The Realm of Galaxies
The Realm of Galaxies Astr 1010-100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Karounos on Friday March 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Astr 1010-100 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Oliver Fraser in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Introductory Astronomy 1 in Astronomy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 03/06/15
34 15 1 Goals A Compare and contrast disk and elliptical galaxies B Identify the orbits that create structures in galaxies C Explain how we know a supermassive black hole exists in the center of our galaxy II Galaxies A normally aren t alone galaxy clusters can be enormous B Milky Way is a member of the Local Group III Edwin Hubble s Classi cation Scheme A Ellipticals and Spirals B Spirals have either a bar or a spiral Easier to call them disks C predicted that galaxies evolved from one to the other but that s not true D Andromeda Galaxy 1 closests and brightest galaxy 2 a disk E Milky Way 1 a disk galaxy IV Two Clues to Galaxy Histories A Color 1 galaxies are made of stars 2 we care about the brights ones 3 look at high mass main sequence stars like Os and Bs blue 4 ongoing star formation B Structure 1 Motions are determined by gravity 2 and gravity is determined by where the mass is 3 Disk or spiral V Disk bunch of stars orbits in a big circle around the middle bulge very thin all stars are orbiting on a plane great majority are all orbiting together bulge in the disk bars in bulges act almost like elliptical inside Disk disk itself is very even plane created by circular orbits orbits in the disk will be uniform but inside the bulge they will be similar to cummmbowgt elliptical orbits VI Elliptical U090 VII A B C D vm Milky WOW 7 WQZZVWH football 3D shaped orbits at all random directions all the mass is not focused in the center Orbits all over the place Measuring matter using Motions motions include orbits rotation curves even intergalactic gas temperatures since motions are determined by gravity and gravity is determined by where the mass is we can measure motions we can nd where the mass is Active galaXies could have jets streaming out of their core jets composed of high energy electrons at 98 the speed of light Way center of our galaxy is a constellation sagittarius seeing eXpanding shell of supernovae see the center Sgr A burst every 2 hours To calculate orbits from stellar positions Gehrz research guru had to assure that the dots trace out parts of elliptical orbits the dots are placed at one year intervals the fasted stars have the dots father39s apart 1 found through Kepler s laws What is the appearance orbital period of the star with the smallest orbit 13 years The sale bar carries about 1600 AU estimate the semimajor aXis of the star with the smallest orbit 800 AU Determine the mass of the central object 1 period 13 years 2 semimajor aXis 800 AU 3 M a3 p2 4 equals 865X106 weighs millions of solar masses we believe the centre object is a supermassive black hole and we believe that these are very common in galaxies the crazy jet must be from a black hole too black holes from supernovae are very small massive black holes are ridiculously massive SMBH ours is quiet not generating jets or gamma rays or X rays ying about Rotation curve of a disk slower in the middle faster in the outside the further you are from the main the slower you go but not in the milky way
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