Hist1020 Cold Was Africa and Afghanistan april 19-21
Hist1020 Cold Was Africa and Afghanistan april 19-21 World history II
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Cold War Africa and Afghanistan 1 R ACE AND E THNIC R ELATIONS H EADING Study Questions I. What is decolonization? II. What is apartheid and what was “Grand Apartheid”? III. Discuss the history of the African National Congress. IV. What happened in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda? I. Intro A. Africa a. Second most populated and second largest continent b. Very diverse continent c. Consists of over 50 countries today d. South Africa (country) and Rwanda are what we will cover B. European Imperialism a. Important in Africa b. Earlier in the semester c. Europeans took over other people’s lands and harmed the people d. Decolonization II. Study Question 1 (I): What is decolonization? A. Decolonization a. WWI 1914-1918 promise question again b. WWII 1939-1945 promise question again c. Decolonization: between WWI and WWII and accelerated in 1945. i. Process in which European governments gave up control of governments in foreign lands ii. Restored independence in these places iii. Led to liberation but maybe not to freedom and wealth d. Often, significant problems still existed when the left. i. 3 main sets of problems. B. Decolonization problem 1: economy a. Took the resources leaving the natives living in poverty b. Low supplies of food and clothing c. Poor housing d. Poor healthcare and educational opportunities C. Decolonization problem 2: political a. Left countries in Africa with many political problems b. Many governments created became authoritarian rather than democracy c. Many became very corrupt and brutal D. Decolonization problem 3: racial or ethnic tensions and conflict a. Seen in south Africa and Rwanda E. South Africa a. Rich in natural resources b. Gold and diamonds c. No Europeans until the 1600s d. Began to travel to Africa and make colonies to exploit resources e. Dutch and English explorers were first to settle in south Africa f. Native continued to live there and increasingly lived under white domination g. Colonies grew in size and power and lasted well into 19 century h. Descendants of Dutch settler: Boers or Afrikaners i. Didn’t always get along with English settlers ii. Competed for control over resources of S.A. (south Africa) iii. End of 19 cent, English won upper hand in the struggle for control i. English dominated form then to WWII. Lost interest due to other things they were trying to manage around WWII. Gave up control of S.A. allowing Afrikaners to regain control of S.A. that they maintained until 1994. j. 1994 Africths lost control of SA k. End of 19 century, Indians (from India) and Asians came to live in SA at the end of the 19 century. i. Indians and Asians came because the British brought them to SA to work in the diamond and gold mines ii. Helped English make money off of these resources iii. These came to be referred to by British the Coloreds iv. The natives were called the Blacks v. Called themselves the whites vi. SA became very diverse vii. Broken down by color of skin and was the opposite of a melting pot 1. SA characterized by strict segregation based on skin color 2. Whites ruled over SA and saw themselves as superior 3. Treated blacks and coloreds as inferior 4. Whites were the minority in the population (a lot fewer of them) viii. Wanted to maintain their control over the land ix. English used a few means to ensure power 1. Used maxim gun 2. Pass laws: laws to maintain power and domination by English in SA vii. Required that nonwhites in SA required passes on them at all times. viii. These passes stated where these people could and couldn’t go so it restricted their freedom of movement in order to ensure only the whites (descendants of English and Dutch) could have the best land and resources. ix. Became basis for a system of Apartheid that ruled Africa until 1994 V. Study Question 2 (II): What is apartheid and what was “Grand Apartheid”? A. Apartheid a. Grew out of history of euro imperialism in SA b. Apartheid: separateness (apart in the word apartheid) i. Apartheid in SA was a system of legalized racial segregation between the descendants of the whites and the Africans and colored migrants at the end of the 19 century. ii. Made sure people of different skin colors stayed apart iii. Also a system of racial discrimination that aimed to secure privileges for the white at the expense of those who had colored skin iv. Education and medical care were segregated v. Whites received superior services in all aspeths vi. Set up and intensified beginning in late 19 century. vii. Some between the world wars but some whites did want to dismantle apartheid (knowledge of Nazis and Jews). viii. Not all whites wanted it to end. Some wanted to intensify it. c. 1948 elections to the parliament of SA took place. i. 2 parties gave the most votes: 1. Afrikaner party (Dutch descendants) 2. Reunited national party ii. National Parliament of South Africa iii. Weren’t multi-racial elections iv. Were multi-party. v. Only whites could vote and run in elections until 1994 d. Afrikaner and Reunited National parties both wanted the intensification of Apartheid. i. Because they shared this in common, they joined in 1948 and created a very large and powerful party: the National Party of South Africa ii. Able to push through the intensification of racial segregation in SA iii. This led to being called the “grand apartheid” B. “Grand Apartheid” a. Very deep racial segregation based on skin color b. Began in 1948 when the National Party of South Africa was made c. All passed by the South African National Party d. First grand apartheid law passed in 1949 i. This was the prohibition of mixed marriages act of 1949 ii. This prohibited marriage between people of different skin colors iii. Those who didn’t obey were arrested and marriages were voided e. the immorality Act of 1950 was passed i. Prohibited sexual relations between people of different skin colors ii. If caught, they were arrested and jailed f. Population registration act of 1950 i. Required all people in SA e registered with the state according to one of three categories 1. Register as either white, black, or colored 2. Refined the old pass laws from late 19 cent., requiring all black and coloreds had to carry pass books that indicated where they could travel, limiting freedom of movement. ii. The pass books were elaborate and contained photos and fingerprints of individuals g. Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 i. Established so called home lands or “Bantustans”. These were independent state units created for blacks and sometimes colored to live in. ii. Person and family had to get up and move to a designated territory no matter where they lived for years or generations. iii. This act is also called a system of forced resettlement. iv. Territories where they were required to live were the worst lands in SA. Poor farming lands, no mines, and lack of water. v. Areas of great poverty vi. Served to further segregate color groups h. Reservation of Separate Amenities act of 1953 i. Formalized the practice of whites only public services ii. Certain public services and areas were reserved for whites only (beaches, buses, swimming pools, etc.) i. Not everyone liked the apartheid. Blacks hated it because they got the worst or no resources and coloreds hated it too because of their lack of opportunities and even some whites were embarrassed of it. j. Protests began in 1950s k. Public Safety Act of 1953 i. Passed by National parliament of SA to stop people from protesting ii. Gave government the power to declare a state of emergency if there was protest against apartheid iii. In a state of emergency, these people could be whipped, fines, arrested, imprisoned, etc. iv. Did not stop protests C. African National Congress a. People wouldn’t stop protesting III. Study Question 3 (III): Discuss the history of the African National Congress. A. African National Congress a. Old by the time of the Grand Apartheid b. Founded in 1912 to protest early apartheid in SA c. Became very active after WWII as laws of Grand Apartheid were being passed d. Even more active with deepening of segregation e. Began increased protests in 1950s f. In reaction, SA government tried to stop ANC by banning leaders and making activities illegal making the organization illegal in Africa and many were jailed g. Didn’t stop activities. h. Sharpeville Massacre of March 21, 1960 i. This is a Bantustan where blacks were forced to live ii. Some blacks refused to carry their pass books which was a form of protest iii. ANC was involved and organized this event iv. Government of SA didn’t like this so they sent troops here to stop the protest using public safety act of 1953. v. Troops began to arrest people and 69 died and 180 wounded by guns. 18000 blacks were arrested. vi. Protest continued i. Nelson Mandela (1918-1912) was the most famous leader of the African National Congress i. Arrested in 1962 for protesting and sentenced to life imprisonment ii. Served 27 years in jail for protesting iii. Released in 1989 when National Party of SA began to dismantle apartheid that was completed in 1994 iv. 1993 Mandela received Nobel peace prize j. 70s and 80s protesting increased i. During this time, international awareness began to spread around the globe. ii. International community began to put pressure on the government to dismantle the institutions iii. International protests began against the government and economy 1. Ex: boycotts around the world of SA goods (gold and diamonds) 2. Foreign tourists began to boycott resorts and beaches hurting economy iv. Helped to do away with apartheid v. 1980s they were forced to dismantle vi. Began in 1990 and ended 1994 vii. 1994 is a promise question viii. 1994 ended when the first multi-racial elections began in SA ix. Winner of 1994 multi-racial elections was the African National Congress and they named Nelson Mandela the president of SA. VI. Study Question 4 (IV): What happened in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda? A. Rwanda a. 1994, rather than an end to racial government and conflict, genocide broke out b. Genocide: deliberate and systematic effort to wipe out a groups based on ethnic, racial or religious identity. c. Most famous example of genocide: Nazi Holocaust d. Genocide in Cambodia in 1970s and also former Yugoslavia in 1990s as well as Rwanda in 1994. We didn’t learn from the past apparently. e. This was part of the Congo Free State (King Leo II and rubber trees). f. Rwanda was a multiethnic territory: 2 most important: i. Hutus: given worst work, least favored and sometimes bossed by Tutsis ii. Tutsis: looked more European to the Belgians (taller) so the Tutsis were favored by the Belgians and gave them privileges creating a division in the native population g. Hutus needed up resenting the Tutsis for the special status they had with the Belgians h. After WWII Belgians still had control i. 1959 violent revolution broke out in Rwanda i. In part an effort by the local population to kick out the Belgians ii. Also fighting between Hutus and Tutsis iii. Further ethnic tensions j. Belgians decolonized in 1962 and Rwanda became independent k. Hutus took over in 1962 because many Tutsis fled l. Some Tutsis wanted to return home so those in exile organized themselves into a fighting force called the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) i. Wanted to take back government m. 1992, RPF tried to take over the government of Rwanda i. Initially they were able to fight against RPF ii. In 1993 they declared a cease-fire which ended April 1994 iii. April 1994, plane with president off Rwanda was shot down. Both sides blamed one another and in a matter of hours the genocide began iv. In this genocide, Hutus tried to wipe out Tutsis v. Lasted about 100 days. About ½ million Tutsis were killed. Most were killed using machetes (very primitive) vi. This provides evidence that this killing was planned in advance. vii. During the killing the RPF led an attack on the government and by end of July 1994, Tutsis took over government and genocide ended. n. Genocide is happening in Africa today B. Darfur (region in Sudan) a. Modern genocide happening today b. Started 2003 c. About ½ million people killed and 2.5 million fled 2 A FGHANISTAN AND THE C OLD W AR Study Questions I. What is a burqa? II. What reforms did Shah Amanullah Khan bring to Afghanistan? III. What was the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan? IV. What did the Taliban do in the 1990’s? I. Intro A. Afghanistan a. This is a landlocked country in South-central Asia i. Landlocked: no bodies of water around it, just land b. South and east neighbor is Pakistan c. West neighbor is Iran d. To the north is Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan i. During the cold war, these were part of the Soviet Union until it was broken apart in 1991 where they became independent countries. ii. This is important because sharing a border with SU sucking Afghanistan into the rivalry of the cold war and being attracted to SU e. Afghan is a country rich with natural resources making it very attractive i. Precious metals: gold, silver, aluminum, lithium ii. Minerals: petroleum iii. The resources are valued at $1-3 trillion f. Primarily a Muslim country i. Followers of Islam (religion) ii. This is monotheistic (one god) iii. The God is known as Allah iv. The holy book is the Quran v. A lot of diversity of approaches to the religion. Some are more open than others. Some are really closed and traditional. 1. Fundamentalists: the traditional Muslims a. Greatest symbol is the burqa 2. Modernizers: the more new age and open Muslims II. Study Question 1 (I): What is a burqa? A. Burqa a. Article of clothing that devout Muslim women must wear this i. Fundamentalist Muslims ii. A very long veil (body veil) iii. Covers the face, to the hands, down to the feet iv. No hint of that woman’s sexuality can be seen b. This is for women to keep themselves covered out in public c. Believe women shouldn’t talk to any men besides her husband d. Also believe women shouldn’t be educated e. Modernizers don’t believe in this stuff B. Modernizers a. Believe women should be educated b. Women should be free and wear modern clothing c. Women should be social in public C. Early Afghan History a. 1700-1750, the foundations of the state of Afghanistan was established and the Durrani Empire was created b. This became the foundation of the modern 20 century Afghan c. First capital was the city of Kandahar d. 1776 capital shifted to the city of Kabul e. Capital kept shifting between the two but Kabul is what it is presently f. Late 19 cent, fell under British control g. Fought to get independence back and in 1919, Afghanis managed to regain control over their government and they created a new and independent state of Afghanistan i. Created out of turmoil h. New independent state was a monarchy ruled by a King. i. Shah: Afghani term for King j. First king was Shah Amanullah Khan V. Study Question 2 (II): What reforms did Shah Amanullah Khan bring to Afghanistan? A. Shah Amanullah Khan a. Devout Muslim b. Modernizer c. Did a lot of reforms d. He didn’t want Afghanistan to lose independence again and believed they needed to modernized to maintain independence e. Reforms were to modernize f. In part of modernization, Shah was especially interested in advancing women’s education. i. Knowledge is power ii. Education is important to modernize B. Reforms a. Made elementary education required for males AND females. This was very progressive. i. Established co-educational schools ii. Thought men and women should learn together and women shouldn’t be left in the dark b. Didn’t require women to wear a burqa i. Women should be integrated into society c. He recognized women are often mothers and often he teacher of women so the more knowledgeable they are, the better they will promote and modernize Afghanistan d. In his efforts, he tried to push modernization very quickly. He wanted this to happen rapidly. i. Because he pushed this so rapidly (especially women), by the end of the 1920s, oppositions began to grow, especially to women’s education ii. Fundamentalists were very opposed e. Rebellion broke out January 1929 i. Rebel fundamentalists took over Afghanistan and Shah was forced to leave the throne ii. Period of civil war lasted until 1933 between modernizers and fundamentalists f. Strongest fighter and the one who won the civil war in 1933 was Shah Mohammad Zahir. i. Shah Muhammad Zahir was 19 in 1933 ii. He reigned from 1933-1973 th iii. This reign was extremely long, especially in the 20 century iv. Fortunately, he was a very enlightened leader. He helped to bring stability and prosperity. This was a golden age. v. He was a modernizer g. Difference between the 2 Shahs: Shah Zahir thought it would be dangerous to push for rapid change and modernization i. Zahir modernized at a much slower rate so people could adjust ii. Made compromises along the way as not to be overthrown h. Shah Zahir was also able to bring stability by staying out of worldly conflicts (stayed out of WWII for example) i. Kept Afghan neutral in the cold war superpower rivalry! ii. This was a nonaligned country during the cold war iii. SU and US competed for Afghan loyalty during his reign. He sometimes played them against each other by accepting things from them both which brought wealth and resources to his country 1. Ex: using foreign aid from both sides, he built airports and highways as well as a modern network of hospitals by keeping neutrality. 2. He also expanded educational institutions in Afghan as well as a medical school and a school for teachers. 3. Both sexes were allowed to study 4. This led to female teachers and doctors 5. Women were encouraged to be part of society and not to live behind the burqa (their choice). C. 1973 a. Change in leadership b. A coup d’etat (violent overthrow of the government) c. This happened when Shah Zahir was out of the country and his cousin led and took over the power d. His cousin was Mohammad Daoud Khan i. Devout Muslim ii. Modernizer (more radical) iii. Wanted this to happen rapidly e. Daoud was against monarchy and saw it as a tradition of the past i. Wanted parliamentary rule and democratic government ii. Wanted a Republic f. He established a Republic government with multiparty rule i. This didn’t last long ii. This was overthrown in 1978 g. 1978 a violent revolution took place and overthrew the republic h. Saur Revolution in 1978, Daoud was killed along with his family i. This was a political power that came into being because of his changed ii. This was the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) III. Study Question 3 (III): What was the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan? A. PDPA a. Political party that came into creation in 1973 b. Political party that followed the principles of Lenin and the revolutionary vanguard i. Bolshevik in orientation c. Pro Soviet political party i. Pulled Afghan into the SU and US rivalry ii. Received financial aid and military backing from SU d. After taking over government in 1978, they established single party authoritarian rule e. Built command economy (SU model) f. Many were atheists, not devout Muslims i. Didn’t want religion in politics g. Promoted equal rights for women h. Arrested thousands of political opponents including intellectuals i. Purged Afghani society by getting rid of opponents j. Many people were very upset over their policies, especially religious fundamentalists i. In response a new political force arose ii. The Mujahideen emerged (fundamentalist Muslim opposition) B. Mujahideen a. Fundamentalists b. Very strict original beliefs and practiced c. Name comes from Arabic word jihad (holy war) d. Wanted women back under the burqa and segregated from society and uneducated e. September 1979, the leader of the PDPA was killed by members of the Mujahideen i. This worried the SU (shared a border with Afghanistan) who wanted to expand power f. December 1979, SU invaded Afghanistan i. Marked beginning of the Soviet-Afghan War ii. This was one of the major hot war iii. Lasted til February 1989 g. SU sent 100,000 troops to fight against Mujahideen h. Mujahideen were small in numbers in the beginning and they were also poorly armed which gave the PDPA the upper hand (supplied by SU) i. Fighting chances increased in the 1980s i. The US began to arm the Mujahideen under Ronald Reagan ii. The US was interested in having pro-soviet PDPA defeated iii. Further entangled into cold war iv. The US sent the Stinger Missiles to Afghanistan and US public didn’t know j. The Stinger Missiles used heat seeking technology which was very beneficial to the Mujahideen which shot down soviet helicopters k. Things went downhill for the SU and PDPA when US started helping l. Mikhail Gorbetroe was the leader 1986-91 i. Saw the losses of the SU in this war so he pulled them out ii. February 1989 he fully withdrew soviet forces iii. Left a very unstable afghanistan m. Mujahideen won in 1992 i. Went on to establish new state ii. New state was called the Islamic State of Afghanistan (first one) iii. Muslim fundamentalist state but not everyone thought it was strict enough. iv. One group who thought this was the Taliban n. Taliban brought more civil war to bring stricter fundamentalism VI. Study Question 4 (IV): What did the Taliban do in the 1990’s? A. Taliban a. 1994 came into existence in part by responded of new Islamic state of Afghanistan b. Didn’t think leaders were being devout enough c. Extremely fundamentalist d. Their base is Kandahar e. Began to fight with the leaders of Afghanistan f. Ended in 1996 with the Taliban succeeding in capturing the government of Afghanistan g. Created a new state known as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban State) h. Lasted until 2001 i. This state was extremely fundamentalist i. Curtailed the freedoms of women ii. Their freedoms were extremely cut back and returned to life behind the veil j. Department for the Propagation of Virtue and the Suppression of Vice i. Basically religious police ii. Fundamentalist men making sure women were living in very strict segregation iii. Even doctor women and teachers, etc., weren’t allowed to practice and work. They were publically beaten and killed. iv. Girls not allowed to go to school reducing the literacy rate k. United Front were opponents of Taliban and sometimes fought against them l. Al-Qaeda led by Osama Bin Laden helped Taliban m. September 11, 2001 Osama Bin Laden accused n. US attacked and tumbled the Taliban State o. Good changed in Afghanistan happening p. Kabul Government is there presently q. Taliban still in control of some parts