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Week 7 Lecture Notes

by: Monica Weisenbach

Week 7 Lecture Notes BIO110

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Biology > BIO110 > Week 7 Lecture Notes
Monica Weisenbach
GPA 3.819
Introductory Biology for Science Majors
Christiane Healey

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Introductory Biology for Science Majors
Christiane Healey
Class Notes
Umass Amherst, amherst, UMass, 110, Biology, biology 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Weisenbach on Friday March 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO110 at University of Massachusetts taught by Christiane Healey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Science Majors in Biology at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 03/06/15
Week 7 Notes Cell Based Therapy 3Dprinting has some applications for tissuebuilding particularly those that are flat There have been human ears transplanted on mice which lived This is an important breakthrough as it shows these tissues can survive outside of the petri dish Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can differentiate to other types of cells which is important in the process of building organs Stem cell research has a lot of potential What are Stem Cells Stem cells are unique cells that can selfrenew for the life of an organism that is they can reproduce without changing developmental potential which means that at least one of the daughter cells will be a stem cell Stem cells are active throughout life in development growing tissue homeostasis replacing cells and tissue repair after injury The most common type of stem cell division is asymmetrical cell division Symmetric Selfrenewal O O f 0 Symmetric Differentiation Asymmetric Selfrenewal Stem cells only divide about one per day why do they do this Stem cells don t divide often because that leaves them more open to mutations The daughter cell that will differentiate is the cell that does most of the division Where do embryonic stem cells come from These come from leftover IVF embryos donated by couples The stem cells come from the first week of development No pregnancies are ended to extract embryonic stem cells this stage is actually too early for pregnancy tests to be positive There are different types of stem cell potency Totipotency is the ability to make all the cells of the body and supporting organic ssues mm is the ability to make all the cells of the body Multipotency is the ability to make all the cells involved in the surrounding organ environment of the stem cell There are different types of stem cells Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent See above Adult stem cells are multipotent These are stem cells that remain in the human body They are rare and very difficult to extract from the body Induced Pluripotent stem cells are pluripotent These are normal cells that have been pushed back into the stem cell stage by removing all epigenetic markers A Japanese team checked all the genes in mice to narrow down which ones were important in cell differentiation succeeding in 1981 It took around 17 years to get success with human cells 1998 Embryonic stem cells are still the gold standard since lPSCs are slightly different It is very important to know exactly how the cells will react if an ISPC from a skin cell is placed into the brain it is very important that that ISPC never acts like a skin cell A question What if ESCs from humans were injected into immunocompromised mice or mouse ESCs into normal mice 1 They would generate needed tissues in the body 2 They would turn into human tissue in the mouse body 3 They would adapt to the location where they were injected Actually the answer is that weird tumors called teratomas will form Teratomas are amalgamations of different tissues Another question What if adult stem cells into immunocompromised mice The stem cells will differentiate into one or a few tissues based on the environment the stem cells were taken from If brain stem cells are injected into skin they should still differentiate into various brain cells because multipotent stem cells are very limited in potential This is because a lot of genes have already been switched off One of the first people to extract embryonic stem cells took out a patent The patent does not cover the process used to extract the cell cell but the stem cells themselves and all stem cells that could ever be extracted Patents are supposed to be rewards to protect inventors but in this case it could also squelch research and progress due to the fees owed for using any embryonic stem cells Guest Lecturer Michele Markstein from the Bio Department The microenvironment of the stem cell is incredibly important for cell differentiation Fruit flies have been an important part of genetic research They have less genes than humans and some of the genes are homologues to human versions Her research was on drugs effects on stem cells which turned to the focus of the effects of drugs on the microenvironment The stem cells were made to glow green with GFP they were also made to express certain genes Tumors were induced with certain common mutations and then fed drugs The flies were then either dissected or crushed and the amount of light used to count the stem cells The upshot is that some drugs were successful while others started growing new tumors Questions What is the potency of the following cell types Zygote Totipotent 4cell stage Totipotent Stem cells in bone marrow Multipotent Embryonic stem cells Pluripotent You receive a package from an colleague It is supposedly full of embryonic stem cells Your colleague then disappears on a secret mission for the CIA leaving you with the package You suspect that the package contains adult stem cells inside What reasons support your conclusion Because the stem cells in the package are multipotent YES Because the stem cells are difficult to keep in the lab because they like to differentiate YES Because the stem cells can only differentiate into a few mature cell types YES


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