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HSTAA 212 Week 4

by: Nicole Goodfliesh

HSTAA 212 Week 4 Hstaa 212

Nicole Goodfliesh
GPA 3.7

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These notes cover lectures 7 and 8 (week 4).
Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts
Class Notes
military, history, militaryhistory, HSTAA212, HSTAA, civilwar, civil, War
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Goodfliesh on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hstaa 212 at University of Washington taught by Nathan Roberts in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Military History of the United States in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 04/25/16
M  4/18/2016     Week  4   Lecture  #7     The  Civil  War:  Part  1-­‐  A  New  Birth  of  Freedom     Key  Terms   •   Rifled  barrels   •   Mine  ball   •   Anaconda  plan   •   “The  Great  Skedaddle”   •   Civil  War  strategies   •   Tactical  changes   •   Shenandoah  Valley  Campaign   •   Operations   •   “Pipeline”  Concept   •   Battle  at  Shiloh   •   Antietam   •   Emancipation  Proclamation   Key  Concepts   •   Compare  and  Contrast  Two  Sides   •   Causes  of  the  war   •   Linkage  between  strategy,  operations,  and  tactics   Fort  Sumter  April  12,  1861   •   Union  retreated  into  fort  Sumter  to  avoid  bloodshed  and  they  were  surrounded  by   rebels     •   No  one  was  killed,  but  it  was  clear  the  South  was  ready  to  attack       War  aims  and  Strategy  of  USA  and  CSA  (Confederate  States  of  America):       USA   CSA       •   War  Aims:   •   War  Aims:          -­‐  Reunite  the  states  by  force        -­‐  To  defend  the  Nation   •   Strategy:  “Anaconda”  Plan   •   Strategy        -­‐  Army  and  Navy  to  “crush”  the  Rebels      -­‐  Defend        -­‐  Force  the  Union  to  give  up,  tire  of  war        -­‐  Recognition  and  Ally  with  Britain,  France     The  United  States  (1860)   •   20  million  people  (a  lot  more  than  CSA)   •   About  17,000  army  troops  mostly  stationed  in  the  far  West   •   About  200,000  immigrants  annually   o   Lots  joined  the  army  because  it  was  their  claim  to  citizenship   •   Urban     The  Confederate  States  of  America  (CSA)   •   About  6  million  whites   o   Only  1.5  million  could  potentially  enter  into  military  service   •   About  4  million  black  slaves   o   Could  be  very  serious  if  they  decided  to  revolt   •   Rural   o   No  railroad,  road,  telegraph  networks   •   Weak  industrial  ability:   o   Value  of  manufactured  goods  in  all  southern  states=  less  than  ¼  of  NY   §   Much  less  industrial  capability     Political  Divisiveness  (USA)   •   Whigs,  Democrats  (“Copperheads”)  Lincoln’s  political  opponents   o   Northern  Democrats  referred  to  themselves  as  Copperheads   •   Abolition   •   Foreign  Interest   o   Nations  abroad  that  took  interest  in  the  Civil  war  because  they  were  trading   partners  (France  and  Britain),    with  Emancipation  Proclamation,  they  step  away   from  their  interest  in  the  war.  They  were  involved  before  because  of  cotton   •   National  Income  Tax  (1862)   o   Building  of  a  military  involves  tax  money     Political  Divisiveness  (CSA)   •   Unionists  (Appalachia)   o   They  don’t  own  slaves;  mostly  rural  poor  white  farmers   •   States  Rights   o   Minimal  Taxes,  low  revenue   o   Trying  to  fight  the  US  while  also  trying  to  resist  centralization,  yet  they  need  a  central   government  to  create  an  army  to  fight  the  US   •   Foreign  Interest   •   DE,  MO,  KY,  MD?     US  Army  Soldiers   •   On  average,  they  are  5’8”,  140lbs   •   Wool  uniforms     Confederate  Soldiers   •   Not  slave  owners  for  the  most  part   •   Poor,  rural  farmers   •   Came  to  war  with  what  they  had   •   Myth:  had  more  gallantry,  dash   •   Largely  had  very  little  training   •   Put  units  together  based  upon  whatever  they  cold   •   Came  in  big  numbers  to  volunteer  to  fight     Militaries   •   Regulars:  Professional  Peace  and  wartime  military.  Relatively  small  force   o   Especially  true  in  the  North   o   Those  who  had  signed  on  to  be  professional  soldiers   o   Relatively  small  numbers   •   Volunteers:  longer  service  (1-­‐3yrs).  Large  numbers   o   People  who  came  and  volunteered  for  the  course  of  the  war,  but  intended  to  go   home  right  after  the  war   •   Militia:  shorter  terms  of  service,  State  forces   o   Southern  politics   §   Problematic  because  of  the  conflict  between  creating  an  army  and  the   militias     •    Both  sides  swelling  ranks   o   South  never  more  than  ¼  to  ½  the  size  of  union  force         Soldiers  (cultural  aspects  that  ruled  their  lives)  (reasons  to  join)  (McPherson’s  book)   •   Manhood   o   Courage,  service   •   Religion   •   Freedom  and  Liberty     Officers   •   Winfield  Scott   o   North;  hero  of  war  w/  Mexico;  most  well  respected  and  experienced  Northern   leader;  became  too  old  and  out  of  shape   •   R.E.  Lee  and  T.J.  Jackson   o   Paired  up  in  VA   o   Lee  was  offered  command  of  all  union  forces,  goes  back  to  VA  and  becomes   leader  of  VA  militia   •   A.S.  Johnston   o   Most  well  respected  military  official:  confederate   •   P.G.T  Beauregard   o   Also  in  war  with  Mexico;  confederate   •   U.S.  Grant   o   Out  in  the  West;  union   •   W.T.  Sherman   o   In  the  South  in  Baton  Rouge     o   Went  back  to  the  North  when  the  war  broke  out     Both  Sides:  Politicians  and  Officers   •   Political  office  qualified  one  for  leadership  apparently   o   USA:  Benjamin  Butler   §   MA  politician   §   Not  great  military  leader;  very  corrupt  politician   o   CSA:  John  B.  Floyd   §   Lots  of  small  but  unfortunate  military  decisions   §   Lost  the  battle  of  Ft  Donaldson     Amateurs  as  Officers  (people  who  came  from  nowhere)   •   USA:  John  A.  Logan   o   From  Michigan   o   Enlisted,  but  then  lost  Battle  of  Bull  Run,  went  back  and  got  a  commission  then   became  an  officer   •   CSA:  Nathan  B.  Forrest   o   Most  famous  cavalry  leader   §   Used  his  own  moeny   o   Later  founded  the  KKK     Scott’s  Great  Snake  (Anaconda  Plan)       The  “thousand-­‐  mile  front”   •   3  prong  approach  by  the  Anaconda  Plan       Battle  of  Bull  Run  (North)/  Manassas  (South)  1861   •   First  time  the  two  big  armies  meet   •   DC:  US  force  had  been  gathered  and  Trained  under  the  command  of  McDowell     •   VA:  Beauregard  took  22000  troops  for  the  Field  Army       Battle  of  Bull  Run:  The  Great  Skedaddle     End  of  1861   •   New  estimates  of  war   o   Not  a  quick  war   §   They  knew  because  of  Battle  of  Bull  Run   o   Sherman  relieved  of  duty   §   Some  accuse  him  of  being  insane   •   US  Army  best  in  the  world   o   But  stalled  outside  Washington  DC     Forts  Henry  and  Donelson  1862   •   Grant  in  the  West     The  Army  of  the  Potomac  (1862)   •   Gen.  George  McClellan   o   Promotion  at  the  Army  of  Potomac   o   Politically  a  democrat:  wanted  to  see  out  the  war  and  run  for  president  and  then   sue  for  peace   o   News  papers  called  him  “Lil  Napoleon”   o   Inflated  the  size  of  the  enemy  and  didn’t  appreciate  his  own  army’s  strength   •   Trained  the  Army  of  the  Potomac   o   Set  up  new  camps  and  training  regiments   o   Turned  north  into  effective  fighting  force   •   Reasons  for  not  fighting   o   “I  am  tired  of  the  sickening  sight  of  the  battlefield  with  its  mangled  corpses  and   poor  suffering  wounded!”       Peninsular  Campaign  Mar-­‐July  1862   •   McClellen  (120,000  troops)   o   Didn’t  want  to  do  a  frontal  assault  on  Richmond,  so  planned  to  float  his  army   down  to  the  James  peninsula  and  attack  Richmond  from  behind   •   J.E.  Johnston  in  charge  of  southern  army(60,000  troops)     US  Navy  Blockade  Duty  1862   •   Tried  to  keep  the  south  from  running  supplied  in  or  out   •   Floated  McClellan’s  troops  to  York  James  Peninsula  in  VA     Innovation  and  War:  Steam  and  Iron   •   Ironclads:  Merrimack   o   Shots  from  the  cannons  would  bounce  off  the  iron  plates   o   USS  VA  became  the  Merrimack   §   Went  against  US  Navy  wooden  ships   •   Terror  for  the  US  Navy   •   Sunk  2  wooden  ships   •   Chased  USS  Minnesota  and  ran  it  down   o   US  Navy  Monitor:  underwater  boat,  but  not  submarine   §   Terrible  to  work  in:  smoke,  water  got  in;  only  had  two  guns,  but  mounted   on       §   Invented  by  Swedish  guy     Battle  of  Hampton  Roads,  VA  (March  1862)   •   To  see  if  the  boats  could  defeat  each  other   •   Merrimack  withdrew  because  it  was  too  damaged,  so  the  confederates  burned  it   because  it  was  too  far  gone   •   Started  to  thirst  for  Iron     Shiloh  April  1862     •   Two  huge  armies  met  in  the  west,  at  a  place  called  Shiloh   •   US  Army  was  on  the  move,  trying  to  take  parts  of  Tennessee,  Grant  was  in  charge  of  this   part     Shiloh  April  6-­‐7,  1862   •   Grant  and  Buell’s  armies  (75000)   o   Buell’s  army  was  behind  Grants   o   Tactical  position  for  Grant’s  army  was  bad:  river  to  back  and  confederates  were   out  there  somewhere   •   A.S.  Johnston’s  confederate  army  (45,000)   o   Surprise  and  initiative     Shiloh  April  6   •   CSA  surprise  attacked  Grant’s  Army   •   Tactical  error  in  the  Hornet’s  Nest  (CSA)   •   Thousands  of  men  die  in  the  first  day   •   Confederates  successful  at  pushing  the  Union  Back   •   A.S.  Johnston  killed   o   Bled  to  death  on  battlefield  and  Beauregard  took  over   •   Beauregard:  “A  complete  victory”  and  thought  they’d  finish  it  up  in  the  morning   o   Does  not  follow  through     Shiloh   •   Buell’s  Troops  arrive   •   Union  counterattack  and  pushed  the  Rebels  from  the  field   •   Union  Victory   o   Far  higher  casualties  than  Bull  Run               W  4/20/2016     Week  4   Lecture  #8       Shiloh  Aftermath   •   The  horror  of  war     •   2,477  killed  in  action;  23,000  total  casualties   •   “a  war  of  conquest  if  we  are  to  win”   •   tactics  and  weapons       Rifling  Weapons   •   Rifled  musket  was  main  weapon  in  civil  war  in  conjunction  with  Minie  ball  and  killed   massive  amounts  of  people.  Allowed  soldiers  to  shoot  straighter  and  further.     o   Civil  leaders  did  not  yet  understand  the  effectiveness  of  this  weapon   o   In  a  number  of  battles,  the  long  range  of  the  weapon  wouldn’t  have  mattered   because  the  aspects  of  the  battlefield  mitigated  the  effectiveness  of  the  weapon   o   Most  soldiers  were  not  marksmen  anyways,  so  they  couldn’t  have  really  shot   them  accurately  from  far  away   •   Artillery  was  also  rifled     o   When  they  shoot,  it  will  now  be  further  and  more  accurate:  matters  a  lot   because  now  defenders  have  a  serious  advantage  over  attackers   §   Fire  at  troops  while  they’re  on  the  attack     Wounds  and  Amputations   •   So  many  amputations  in  the  war  was  because  it  was  a  soft  lead  bullet  moving  at  a  slow   muzzled  velocity  (53-­‐57  caliber  bullet)   o   Todays  weapons  make  “cleaner”  wounds  because  bullets  are  harder  and  faster   •   If  a  bone  was  shot,  it  would  immediately  shattered     •   Disease,  however,  was  the  main  killer  in  the  war     Napoleonic  Tactics   •   Early  part  of  the  war  (Shiloh,  Bull  Run):    big  armies  with  lots  of  men,  later  they  turn   toward  the  use  of  skirmishers     •   Fast  movement  of  troops     •   Combination  of  cavalry,  artillery,  infantry   o   Infantry  v.  Infantry  would  not  be  effective=  a  draw   •   Massing  Troops,  massing  fire     •   Bayonet  charges     Tactics  over  Time   •   Skirmishers:  Sent  ahead  of  the  big  army  to  probe  from  weakness  in  the  other  side   o   40-­‐100  men   o   Able  to  retreat  quickly   o   Used  more  as  the  war  goes  on   •   Cover   o   Valuable  over  time  because  there  was  a  lot  of  casualties     Cavalry   •   Extremely  effective  in  the  war  of  Mexico   •   In  the  civil  war,  the  cavalry’s  operational  function  was  more  important  than  its  tactical   functions   o   Scout  for  recon  teams   o   Move  troops  around  quickly         State  rights  and  southern  ironies:  Conscription  Act   •   Conscription=  being  drafted  into  the  army   o   South  wants  to  win  the  war,  so  they  do  the  first  draft  in  North  America   o   Political  viewpoint  opposes  this  because  they  were  infringing  on  people’s   freedoms   •   1862  CSA  Conscription  Act   •   18-­‐35  years  old   •   3yr  service     Decentralization   •   They  want  central  government  weak  and  power  to  spread   st •   1  national  Conscription  Act   •   Pres.  Jefferson  Davis   o   Needed  the  power  that  Lincoln  had   o   Needed  tyrannical  power  to  try  to  put  together  an  army  to  fight  against  the   North   •   Lack  of  central  authority   •   “Pipeline”  concept   o   South’s  way  of  moving  troops  around   o   Write  the  governor  of  the  state  to  send  troops   o   Relied  on  multiple  steps   o   Lincoln  could  have  just  used  congress  to  call  up  troops   •   States  rights  and  “freedom”   o   Underwritten  by  southerner’s  philosophy  of  state  rights     Northern  Political  Ironies   •   Fugitive  Slave  Act   o   Before  the  war,  congress  passed  this  act  which  required  Northerners  to  return   slaves  back  to  the  south  (compromise  that  kept  union  together),  but  as  the  war   went  on,  it  became  a  problem:  distasteful  for  those  that  don’t  agree  with   slavery.  For  military,  it  makes  no  practical  sense  because  slaves  built  railroads   and  got  food...  so  it  aided  the  south   •   Appeasement  of  the  South   •   Abandonment  of  Due  Process   o   Lincoln  would  arrest  anyone  who  disagreed  with  him   •   Gen.  Benjamin  Butler   o   Attacked  the  fugitive  slave  act   o   In  charge  of  the  city  of  New  Orleans     o   Realized  that  returning  the  slaves  aided  the  southern  military   o   He  started  doing  what  some  other  military  leaders  (like  in  KA)  have  been  doing   and  he  stopped  sending  the  salves  back   o   He  started  arming  them  and  calling  them  “contraband  of  war”   •   Slaves  and  “Contraband”  of  war   o   Gray  area  that  they  have  with  slaves   o   Emancipation  Proclamation  hasn’t  happened  yet   o   Encourages  slaves  to  come  into  the  Union  Lines     Slaves  Press  the  Issue:  “Contraband”  1861   •   By  going  into  northern  lines  in  groups  of  tens  of  thousands   o   Need  to  be  fed  and  work   o   Many  wanted  to  help  out  the  army   §   Set  up  camp  and  followed  the  army   •   Cook,  manual  labor,  grave  digging     The  Mississippi  River   •   Geographical  area  in  the  West   •   Important  for  the  Union   o   Strategic  objective  in  the  north     New  Orleans  April-­‐June  1862   •   Admiral  Farragut’s  Fleet  (Commander  of  US  navy  in  the  gulf)   o   Not  worried  about  the  two  forts   o   Took  his  fleet  of  mostly  wooden  ships  (ad  some  iron  clads)  and  they  sail  up  the   Mississippi   o   Have  Butlers  10,000  many  Army  aboard  the  ships   o   Confederacy  sent  flaming  rafts  and  mines  to  stop  the  fleet   o   Forts  and  armies  are  firing  at  each  other   o   Farragut  was  successful  at  getting  past  the  forts   o   Early  in  the  War,  New  Orleans  falls  into  the  hands  of  the  Union     Shenandoah  Valley  Campaign   •   Union  (Stonewall  Jackson)  dispatched  three  small  armies  into  the  area   o   Knows  the  terrain   o   Uses  railroads  and  terrain  effectively   •   Defeated  three  armies  in  three  battles     •   Strategy   o   Keep  DC  afraid   •   Tactics   o   Quick  movements,  long  marches,  trains,  terrain     The  Seven  Days  Battle  (peninsula)   •   5  major  battles  that  were  all  union  victories,  yet  the  union  backs  off   •   Horrible  Union  campaign   •   McClellen  (Union)  Vs.  Johnston  (Confederates)   •   Johnston  got  wounded  and  Lee  was  put  in  charge   •   Confederate  armies  were  never  more  than  half  the  union  army   •   Peninsula  campaign   o   Float  down  York  James  Peninsula  to  attack  Richmond  from  behind   •   McClellen  was  too  timid  to  attack  and  kept  waiting  for  the  “right”  time  so  Jeb  Stuart   takes  12,000  cavalry  men  and  idea  all  the  way  around  the  union  army     The  Legend  (Lee)   •   Became  known  for  being  daring  and  taking  risks   •   “When  I  was  too  weak  to  defend,  I  would  attack.”   •   He  knew  he  could  make  audacious  decisions   o   Fought  bigger  forces  than  his  own   •   Placed  in  charge  of  the  Army  of  Northern  VA     Freedom:  Changing  character  of  the  war   •   Abolition   o   Congress  acts   •   Prolonged  War   •   Slaves’  war  to  end  slavery   o   Frederick  Douglass   •   Foreign  Intervention   o   They  knew  if  they  made  it  a  fight  about  slavery,  the  British  were  not  going  to  be   on  the  side  of  the  Confederacy   •   Considering  Emancipation     Antietam:  The  first  Invasion  of  the  north  Sept-­‐  1862   •   Hope:  get  into  the  border  states  and  recruit  more  troops  and  bring  MD  in  on  their  side;   Stop  foraging  off  southern  lands  and  start  using  the  north   •   Sends  Stonewall  Jackson  to  take  Harpers  Ferry,  VA   •   A  soldier  Found  Lee’s  orders  and  gave  it  in  to  McClellen,  so  now  he  knew  his  plan     Antietam  (Sharpsburg)   •   Tactics   o   Staggered  attacks  means  the  south  could  move  their  troops  around  for   reinforcement   o   Burnside:  Union  came  close  to  breaking  their  lines   •   No  follow-­‐up   •   McClellan     Antietam  Outcomes   •   3650  killed   •   23,000+  wounded,  missing   •   Union  Victory  not  followed  up   •   Brady’s  “The  Dead  of  Antietam”   o   Took  photos  around  the  battlefields  of  the  battle   o   Photographs  started  making  a  circuit  and  the  Americans  saw  for  the  first  time   what  it  looked  like   •   Tactically  a  Union  victory  but  did  not  help  them  in  bringing  the  war  to  the  end     Emancipation  Proclamation   •   Victory  at  Antietam  allowed  Lincoln  to  start  thinking  of  the  EP  more  thoroughly   •   He  promised  that  Jan.  1  1863  it  will  be  official     •   Didn’t  actually  free  anyone  because  the  slaves  in  the  north  were  already  free  and  they   didn’t  control  the  south,  so  it  couldn’t  tell  them  what  to  do   •   Unpopular  for  the  people  who  did  not  want  it  to  turn  into  a  war  about  slaves     Summary   •   The  horror  of  war:  Tactics  and  weaponry   o   Effected  people  at  the  time  because  of  the  large  amounts  of  death   o   The  idea  that  Americans  could  do  that  to  each  other  was  jarring   •   What  type  of  war  was  it?   •   Changing  notions  of  freedom       The  Civil  War  Part  2     Key  Terms   •   Black  Troops   •   Material  realities   •   Turning  points  in  history   •   Northern  strategy  after  1863:  attrition     •   Total  War   •   Sieges  of  Petersburg  and  Atlanta     Places   •   Mississippi  River   •   Richmond   •   Vicksburg   •   Gettysburg   •   Atlanta     Black  Troops:  Aug.  1862   •   Start  to  see  blacks  in  uniform     o   Starts  with  the  “contraband”  idea  and  is  formalized  later   •   All  black  units  with  white  officers   •   Primarily  used  in  manual  labor   •   Paid  less  than  whites       Soldiers  and  Citizenship   •   Douglas   o   One  reason  to  put  Blacks  into  uniform  was  that  it  was  a  claim  on  citizenship     Summer  1863   •   179,000  black  soldiers   •   10,000  sailors   •   9%  of  the  Union  military     Women   •   Soldiers   o   Served  in  the  war   •   Sanitary  Commissions  and  hospitals   o   Cleaned  up  camps,  aids,  nurses   •   Spies   •   Camp  Life  and  Families   •   People   o   Albert  Cashier   o   Jennie  Hodgers   §   Long  before  the  war  lived  and  dressed  as  a  man,  joined  the  union  army   under  the  name  as  Albert  Cashier  and  served  in  a  VA  regiment   o   Clara  Barton   §   Created  the  Red  Cross   §   Wanted  sanitary  conditions  in  the  camps       Fredericksburg  and  Chancellorsville  Dec  1862-­‐  May  1863   •   Union  army,  which  had  retreated  back  after  Antietam,  was  now  looking  south  again   •   McClellan  had  been  removed  and  replaced  by  Ambrose  Burnside       Fredericksburg   •   Ambrose  Burnside   o   Wanted  to  make  a  move  on  Fredericksburg  in  VA     Material  Realities   •   Terrain,  cover,  disease,  mud,  food…   •   Soldiers  had  to  deal  with  the  hardships   •   Many  soldiers  who  were  wounded  at  Fredericksburg  would  freeze  to  death  because   there  was  no  way  of  getting  them  off  the  battlefield       Stone  Wall  and  Sunken  Road   •   Very  good  cover  area   •   14  Union  Assaults  on  the  Confederate  position  and  they  all  failed   •   Freezing  Temperatures   •   12,600  Union  Casualties/  5,300  Confederates   •   After  this,  Burnside  is  going  to  resign     The  North  Losing  the  War   •   Poor  Generalship   •   Conscription   o   Very  unpopular-­‐  lots  of  riots  (NY  draft  riot)   •   Anti-­‐war  Movement   o   Secret  Societies  (Sons  of  liberty)     Vicksburg  and  Grant   •   Grant  is  put  back  in  charge  in  the  west  and  reorganizes  the  troops  and  the  leaders  into   better  units   •   Material  Realities   o   Forrest  and  the  overland  route   o   The  Mississippi   o   A  siege  of  Vicksburg   •   Realizes  the  Vicksburg  cannot  be  taken  overland  and  retreats  back  to  Memphis  and   comes  up  with  a  great/daring  plan  that  no  one  anticipates   o   Says  they  will  go  down  the  Mississippi  and  attack  Vicksburg  from  the  other  side   o   Wanted  to  use  the  navy  to  keep  them  in  contact  with  Lincoln  and  carry  supplies,   but  they  realized  that  wouldn’t  be  possible   o   He  eventually  cut  his  supply  train  and  decided  the  soldiers  would  live  off  of  the   land  (Like  was  done  in  Mexico)   •   Vicksburg  was  a  heavily  defended  city  and  the  only  way  they  could  win  was  a  Seige       Chancellorsville  May  1-­‐3,  1863   •   In  the  east,  a  new  commander  in  charge  of  Union  Army:  Joe  Hooker   •   Joe  Hooker   o   Has  a  plan:  Aware  of  his  predecessor’s  faults;  wants  to  go  after  Lee-­‐  he  doesn’t   expect  that  Lee  is  out  thinking  him   •   Lee’s  masterpiece   o   Large  Flanking  maneuver  that  was  unexpected   o   Divides  his  army  facing  superior  numbers   o   Initiative  and  attack   §   Catch  the  Union  at  meal  time   §   Confederates  can’t  finish  the  battle  because  they  started  late;  wanted  to   finish  it  the  next  day,  but  Hooker  started  to  retreat       The  Masterpiece   •   Contingency:  timing   •   Casualties   o   17,000  Union     o   13,000  Confederate   o   Jackson’s  Death     Gettysburg  and  “Turning  Points”  in  History     Second  Invasion  of  the  North     •   Harrisburg,  PA   o   Rail  junction  town  and  had  supplies  that  the  rebels  were  after   •   Missing  Confederate  Cavalry   o   Lee  depended  on  his  cavalry  to  keep  him  up  to  date  on  the  movements  of  the   union  army,  gave  the  job  to  Stuart   o   Jeb  fails  to  stay  in  contact  with  Lee   o   Meade  is  in  charge  of  the  Union  Army  is  keeping  his  army  between  Lee  and   Washington       Gettysburg  Day  1     •   A  Union  unit  was  sent  into  Gettysburg  because  they  were  trying  to  find  shoes   o   Ordered  not  to  start  conflict   •   They  ran  into  the  confederates  and  the  battle  started   •   Union  army  took  the  high  ground   •   Longstreet’s  Plan   o   Saw  the  situation  and  assessed  that  the  Union  occupied  the  heights  (his  corps   was  on  the  hill  at  Fredericksburg);  this  time  he  was  at  the  bottom,  so  he  moved   behind  the  union  and  forced  the  union  to  come  down  the  hill     Gettysburg  Day  2   •   One  of  the  generals  is  Dan  Sickles:  Commander  who,  on  his  own  authority,  took  his   division  off  the  line  and  occupied  a  position  half  a  mile  behind  the  union  line  all  by   himself;  exposed  the  entire  left  union  flank     Chamberlain  and  Troop  Deployment  GB  Day  2   •   Sends  a  company  of  skirmishers  out  to  shore  up  his  flank   •   Forms  his  unit  into  an  angle   •   Ordered  men  to  fix  bayonets     Gettysburg  Day  3   •   Lee  convinced  his  men  could  do  anything  decided  to  take  a  position  even  though  his   subordinates  were  telling  him  it  wasn’t  going  to  work   •   Lee’s  final  mistake   •   Pickett’s  Charge     GB  Turning  Point:  For  Who?   •   Been  through  a  massive  battle,  but  nevertheless  the  war  would  go  on;  Meade  did  not   follow  up  on  his  success;  Lincoln  urges  Lincoln  to  finish  up  Lee’s  army  but  meade  won’t   do  it   GB   •   Approx.  46,500  total  casualties   •   Approx.  9000  dead   •   Gettysburg  Address    


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