Com 105 Lecture Notes 3/2- 3/6
Com 105 Lecture Notes 3/2- 3/6 COM 105
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenzie Britain on Friday March 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 105 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Dixon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Communication in Global Contexts in Communication Studies at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/15
Monday March 2nd 2015 Media Effects 0 Media Effects Paradigms O O O O 1 Hypodermic needle 2 Minimal effects 3 Media powerful after all Agenda setting 4 Negotiated In uence 1 Framing 2 Printing AgendaSetting O O O The emphasis that mass media place on certain issues correlates strongly with the importance attributed to these issues by audiences Emphasis is how the media can shape public opinion by emphasizing certain issues Two Basic Assumptions The press and the media do not re ect reality they lter and shape it Media concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues How do issues make the agenda Group con ict Leadership activity Protest movements Media coverage or activity Changes in indicators Political changes Crises and Focusing Events Indicators of media emphasis Attention frequency and length Placement top story above the fold Content cues headlines photos Number of sourcesoutlets Different media tend to agree on the salience of a set of issues It is not the absolute signi cance of the issue that counts but the relative strength of the forces and people promoting an issue 0 The position of an issue on the media agendas will determine how salient I will be on the public s agenda 0 Framing o How an issue is characterized in news reports can have an in uence on how it is understood by audiences Framing effects are not uniform o Frames are principles of selection emphasis and presentation composed of theories about what exists what happens and what matters 0 Framing approaches 0 Loss vs gain frames quotExercising regularly can help you lose weight and keep your heart healthyquot or quotif you don t exercise you may gain weight and end up with heart disease quot o Emphasis frames Value frame vs strategy frame 0 Gay rights moral or political issue Episodic vs thematic frames 0 Ex domestic violence 0 Framing Robert Entman 1992 o 1983 Soviet shoot down of a Korean Airliner Deliberate and intentional attack Lots of news coverage Blame the Soviet government Victims were humanized Emphasis on the wreckage and possible suffering of victims 0 1988 US shoot down of an Iranian airliner Unfortunate mishap Tragedy Less news attention Nobody to be blamed Deemphasizing of the humanity of the victims not referred to much No images of the wreckage Message frames interact with 0 Audience predispositions and knowledge 0 Framing effects are not uniform 0 Different for different people Rely upon cognitive structures schemas o Constellations of knowledge used to organize processing of new info eg news stories 0 Developed through past experiences information exposure and social interactions 0 Priming o Priming is a nonconscious form of human memory concerned with perceptual identi cation of words and objects It refers to activating particular representations or associations in memory just before carrying out an action or task o The political issues that receive most attention highest on the agenda also gure more prominently in public assessments of the performance of political actors Individuals rely upon news media to form opinions about a person or issue of public attention The more salient it is in the media the more frequently it will be primed and the more audience members will rely on it to make judgments Priming is characterized as a consequence of agenda setting 0 Framing and Priming 0 Both based on memorybased models of information processing 0 People form attitudes based on what is most salient when they make decisions Wednesday March 4th 2015 0 Media effects paradigms o Hypodermic needle mode 19505 Media sends out information and people absorb it and are affected by it in a uniform way Minimal effects 19605805 rise of cable television with more choice Powerful media rediscovered 19705 present Agenda setting Spiral of Silence Cultivation theory Negotiated in uence powerful but for only certain circumstances and for certain people 19805 present Framing Priming Agenda Setting O 0000 0 News media doesn t tell us how to think but what to think about Millions of important events occur every day in the world News media can only select a small number of these events In uences us about what we think is important Agenda setting effects dependent on 1 News coverage 2 Placement of news We and news media focus on the one but not the many Rwandan Genocide 0 April 7 July 151994 0 500k to 1 million people died in 100 days O O Gikondo Massacre 110 people killed in front of unarmed UN observers Did not garner great deal of attention Psychic numbing and identi able victim effect 0 O O O Psychic numbing the vast size of victims goes beyond our level of comprehension We shut down emotionally Identi able victim effect we have a stronger emotional connection with single victims than a group More willing to offer aid quot a single death is a tragedy a million deaths is a statisticquot For agenda setting News agencies prefer stories with identi ed victims Even when stories discuss stories with mass casualties people may not be emotionally affected 0 Framing O O quot to frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communication text in such a way as to promote a particular problem de nition causal interpretation moral evaluation andor treatment recommendationquot Framing can in uence how we think about issues Con ict frame Provide disagreement between two or more parties Creates perception that there s debate surrounding issues that may not be debated in expert communities eg climate change vaccination Episodic Focusing on an individual rather than society as a whole 0 Effect emotional Thematic Focusing on society rather than individual Friday March 6th 2015 0 Paper Analysis 1 Grades 0 O 0 Need to link concepts learned in lecture to your analysis paper Cite references in text Need to proofread do not wait until last minute 0 Recap from last class 0 O O 0 History of media effects From big to more nuanced effects Agenda Setting Theory Psychic numbing and identi ed victim effect Framing Judgment and Decision Making 0 Two parallel routes in human judgment and decision making 0 Systematic processing Careful conscious processing High motivation to process information o Heuristic processing Fast instinctive subconscious processing Low motivation to process information o Priming You hear the words quotpopquot drop quotcopquot and quotmopquot What do you do at a green light What do you think about the color green red Priming De nition Implicit memory in which exposure to a stimulus in uences a response to another stimulus lmplicit memory o Is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences Priming is a subconscious form of human memory concerned with perceptual identi cation of words and objects Priming Effects Yale University 0 Can something as simple as temperature prime your decision 0 Hot vs cold beverage in hiring decisions 0 httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvlefFEffDd8 o Priming in mass media Priming and media effects 0 Negative media leads to seek out more negative than positive media Associating colors with meaning 0 Red gt danger alert 0 Yellow gt caution Green gt go natural environmental 0 Green food labels make nutritionpoor food seem healthy 0 Types of Heuristics Availability heuristic Judgment based on ease of recall 0 Messages that are memorable can elicit an availability response 0 What makes messages more memorable Availability and emotions O O O Tying back to human perception and the selection More emotional arousal gt greater recall Greater availability due to emotional response 0 Availability heuristic as a media effect 0 0 Unusual and intense situation gt greater attention Media effect Perceive risk of harm is high when it is in fact very very low
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