- Function for quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Play a structural role in plants, bacteria, and arthropods - On cell surfaces are involved in cell to cell recognition (white blood cells use this to recognize whether or not a cell is supposed to be in the body) - Simple Carbohydrates also known as monosaccharides • ex.glucose, galactose, and fructose - Disaccharides (simple sugars) contain two monosaccharides. • ex. maltose, sucrose, lactose - Polysaccharides- long polymers that contain many glucose subunits • Starch- the storage form of glucose in plants • Glycogen- the storage form of glucose in animals (we store glycogen in our muscles and liver) • Cellulose- found in the cell walls of plants - 2.6- Lipids - Lipids- contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules and we have the ability to store lipids long term • Function as energy storage molecules • Insulate against heat loss • form protective cushions around major organs Form membranes • • Chemical messengers - Lipids are diverse in structure and function • One common characteristic is that they do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic) - Types of lipids include fats and oils, phospholipids, and steroids - A fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain that ends with the acidic group • ex. COOH - Saturated fatty acids- have no double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms - Unsaturated fatty acids- have 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms (not all the carbon atoms are completely surrounded by hydrogen atoms) - Trans fat means that the molecule is switched making it less healthy - Emulsiﬁcation- fat droplets disperse in water that were clumped together. Bile(we produce this) emulsiﬁes fats in our small intestine. • ex. soap and egg whites - Phospholipids- Comprised of 2 fatty acids + a phosphate group + glycerol • they are major components of cells membranes • They spontaneously form a bilayer in which the hydrophilic heads face outward toward watery solutions and the fails form the hydrophobic interior. The polar head faces the outside meaning that it is hydrophilic water soluble and the tails are non polar or hydrophobic that means that they are not water soluble. - Steroids- all have a backbone of four fused carbon rings • ex. cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen - 2.7- Proteins - Proteins- are polymers composed of amino acid monomers. Generally are very long and contain lots and lots of monomers - Proteins perform many functions: • Structural- Keratin and collagen • Enzymes Hormones- Insulin • • Transport molecules- Hemoglobin (found in red blood cells and transport oxygen) • Antibodies - Amino acid- contains an amino group (-HN2) an acidic group (-COOH) and and R group also known as the rest of the molecule (varies) • 20 exist in nature - Peptides- can be used interchangeably with protein and a peptide bond joins two amino acids - Polypeptide- a single chain of amino acids - Levels of protein organization: • The structure of the protein has at least 3 levels of organization (some have 4) • ex. Hemoglobin- protein that transfers oxygen throughout the blood - The ﬁnal shape of a protein is very important to its function Denatured- A protein loses structure and function due to hear or pH. Generally is • permanent - Polypeptide- a chain of amino acids • 2 or more polypeptides - Misfolded proteins- interferes with the function of the protein and can cause things like Alzheimer's - 2.8 Nucleic Acids - DNA- (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores genetic information in the cell and in the organism, 4 bases - RNA- (ribonucleic acid), 4 bases - Both are polymers of nucleotides - Components of a nucleotide • Phosphate • Pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) • Nitrogen- containing base (1 of 5) - DNA- • sugar (deoxyribose), bases(adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine), • • strands (double stranded with base pairing), • Helix (yes) - RNA- • sugar is ribose • bases are adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine • strands are single • helix no - ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)=adenine + ribose (adenosine) + 3 phosphate groups • high energy molecule (energy currency of the cell) • undergoes hydrolysis and energy is releases • enzymes are proteins which are crucial for hydrolysis - Last two phosphate bonds are unstable and are easily broken therefore they release energy - Hydrolization forms ADP (adenosine diphosphate) - ATP can be rebuilt (add P to ADP to make ATP) - Question: A _______ reaction occurs when two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule. • Answer: Dehydration - Question: The primary function of a carbohydrate is: • Answer: A quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Question: A ____ reaction occurs when two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule. • Answer: Steroids, lipid molecules, and hormones - Question: Proteins are polymers of? • Answer: Amino Acid - Question: DNA is a____? • Answer: Nucleic Acid Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Function - 3.1 - The cell - The cell marks the boundary between the nonliving and the living - The cell is the smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life - Cell theory - All organism are composed of one or more cells - Cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organism - All cells come only from other cells - Surface area/volume ratio - The amount of surface area affects the ability to get materials in and out of a cell - As cells increase in volume, the proportionate amount of surface area decreases - All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane - The material inside of a cell is the cytoplasm - The plasma membrane regulates what enters and exits the cell - 3.2 Prokaryotic Cells - Lack a membrane- bounded nucleus - Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus - Humans are Eukaryotic organisms - 3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya - Generally unicellular • may be single, strings, or clusters - Not all bacteria cause disease some are beneﬁcial • - Question: Prokaryotic cells lack… • Answer :A true nuclei - Question: The ____ is the smallest independent unit of life • Answer: Cell - Question: What factor limits cell size • Answer: Surface area/ volume ratio - 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells - Are structurally complex - Have a nucleus - Possess membrane- bounded organelles - Animals, plants, fungi, and protists - Some Eukaryotic cells have cell walls - - Parts of the cell - The Nucleus - Contains chromatin • DNA and associated proteins - Nucleolus • Where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is made - Nuclear Envelope • Nuclear pores - Ribosomes • Site of protein synthesis two subunits (large and small) • • Subunits consist of rRNA and protein molecules • found attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free in cytoplasm - Endomembrane System • Consists of the nuclear envelope, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and several vesicles(tiny membranous sacs) • Essentially the transportation and product- processing section of the cell • compartmentalizes cell - Endoplasmic Reticulum - Rough ER • Studded with ribosomes Processing and modiﬁcation of proteins • - Smooth ER • No Ribosomes • Synthesiszes phospholipids • various other functions • Liver cells have a lot of these - Golgi Apparatus • “post ofﬁce” of the cell collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials such as proteins and lipids • • Proteins made RER have tags that serve as “zip codes” to direct Golgi apparatus where to send them - Lysosomes • Produced by Golgli Apparatus • Contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes • “Garbage disposals” of the cell • Break down unwanted, foreign substances or worn- out parts of cells • Important during development • Diseases? - Tay-Sachs(lysosomal storage disease) - Energy related Organelles - Life is possible only because of a constant input of energy - Chloroplasts (plants only) and mitochondria are the 2 eukaryotic membranous organelles that specialize in converting energy to a form the cell can use - Photosynthesis - Solar energy + carbon dioxide + water = carbohydrate + oxygen - - Only plants, algae, and cyanobacteria - Solar energy is the ultimate source of energy for most cells - Cellular Respiration - carbohydrate + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy - All organism convert chemical energy into ATP - ATP used for all energy requiring processes in cells - Mitochondria • found in all eukaryotic cells(including plants and algae) • site of cellular respiration • Contain their own DNA • All mitochondria come from your mother • Diseases? yes - 3.4 and 3.5 - The Cytoskeleton • Maintain the cell shape • Assists in movement of cell and organelles • Dynamic- assemble and disassemble • Three types of protein components - Microﬁlaments (Actin ﬁlaments) - Inermideiate Filaments - Microtubules - Centrioles • found in centrosomes of animal cells • Involved in the process of microtubule assembly and disassembly • form the mitotic spindle during cell division - Cilia and Flagella Hairlike projections that aid in cell movement • • In eukaryotic cells, cilia are much shorter than ﬂagella • Both are membrane- bound cylinders - 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules because of the 9 pairs of microtubules that surround a single pair of microtubules - Question- ribosomes are the sites of____ - Answer- protein synthesis - Question- the ____is often referred to as the “post ofﬁce” of the cell because it collects, modiﬁes and packages and sorts molecules - Answer- Golgi - Question- which organelle do we associate with ATP synthesis - Answer- Mitochondrion - Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell - First cells were prokaryotes - Evidence suggests archaea are more closely related to eukaryotes - Evolved in stages - Endosymbiotic theory- Mitochondria and chloroplasts are derive from prokaryotes that were taken up by a much larger cell - Supporting evidence - Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to bacteria in size and in structure - Both organelles are bounded by a double membrane- the outer membrane may be derived from the engulﬁng vesicle, and the inner one may be derived from the plasma membrane of the original prokaryote - Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain a limited amount of genetic material and divide by splitting (their DNA is a circular loop like that of prokaryotes) - Although most of the proteins within mitochondria and chloroplasts are now produced by the eukaryotic host, they do have their own ribosomes and they do produce some proteins (their ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes) - The RNA (ribonucleic acid) base sequence of the ribosomes in chloroplasts and mitochondria also suggests a prokaryotic origin of these organelles - 4.1 Plasma Membrane Structure and Function - Plasma Membrane- Regulates the entrance and exit of molecules into and out of the cell • Consist of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins - 5 Membrane Protein functions - 1. Channel protein allows a particular molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane freely. A mucus blocking this pathway causes cystic ﬁbrosis - 2. Carrier proteins selectively interact with speciﬁc molecules or ions so that it can cross the plasma membrane. The family of GULT carriers transfer glucose in and out of cell types. Different carries respond differently to different levels of glucose. - 3. MHC (major histocompatibility complex) meaning glycoproteins are different for each person, making transplants difﬁcult. Cells with foreign MHC are attacked by white blood cells which are responsible for immunity - 4. Receptor proteins are shaped in a certain way so that certain molecules can bond with it. This causes some forms of dwarﬁsm because they don’t produce enough growth hormone. - 5. Enzymatic protein catalyzes are a speciﬁc reaction. The membrane protein (adenylate cyclase) is involved in ATP metabolism. Cholera releases a toxin that interferes with this reaction eventually causing severe diarrhea. - 4.2 Permeability of the Plasma Membrane - Differentially permeable - Factors that determine how a substance may be transported across a plasma membrane: • Size • Nature of molecule- polarity, change • Concertino gradient - Concentration gradient - Going “down” a concentration gradient • From an area of higher to lower concentration - Going “up” a concentration gradient • From an area of lower to higher concentration, requires input of energy - Some molecules freely cross membrane • Water, small, non-charged molecules - Other molecules cannot- use.. • Channel proteins, carrier proteins, vesicles (endocytosis or exocytosis) - Diffusion- movement of molecules from an area of higher to lower concentration (down a concentration gradient) - Solution contains a solute (solid) and a solvent (liquid) - Once the solute and solvent are evenly distributed, their molecules continue to move about, but there is no net movement of either one in any direction - Gases can diffuse through a membrane - Oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit this way - Osmosis- diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane. - Diffusion always occurs from higher to lower concentration - Osmotic pressure is the pressure that develops in a system due to osmosis • The greater the possible osmotic pressure, the more likely it is that the water will diffuse in that direction - Tonicity- the osmotic pressure or tension of a solution - Isotonic- no net gain or loss of water - Hypotonic- cell loses water—> crenation - Transport by carrier proteins - Carrier proteins are speciﬁc • Combine with a molecule or ion to be transported across the membrane - Carrier proteins are required for facilitated transport and active transport - Facilitated Transport • Small molecules that are not lipid- soluble • Molecules follow the concentration gradient • Energy is not required - Active Transport Molecules combine with carrier proteins (often called pumps) • • Molecules move against the concentration gradient (entering or leaving the cell) • Energy is required - Vesicle Formation - Membrane assisted transport - Transport of macromolecules - Requires energy - Keeps the macromolecule contained - Exocytosis (exit out of the cell) • Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane as secretion occurs • Membrane of vesicle becomes part of plasma membrane • Cells of particular organs are specialized to produce and export molecules - ex. pancreatic cells release insulin when blood sugar rises - Endocytosis (enter into the cell) - Cells take in substance by vesicle formation - Phagocytosis- large, particulate matter - Pinocytosis- liquids and small particles dissolved in liquid - Receptor Mediated Endocytosis- a type of pinocytosis that involves a coated pit Chapter 1: - 1.1 The Characteristics of Life - Cell- smallest unit of life, and some organisms are single celled - Levels of biological organization (smallest to largest) • Atom- smallest unit of an element composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons • Molecule- Union of two or more atoms of the same or different elements • Cell- the structural and functional unit of all living things • Tissue- a group of cells with a common structure and function • Organ- composed of tissues functioning together or a speciﬁc task • Organ system- composed of several organs working together • Organism- An individual, complex individuals contain organ systems • Population- Organisms of the same species in a particular area • Community- interacting populations in a particular area • Ecosystem- a community plus the physical environment Biosphere- Regions of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by living • things s - Organisms require energy in order to be productive. This energy can from solar, water, food, or carbon dioxide - The information needed to reproduce is encoded in our genes which are in each individual’s DNA - 1.2 and 1.3 The classiﬁcation of organisms - Domain- largest classiﬁcation category - Domain Eukarya - Protista- complex single cell and some multicellular • ex. slime mold, euglenoid - Fungi- some unicellular, most multicellular ﬁlamentous forms with specialized complex cells • ex. black bread mold, mushroom, yeast - Plantae- multicellular form with specialized complex cells • ex. moss, fern, pine tree - Animalla- multicellular form with specialized complex cells • ex. sea star, ﬁnch, human - Extinction- permanent loss of a species - 1.4 The process of Science - Biology- the scientiﬁc study of life. Biologist can be found almost anywhere studying life forms - Hypothesis- a prediction or explanation for a natural event in which can be studied to be true or false using deductive reasoning (if, then) - Experimental variable- independent variable or the variable you control - Responding variable- dependent variable or the variable that is the outcome Chapter 11: Human Organization - A tissue is composed of similarly specialized cells that perform a common function in the body - Four Types of Tissues in the Human Body: • Epithelial: covers body surfaces and lines cavities Connective: supports and binds body parts • • Muscular: moves the body and its parts • Nervous: receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses - Epithelial Tissue • Consists of tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer • Numerous functions - Protection - Secretion (glands) - Absorption - Excretion - Filtration - Connective Tissue • Binds organs together • Provides support and protection • Fills spaces • Produces blood cells Stores fat • - Components of Connective Tissue • Matrix: noncellular material - solid, semisolid, or liquid - A non-ﬂuid matrix will have ﬁbers: collagen, elastic, reticular • Cells: various types - Blood • Unlike other types of connective tissue in that the matrix (i.e., plasma) is not made by the cells Functions: • • Transports • Regulates • Protects - Muscular Tissue - Cells are called muscle ﬁbers - Muscles ﬁbers contain actin and myosin ﬁlaments • Interaction accounts for movements - Types of Muscle Tissues - Skeletal - Smooth (visceral) - Cardiac - Nervous Tissue - Neurons (nerve cells) - Conduct impulses • Sensory input, integration, motor output - Neuron structure • Dendrites • Cell body • Axon - Nervous Tissue Neuroglia • • Support and nourish neurons • Four types in the brain - Microglia: engulf bacterial and cellular debris - Astrocytes: provide nutrients - Oligodendrocytes: form myelin sheaths - Ependymal cells: line ﬂuid-ﬁlled spaces of brain and spinal cord • Cavities: - Ventral Cavity or Coelom divided into: • Thoracic cavity – Lungs and heart - Abdominal cavity • Separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm • Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and most of the small and large intestine - Pelvic cavity • Bladder, rectum, internal reproductive organs - Dorsal Cavity • Cranial cavity – Brain Vertebral canal - Spinal cord • - Body Membranes: • Line cavities and the internal spaces of organs and tubes that open to the outside - Mucous Membranes • Line tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems • Epithelium overlies loose ﬁbrous connective tissue • Goblet cells produce mucus - Protective function - Body Membranes - Serous Membranes • Line thoracic and abdominal cavities • Epithelium and loose ﬁbrous connective tissue • Secrete watery ﬂuid for lubrication • Includes: pleurae, pericardium, peritoneum, mesentery - Body Membranes: - Synovial membranes Loose connective tissue • • Line freely movable joints • Secrete synovial ﬂuid - Meninges • Line the dorsal cavity • Protect brain and spinal cord • Connective tissue - The Integumentary System - Skin • Epidermis & Dermis - Accessory organs • Hair follicles • Nails • Sweat glands • Oil glands - Functions of the integumentary system • Protects underlying tissues from trauma, pathogen invasion, and water loss Helps to regulate body temperature • • Synthesizes vitamin D • Contains sensory receptors – awareness of surroundings • All systems of the body contribute to homeostasis • Maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment by an organism, or even by a single cell • Even if external conditions change dramatically, internal conditions stay within a narrow range The internal state of the body is often described as one of dynamic equilibrium • - Negative Feedback - Primary mechanism that keeps a variable close to a set point • Two components (minimum) - A sensor - A control center - Positive Feedback • A change brings about a greater change in the same direction Involved in processes with a deﬁnite cut off point • • Examples - Blood clotting-activated platelets initiate clotting process and release chemicals that stimulate further clotting - Child birth- contractions get stronger until birth occurs • Disease • Abnormality in the body’s normal processes that signiﬁcantly impairs homeostasis. • Local disease Systemic disease • • Acute disease • Chronic disease Chapter 12: Cardiovascular system - Three Types of Blood Vessels: • Arteries: carry blood away from the heart • Capillaries: permit exchange of materials - with tissues - Veins: carry blood toward the heart - Plasma- Liquid portion of the blood - Formed Elements - Red blood cells – White blood cells - Platelets - Blood has: • Transport functions • Regulatory functions Protective functions • - Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) • When mature lack a nucleus • Shape is biconcave disc • Contain hemoglobin • Binds to oxygen • Last around 120 days • Destroyed in the liver and spleen Iron is mostly recycled – Heme portion degraded – bile pigments • - Erythropoietin- Hormone produced by kidneys • Speeds up maturation of red blood cells in bone marrow - White Blood Cells (Leukocytes): • • Usually larger than red blood cells • Nucleated • Role is to ﬁght infection and provide • immunity - The Platelets (thrombocytes): • Fragmented megakaryocytes • Involved in the process of clotting or coagulation - Myocardium- Major portion of the heart • Consists mainly of cardiac muscle - Pericardium- Serous membrane that surrounds the heart - Endocardium- Lines the inner surface of the heart • Membrane consisting of connective tissue and endotheliumThe Pulmonary Circuit • Blood from the body collects in the right - atrium - Right Atrium→ Right Ventricle → Pulmonary Arteries→ Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Pulmonary Veins → Left atrium → - The Systemic Circuit • Blood leaves the left ventricle, travels • through the body and is returned to the heart • Left Ventricle->Aorta → Arteries → Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Veins → Vena cava->Right Atrium - Coronary arteries • Serve the heart muscle itself • CAs are the ﬁrst branches off the aorta • • Cardiac veins empty into right atrium • Portal system begins and ends in capillaries - Hepatic portal system - Atherosclerosis- An accumulation of plaque (soft masses of fat and cholesterol) beneath inner lining of arteries • Interferes with blood ﬂow • Plaques can cause clots to form A stationary clot is a thrombus • • If clot breaks loose it becomes an embolus • Angina pectoris - Chest pain from partially blocked coronary artery • Myocardial infarction (heart attack) • Heart attack occurs when vessel becomes completely blocked • A portion of the heart muscle deprived of oxygen – Warning signs: HEART.ORG - Stroke Cerebrovascular accident • • Arteriole in the brain bursts or is blocked by an embolus • Lack of oxygen to brain can cause paralysis or death • Warning signs: HEART.ORG - Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Affects about 20% of all Americans • Usually caused by a narrowing of the arteries • Age, gender, and lifestyle can inﬂuence blood pressure - Obesity – Smoking – High dietary salt intake • Medications can be used to treat this disease - Treatments: • Noninvasive - Medications • Invasive - Angioplasty - Coronary Bypass Operation – Heart Transplants and Artiﬁcial Hearts - Chapter 11 Clicker Questions Question: _______ epithelial tissue consists of multiple layers of ﬂattened cells. Answer: Stratiﬁed squamous The primary mechanism that keeps a variable close to a set point is____. Answer: Negative feedback - Chapter 12 Clicker Questions Question: ____ are the most numerous type of vessel in the human body. Answer: Capillaries Question: Blood low in oxygen, returning from the body, ﬁrst enters the heart at ____ Answer: Right Atrium Question: _____ fragments Answer: Plantents Chapter 13- Lymphatic and Immune System - The lymphatic System • Lymphatic vessels • Lymphoid organs - The 3 functions contribute to homeostasis • 1. Returning excess tissue ﬂuid to the bloodstream • 2. Absorbing fats from he digestive tract and transporting them to the bloodstream • 3. Helps defend the body against disease - Lymphatic Vessels • Fluid inside is called lymph - Lymphatic Capillaries • Extend through most areas of the body Capillaries merge into larger vessels • - Larger lymphatic vessel structure similar to veins • Valves prevent back ﬂow • Movement of lymph is dependent on skeletal muscle contractions • These larger vessels carry the lymph into the thoracic and lymphatic ducts to be returned to the bloodstream - Blood ﬂow (from red to blue) • Oxygen is diffusing making it not red anymore - Primary lymphoid organs - Red bone marrow • Site of blood cell production from stem cells • B cells mature in the blood marrow - Thymus • Site of the T cell maturation - Secondary lymphoid organs - Spleen • Mostly red pulp the ﬁlters blood and removes old RBC’s • White pulp is lymphoid tissue- contains lots of lymphocytes - Lymph nodes • Cleanse lymph • Packed with B and T cells Macrophages(type of white blood cell) residing in nodes engulf pathogens • - Lymphoid organs contain large numbers of white blood cells known as lymphocytes • B lymphocytes (B cells ) • T lymphocytes (T cells) - Lymphocytes develop and mature int he primary lymphoid organs - Some lymphocytes become activated in secondary lymphoid organs - Innate Immunity - Immunity- the body’s capability of removing foreign substances, killing pathogens, and or cancer cells (anything with the ability to do harm to the body) - Innate (non speciﬁc) immunity- mechanisms are fully functional without previous exposure to an unwanted substance - Adaptive (speciﬁc) immunity- dependent upon exposure to speciﬁc antigens • Antigen- any molecule that stimulates an immune response - Innate Immunity (no antibodies, and not speciﬁc) - Physical and chemical barriers • Skin and mucous membranes from barriers • Secretions contain lysozymes • Stomach acid kills/ inhibits bacteria - Inﬂammation- Inﬂammatory reaction caused by physical or chemical damage to the tissue (skin) - Phagocytes (white blood cells- neutrophils and macrophages) and natural killer cells (NKCs) • Phagocytes engulf pathogens by endocytosis • NKCs seek out and kill cells that lack self molecules - Protective proteins • Complement system proteins and interferons (chemicals that can attack cells with viruses or can be use to help certain conditions) • About 20 that circulate through the blood • Form a membrane attack complex • Bind to mast(immune cells that secrete histamine) cells and trigger histamine release (enhance inﬂammatory response) Attract phagocytes • - Question: Which of the following is a primary lymphoid organ? - Answer: Thymus gland - Question: Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system - Answer: produce clotting factors - Question: Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets arise from stem cells located in the ______ - Answer: red bone marrow - Question: Which of the following is classiﬁed as “innate” immunity? - Answer: all of the above- physical barriers like the skin and mucous membranes, inﬂammation, phagocytes, complement proteins - Adaptive immunity - Adaptive (speciﬁc) immunity- the adaptive immune system recognizes, responds to, and usually eliminates antigens from the body - Adaptive defenses depend on B cells and T cells • Capable of recognizing antigens because they have speciﬁc antigen receptors - Memory cells recognize the bacteria from the vaccine so that the body can respond quickly with antibodies that are already prepared for them - B Cells • Give rise to plasma cells which produce antibodies • Give rise to memory cells (differentiate between B cells), remain in the body sometimes for our entire lives - T Cells • Helper T cells- help • Cytotoxic T cells- seek out and destroy foreign cells in the body • Memory Cells- recognize a virus you have already fought - B cell clonal selection theory- each B cell has a B-cell receptor (BCR) that will combine with a speciﬁc antigen - Selected B cells (with the help of a helper T cell) undergoes clonal expansion—> plasma cells and memory cells • B cell is going to divide and make lots of it like it (ﬁght the same antigen) Some B cells become plasma cells that secrete antibodies • - This type of immunity is called humoral immunity or antibody-mediated immunity - Antigen and antibody ﬁt together like lock and key - 5 Main Antibodies - IGG is the main antibody type in circulation (ﬁrst one produced when pathogen enters body) - largest antibody is IGM - Breast milk gives the baby antibodies simply by drinking the milk - IGE is associated with allergies - IGD only function known is being a receptor - IGA- main antibody found in milk and saliva - T Cell clonal selection theory- antigen presenting cell binds antigen/ MHC protein - T cells only recognize and bind antigens presented by antigen presenting cells • Macrophage engulfs the virus and then the outside of the virus sticks out so the antibody can cling onto it - T cell clonal expansion —> helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells and memory T cells - This type of immunity is called cell- mediated immunity (requires cell to be presented) - Active VS Passive Immunity - Adaptive immune response can be: - Active Immunity • Individual alone produces an immune response against antigen • Dependent upon the presence of memory B and memory T cells • Can be induced artiﬁcially by immunization - Passive immunity • Individually is given prepared antibodies either naturally or artiﬁcially by injection • Short lived immunity because there are no memory cells • Cross placenta- found in breast milk • May be used to treat immunodeﬁciencies or prevent illness in an exposed individual - human gamma globulin, antivenin (anti venom), rabies immune globulin - Adverse Effects of Immune Responses - Sometimes the immune system responds to harmless antigens in a manner that damages the body - Allergic Reaction • anaphylactic shock- immediate allergic response - Delayed allergic response - Incompatible blood types - Tissue rejection - Blood Type Reactions - Rh system: - Rh positive-Rh antigen is present on red blood cells • 85% of the US population - Rh negative- Rh antigen is absent on red blood cells - Hemolytic Disease- when the mom is RH negative and father is Rh positive the baby could be Rh positive and the mother could create antibodies that ﬁght the babies blood cells - Disorders of the Immune Systems - Autoimmune disease- cytotoxic T cells or antibodies attack a person’s own cells • Myasthenia gravis- muscle weakness due to attack of neuromuscular junctions • Multiple sclerosis (MS)- neuromuscular disorder due to attack of myelin sheath of nerve ﬁbers • Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE)- kidney damage due to disposition of antigen- antibody complexes • Rheumatoid arthritis- joints affected - Immune deﬁciencies- immune system is unable to protect the c=body from disease • ex. HIV—> (acquired immune deﬁciency syndrome) AIDS • Severe combined immunodeﬁciency syndrome (SCIDS) • X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) - Question- Inﬂammation does not involve____ - Answer- B Cells - Question- Which statement is NOT true of the B cells? - Answer- B cells require presentation of antigens by macrophages before they are able to recognize the antigen - Question- Adaptive immunity depends upon the activity of what type of cells? - Answer- B cells and T cells - Question- A cell that is responsible for the ability of an organism to produce a rapid antibody response against an infectious agent when it is encountered years after the ﬁrst encounter is a______ - Answer- memory B cells Chapter 14- The Digestive Tract - Contributes to homeostasis(constant environment in the body) by: • Ingesting food • Disgusting food into nutrients • Absorbing nutrients • Eliminating indigestible remains - Digestion: • Mechanical Chemical- enzymes break down macromolecules into smaller molecules that can • be absorbed - Mouth • Tongue, salivary glands, teeth • Hard pallet- top of the mouth right behind the teeth • soft pallet- soft tissue toward the back of the moth on the top and ends at the uvula - Pharynx (throat) • Receives air from the nasal cavities and food from the mouth • Swallowing- occurs in pharynx an is a reﬂex reaction - Esophagus • muscular tube that extends from the stomach • peristalsis is a process that moves food • Relaxation of sphincter(small muscular circle that contracts) allows passages of food into stomach - Stomach • Gastric pits lead into gastric glands • Gastic glands produce gastric juice - pepsinogen (becomes pepsin- begins the chemical digestion of proteins) - hydrochloric acid (HCL) - mucus - The small intestine • Duodenum- the ﬁrst 25 centimeters, receives bile from the liver (bile emulsiﬁes fat), receives pancreatic juice from the pan, many enzymes for digestion nutrients, bicarbonate to neutralize acidic pH of chyme • Jejunum • Ileum- contains Peyer’s patches- immune response to intestinal pathogens - Hormonal control of digestive functions - The large intestine • Absorbs water, salts, and some vitamins • Stores indigestible materials until it can be eliminated - Accessory Organs of Digestion - Pancreas • endocrine(associated with hormones) and exocrine function - Liver • Produces bile - Gallbladder • Concentrates and stores bile • Digestive enzymes, like other enzymes are proteins that speed up speciﬁc chemical reactions - Nutrition - Nutrition- science of foods and nutrients • All body functions depend on proper function - Macronutrients - Carbohydrates- primary energy source - Lipids- energy source • Necessary for syntheses of plasma membranes and some hormones - Proteins- growth and development regulate metabolism (with vitamins and minerals) • • 8 amino acids are essential and must be supplied with diet - Water • Serves many important roles • Cells are 70-80% water - Macronutrients - Vitamins- organic compounds needed for metabolic purposes but the body is unable to produce • many coenzymes-enzyme helpers • Deﬁciencies produce speciﬁc symptoms - 13 Vitamins • Fat soluble- Vitamins A,D,E,K, stored in the body • Water soluble- remaining 9 (B complex and vitamin C), not stored in the body - Need to know all about: Vitamin C, Niacin, Folacin, and Vitamin B12, Vitamin A,D,E,K - Minerals - Major Minerals • Body contains more than 5 grams of each major mineral • Constitutes of cells and body ﬂuids - Trace Minerals Body contains less than 5 grams of each • • Components or larger molecules - Need to know all about: Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, Iron, and Iodine - Disorders and Diseases of the Digestive System - Stomach Ulcers- caused by Helicovacter pylori, a bacterium that breaks down the mucus layer and causes a sore or ulcer • Our stomach has a thick layer of mucus normally protects wall of stomach • Can also occur in the duodenum (ﬁrst part of the small intestine) due to acidic chyme - Polyps and Colon Caner - 3rd leading cause of death by cancer in both men and women in the U.S. - Polyps- small growths arising from the epithelial lining of the colon • May be benign or cancerous • Detected by a colonoscopy (camera up your ass) • High fat diet increases bile secretion and may increase risk of polyp formation and or colon cancer Fiber may inhibit polyp development by diluting the concentration of bile and • facilitating movement of cancer- inducing substances through the intestine - Pancreatitis- inﬂammation of the pancreas • Can be life threatening but usually one recovers without long term effects - Pancreatic Cancer • high mortality rate • Pancreas essential • Often resistant to treatment • Tendency to metastasize - Hepatitis- Inﬂammation of the liver • Usually caused by a viral infection • Can be hepatitis A, B, or C - Cirrhosis- liver tissue is replaced by ﬁbrosis scar tissue Jaundice is a symptom of hepatitis and cirrhosis- the whites of the eyes yellow and • so does the skin. The liver cannot metabolize bilirubin - Question- Secretin, gastrin, and CCK in humans are____ • Answer- all hormones that control digestive secretions - Which organ is the major site for chemical digestion and absorption • Answer- small intestine • NEED TO KNOW THE CHART AND WHAT EACH PART IS/ DOES/ LOCATED - Which of the following associations is not true? • Answer- Vitamin E is necessary for blood clotting Chapter 15- Respiratory System - The respiratory system works with the cardiovascular system to accomplish: • 1. External respiration- exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) between air and the blood • 2. Transport of gases to and from the lungs and the tissues • 3. Internal respiration- exchanges of gases (02 ad CO2) between blood and tissue ﬂuid - Nose- part of the upper respiratory tract • contains two nasal cavities Warms and moisten air during inhalation • • Contains hairs and odor receptors • Separated from mouth by palate - Pharynx- connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx (voice box) • tonsils form a protective ring lymphatic tissue Larynx and trachea are normally open • • Esophagus is normally closed - Larynx- passageway for air between pharynx and trachea • vocal cords- folds of mucosa that vibrate to make sounds - Glottis- opening between the folds - Epiglottis- prevents food from entering the respiratory tract. • Moves over so that food and water doesn’t go down the “wrong pipe” - - The trachea- connects larynx with primary bronchi • Held open by C-shaped cartilage rings • Cilia sweep mucus toward the pharynx - When smokers smoke the cilia become paralyzed and produce more mucus - The Bronchial Tree- Right and left primary bronchi Lead into the right and left lungs • • Branch into secondary bronchi - Eventually lead to bronchioles • As airways become smaller, walls become thinner - Lack cartilage rings - Each bronchiole leads to alveoli - The lungs- occupy the thoracic cavity • Right lung as 3 lobes, Left lung as 2 lobes to allow room for the heart Serous membranes (pleurae) cover lung and internal chest wall and diaphragm • - Produce lubricating serous ﬂuid - The alveoli- surrounded by blood capillaries • Gas exchange occurs at the moist membranes - Oxygen diffuses into blood - Carbon dioxide diffuses into alveoli • Gas exchange requires moist membranes - Surfactant (a ﬁlm of lipoprotein) lowers surface tension and allows for gas exchange - Infant respiratory distress syndrome- premature infants lack surfactant - Ventilation - Ventilation- continuous column of air from pharynx to alveoli • The lungs lie in the sealed- off thoracic cavity - Rib cage forms the top and the sides - Intercostal muscles lie between the ribs - Diaphragm form the ﬂoor - Diaphragm is made of skeletal muscle tissue • The lungs adhere to the thoracic wall by way of the pleurae - Inspiration- active phase - Diaphragm contracts • Becomes ﬂattened - Intercostals contract • rises rib cage up and out - Increases volume of thoracic cavity - Lowers air pressure inside alveoli - Air rushes in due to negative pressure - Expiration- passive phase • Diaphragm and intercostals relax • Decreases volume of thoracic cavity • Raises air pressure inside alveoli • Air rushes out - Ventilation controlled by the respiratory center located in the medulla oblongata of the brain - Internal and external respiration - External respiration- exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in pulmonary capillaries - Internal respiration- exchange of gases between the blood in systemic capillaries and the tissue ﬂuid - Disorders of the Upper Respiratory Tract - Pharyngitis- inﬂammation of the throat “sore throat” - Streptococcus pyogenes causes strep throat • Treated with antibiotics - Lung Cancer - Leading cause of cancer death in men and women in U.S. - 87% associated with cigarette smoking - A serious of progressive steps: • Thickening of cell lining bronchi • Loss of cilia— eventually lost completely • Cells with atypical nuclei • Tumors from— disordered cells with atypical nuclei • Metastasis- cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body Chapter 15 Clicker Questions Question- Which of the following diseases make up COPD? Answer- emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma Question- Trace the path of an inhaled air molecule Answer- nasal cavity— pharynx— glottis— larynx— trachea—bronchi— bronchioles— alveoli Chapter 16- - Functions of the Urinary System - Excretion of metabolic wastes • Urea- Primary nitrogenous end product of metabolism And some ammonia, creatinine(creatine phosphate), and uric acid(an accumulation • can crystallize and collect in the joints of the body and this condition is called gout) - Maintenance of Water- Salt Balance • Blood volume and pressure related to NaCl • Also regulate other ions: K+, HCO3,-, Ca2+ • Striving to maintain homeostasis - Maintenance of Acid- Base Balance • Keep blood pH around 7.4 (if it drops lower the blood becomes acidic) • Excretion of H+ for the reabsorption of HCO3- to return to homeostasis - Other Functions • Renin (an enzyme)- leads to the secretion of aldosterone (involved in reabsorption of Na+) • Erythropoietin- stimulates red blood cell production Helps activate Vitamin D to promote calcium absorption • - Tract of Urine • Kidneys produce urine, Ureters transport urine, Urinary bladder stores urine, Urethra passes urine to outside - Question- ____ is the elimination of the metabolic waste, while___ is the elimination of indigestible material from the digestive tract. • Answer- excretion, defecation - Question- The primary nitrogenous waste excreted by humans is ____ Answer- Urea • - Question- _____ transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder • Answer- Ureters - Anatomy of the Kidney and Excretion - Three Regions • Renal Cortex- outermost • Renal Medulla- middle • Renal Pelvis- innermost - Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney • Each kidney has over one million nephrons • Renal artery carry oxygen rich blood to the kidneys • Renal vein carries not oxygen rich blood to the right side of the heart - Afferent- to the body - Efferent- away from the body - Proximal- closest to - Distal- furthest from - Loop of Henle - Collecting duct- last portion of the kidney - Anatomy of a Nephron - Each nephron has its own blood supply - Each renal artery, afferent arteriole leads into the glomerulus - Blood leaves the glomerulus via an efferent arteriole - Efferent arteriole takes blood to peritubular capillaries • These surround rest of the nephron - Blood then goes to the renal vein - Parts of the Nephron - Glomerular capsule (Bowman’s capsule) (Glamareous) • cuplike structure • the inner layer of the capsule contains cells called podocytes that form pores for passage of small molecules • Filtration- The ﬁrst process of urine. Results in glomerular ﬁltrate • the ﬁltrate that accumulates turns into proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), cuboidal epithelial cells with microvilli( increased surface area for absorption), lots of reabsorption. Glucose should be returned to the blood stream not passed through urine - Loop on Henle • U shaped tupe • Simple squamous epithelium Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) lack microvilli but numerous mitochondria. Designed • for tubular secretion rather than reabsorption • This portion needs lots of ATP or energy for the process • One Collecting duct has several nephrons that connect to it - Filterable VS Non-ﬁlterable - Filterable- becomes parts of ﬁltrate • Water • Nitrogenous wastes Nutrients • • Salts (ions) - Non-ﬁlterable- remains in the blood • formed elements (blood cells and platelets) • Plasma proteins - Urine Formation - In the end urine contains… • Filtered substances that have not been reabsorbed • Substances that have been actively secreted - Reabsorption from nephrons percentages • Water- 99% • Sodium- 99.5% • Glucose- 100% Urea- 44% • - Regulatory Functions of the Kidneys - Reabsorption of Water • Excretion of hypertonic urine depends on reabsorption of water from the loop of the nephron and collection duct • Reabsorption of water requires the reabsorption of salt and the establishment of solute gradient (one side of the membrane there has to be more water concentration) - Hormonal control of water reabsorption - Antidiuretic hormone Secreted by the pituitary gland • • Increases reabsorption of water(less water is lost in urine) • Produce more ADH at night which is why urine is more concentrated in the morning - Aldosterone • Secreted by the adrenal glands • Promotes excretion of potassium ions (K+) and reabsorption of sodium ions (Na+) - the reabsorption of water is dependent on the reabsorption of sodium ions • Essential for life. Without these we would not be able to reabsorb water - Diuretics • Increase ﬂow of urine • Alcohol- inhibits ADH secretion and the dehydration causes a hangover • Caffeine- increases glomerular ﬁltration rate(how fast the blood stream ﬁlters) and decreases tubular reabsorption of sodium - Diuretic Drugs • Many inhibit active transport of sodium at the loop of the nephron or the distal convoluted tube - Question- The process of ____ occurs in the glomerulus of the nephron • Answer- ﬁltration - Question- If a substance is being reabsorbed, it is being _____ the body. • Answer- returned to - Question-True of False Diuretics decreases the amount of urine. Answer- False • - Question- ____ is the process of • Answer- - The primary nitrogenous waste excreted by humans is ___ • Answer- Urea - Question- ____, secreted by the pituitary gland, stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys. • Answer- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - Disorders of the Kidneys - Diabetes, hypertension, and certain autoimmune diseases, can cause serious kidney disease • These conditions tend to damage the glomeruli, resulting in a decreased glomerular ﬁltration rate, and eventually kidney failure - Pyelonephritis- infection of the kidneys • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (e. coli)(more often in children than adults) - Kidney Stones- composed of substances such as calcium, phosphate, uric acid, and protein • Excess animal protein in the diet, imbalanced urinary pH, and urinary tract infections may be contributing factors • Lithotripsy is used to break up kidney stones using shock waves near the site - Disorders of the bladder • Bladder infections - Females are at increased risk because of the shortness of the urethra • Bladder Stones- Occur as a result of bladder infections or prostate enlargement (males only) • May actually be kidney stones that were carried to the bladder • Lithotripsy - Bladder Cancer- most common type of cancer affecting the urinary system • In the United States: 4th most common in men, 10th most common in women • Smoking greatly increases the risk of bladder cancer - Researchers have created bladders in the lab by taking bladder cells from and individual with a bladder disorder - Question- Females are more susceptible to bladder infections than males because females have____ • Answer- A shorter urethra Chapter 17- Nervous System - 2 Anatomical Divisions - Central Nervous System (CNS)- brain and spinal cord - Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- consists of nerves that carry sensory messages to the CNS and motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands - 2 types of cells - Neurons- transmit nerve impulses - Neuralgia(glial cells or neuroglia)- support and nourish neurons - 3 Classes of Neurons - Sensory neurons • take messages to the CNS • May have specialized endings (sensory receptors) - Interneurons • Found only in the CNS • Receive input from sensory neurons and other interneurons • Summarize messages • Communicate with motor neurons - Nervous Tissues - Myelin Sheath- covers some axons Nodes of Ranvier- gaps in the myelin sheath • - In the PNS • Acts as an insulator • Important in nerve regeneration • Myelin is formed by Schwann Cells (neuroglia) - In the CNS • Myelin is formed by oligodendroglial cells (oligodendrocytes) • Little nerve regeneration in the CNS - CNS is composed of two types of nervous tissue - Grey Matter- contains cell bodies and short, non-myelinated ﬁbers (axons) • Found in: Surface layer of the brain and central part of spinal cord - White matter- contains myelinated axons that run in tracts • Found in: deep in the brain and surrounds grey mater in spinal cord - The Nerve Impulse - Resting Potential- axon is not conducting an impulse • Inside of axon is negative compared to outside Resting potential is due to and unequal distribution of ion(sodium and potassium) • across membrane - Resting potential is Maintained by the Sodium- potassium pump • Sodium- potassium pump- actively transports Na+ our and K+ in. Charge difference (polarity) of membrane results from unequal ion distribution - Action Potential- rapid change in polarity across membrane as impulse occurs - “All or none” phenomenon • If threshold is reached, an action potential occurs Strong stimulus does not change strength of action potential- changes frequency in • ﬁring - Pre synaptic neuron is receiving the impulse (left end of the neuron) - Post synaptic neuron sends the impulse (right end of the neuron) - Question- An interneuron can rely information _____ • Answer- from a sensory neuron to a motor neuron - Question- During resting potential ____ • Answer- All of the above • The axon is not conducting an impulse, sodium potassium pumps are actively transporting Na+ and K+ ions across the membrane, the inside of the axon is more negative than the outside - Neurotransmitters - Acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) are examples Both are excitatory neurotransmitters • • Increases the probability of an action potential - Some neurotransmitters are inhibitory meaning that they stop action potential - Many drugs affect the nervous system by interfering with or potentiating (enhancing) neurotransmitters (prescription, recreational, caffeine, alcohol) •Can enhance or block release •Can interfere with removal of cleft (synapse) -Autonomic is involuntary because it controls movements that we don’t have direct control over -Sympathetic -Fight or ﬂight -Hormones in this system result in increases heart beat, increased glucose, inhibits urine production, dilation of pupils and lungs and tubes to the lungs -Parasympathetic -Rest or Digest - Formation of urine - Question- the PNS (Peripheral nervous system) • Answer- is subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems - Question- the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system____ • Answer- causes an increase in heart rate and respiratory rate - Drug abuse - Most illicit drugs affect the action of a particular neurotransmitter at synapses in the brain - Stimulants- Increase neuron excitation • Caffeine, meth, cocaine - Depressants- decrease neuron excitation • Alcohol, opioids (heroin), marijuana - Dopamine is one neurotransmitter involved with physical dependence (addiction) - Drug Actions at a Synapse • 1. Cause the release of a neurotransmitter (NT) from a synaptic vesicle into the axon terminal • 2. Prevent the release of a NT • 3. Promote the release of a NT • 4. Prevent the re-uptake of a NT (dopamine) • 5. Block enzymatic breakdown of a NT • 6. Mimic the action of a NT by binding to a receptor - Naloxone - Binds to the receptors so that the opioid drug cannot bind to it - Helps save the lives of people who overdose on heroine, morphine, and oxycodine - Disorders of the Brain - Alzheimer disease (AD)- most common cause of dementia • Usually seen in individuals over the age of 65 • First symptom- Loss of short term memory • Brain cells have a formation of plaque around the axons (caused by beta amyloid proteins), inside the axon membrane have neuroﬁbrillary tangles so that parts of the cytoskeleton to form the tangles (because of tau proteins that are misshaped) - Parkinson Disease (PD)- gradual loss of motor control • Shaking • Typically begins between 50 and 60 years of age • Later characteristics include tremors and muscle rigidity, speaking may be difﬁcult • Caused by a degeneration of dopamine (neurotransmitter) producing neurons - Multiple Sclerosis (MS)- autoimmune disease • White blood cells attack myelin found in the brain and eventually neurons in the CNS • Some individuals may have weakness in some parts of the body - Stroke- a disruption to the blood supply in the brain • Symptoms depend of the amount and the area of the brain tissue that is affected • Risk factors- age, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (fatty accumulation in the vessels of the body F.A.S.T.(spot a stroke warning signs) Face drooping, arm weakness, speech • difﬁculty, time to call 911 • The sooner they receive medical attention the symptoms may be reversed and their lives could be saved - Disorders of the Nervous system - Meningitis- an infection of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord • Caused by bacteria and viruses A diagnosis is usually conﬁrmed by sampling cerebrospinal ﬂuid (spinal tap) • • Vaccine available for meningococcal meningitis • College students are at the highest risk for being infected with this - Prions- infectious proteins • Diseases from prions- Kuru, Creutzfeld- Jakob, Mad cow disease Causes holes in brain tissue • • Replicate and accumulate in brain tissue • No treatment available - Disorders of the Spinal Cord - Spinal cord injuries may stop impulses from traveling along neurons in the spinal cord - Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)- affects the motor nerves of the spinal cord • Also called Lou Gehrig’s disease • No cure or treatment • Brain is still fully functioning but the body isn’t • Dr. Steven Hawking - Question- Which of the following is NOT a way that a drug affects the brain? • Answer- Builds up along the outside of the brain because it cannot pass the blood- brain barrier - Question- Prions are ___ • Answer- infectious proteins - Question- the physicist, Dr. Steven Hawking has ___ • Answer- ALS or Lou Gehrig’s Disease Chapter 20- Endocrine System - Endocrine system- consists of glands and tissues that secrete hormones - Hormones- chemical signal that are used to communicate between cells or body parts - Endocrine Glands - Are ductless - Secrete hormones into tissues - Hormones then diffuse into the bloodstream - Target is the tissues that are affected by the hormone (could be in a completely different part of the body) - Exocrine Glands - Secrete their products though ducts • ex. salivary glands send saliva to the mouth through the salivary ducts - Question- Which of the following hormones will allow us to react to emergency situations? • Answer- norepinephrine - Question- Glands that secrete their products into ducts are classiﬁed as • Answer- exocrine glands - The endocrine system and nervous system both contribute to homeostasis - Differences between endocrine and nervous system - Endocrine • secretes hormones into the blood • Slower response • More prolonged response - Nervous system • Transmits nerve impulses • faster response • less prolonged response - Pineal gland- secretes melatonin (hormone) associated with sleep cycles and the amount we secrete decreases as we get older - Production of hormones is controlled by Negative feedback like blood sugar(cycle that means a • response takes our body back to homeostasis) • Action of other hormones like TSH and thyroid hormones - Regulation of blood glucose levels————>> - Actions of hormones - Hormones act on target cells • Target cells are those with receptors that bind the speciﬁc hormone • The hormone alters the physiological state of the target cell - Two classes of hormones • Peptide hormone- receptor is found on the surface of the cell Steroid hormone(sex hormones)- receptor is inside the cell (nucleus or cytoplasm) • - Hypothalamus - Hypothalamus- regulates the internal environments - Through the Autonomic Nervous System • Heartbeat, blood pressure, appetite, body temperature, water balance - By controlling the pituitary gland • Posterior pituitary • Anterior pituitary- releasing stimulating and inhibiting hormone - NEED TO KNOW EVERYTHING BUT CHEMICAL CLASS - Mole video- genetically manipulated vole to have receptors in the brain that made it monogamous - Thyroid Gland - Produces… • Triiodothyronine (T3) because it has three iodine atoms • Thyroxine (T4) because it has four iodine atoms • Calcitonin- calcium regulating hormone, causes uptake of calcium by bone, calcium is important in muscle contraction, nerve conduction, and blood clotting, ensures that there is not too much calcium in the blood stream. • Too much calcium in the blood can cause may problems • Parathyroid hormone(PTH)- produced by parathyroid glands, calcium regulating hormone, stimulates release of calcium from bones and an increase in calcium reabsorption by the kidneys. Also stimulates activation of vitamin D needed for calcium absorption in the digestive tract - Thyroid requires iodine to produce these hormones • Iodine deﬁciency causes a simple goiter - T3 and T4 increase metabolic rate • Stimulate most body cells to metabolize glucose and utilize more energy - Regulation of Blood Calcium Level —>> - Adrenal glands - Adrenal Medulla (inner portion)- under control of the nervous system - Adrenal Cortex(outer portion)- under the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and interior pituitary hormone - Adrenal Medulla - Receives nerve impulses from the hypothalamus - Secretes • Epinephrine (adrenaline) • Norepinephrine (NE) - Epinephrine and norepinephrine bring about a short term response to stress (ﬁght or ﬂight) - Adrenal Cortex - under the control of the ACTH - Two types of hormones- usually in response to long term stress • Glucocorticoids- regulate carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism leading to an increase in blood glucose level • Cortisol- also counteracts the inﬂammatory response • Mineralocorticoids- include aldosterone which promotes renal (kidney)absorption of sodium and excretion of
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