Intro to Anthropology, Week 16 Notes
Intro to Anthropology, Week 16 Notes ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
ANTH 1101 – Week 16 Notes Chapter 14 class – a ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria clientage – the institution linking individuals from upper and lower levels in a stratified society caste – a ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society that is closed, prohibiting individuals to move from one caste to another race – a human population category whose boundaries allegedly correspond to distinct sets of biological attributes racism – the systematic oppression of one or more socially defined “races” by another socially defined “race” that is justified in terms of the supposedly inherent biological superiority of the rulers and the supposed inherent biological inferiority of those they rule colorism – a system of social identities negotiated situationally along a continuum of skin colors between white and black ethnicity – a principle of social classification used to create groups based on selected cultural features such as language, religion, or dress. Ethnicity emerges from historical processes that incorporate distinct social groups into a single political structure under conditions of inequality ethnic groups – social groups that are distinguished from one another on the basis of ethnicity nation – a group of people believed to share the same history, culture, language, and even physical substance nation-state – an ideal political unit in which national identity and political territory coincide nationality – a sense of identification with and loyalty to a nation-state nation building (nationalism) – the attempt made by government officials to instill into the citizens of a state a sense of nationality transformist hegemony – a nationalist program to define nationality in a way that preserves the cultural denomination of the ruling group while including enough cultural features from subordinated groups to ensure their loyalty naturalizing discourses – the deliberate representation of particular identities (ex. caste, class, race, ethnicity, and nation) as if they were a result of biology or nature, rather than history or culture, making them appear eternal and unchanging Chapter 10 play – a framing (or orientating context) that is 1) consciously adopted by the players, 2) somehow pleasurable, and 3) systemically related to what is nonplay by alluding to the nonplay world and by transforming the objects, roles, actions, and relations of ends and means characteristic of the nonplay world metacommunication – communication about the process of communication itself framing – a cognitive boundary that marks certain behaviors as “play” or as “ordinary life” reflexivity – critical thinking about the way one thinks; reflection on one’s own experience art – play with form producing some aesthetically successful transformation-representation myths – stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be the way they are. The power of myths comes from their ability to make life meaningful for those who accept them. The truth of myths seems self-evident because they effectively integrate personal experiences with a wider set of assumptions about how the world works orthodoxy – “correct doctrine”; the prohibition of deviation from approved mythic texts ritual – a repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities in the form of dance, song, speech, gestures, or the manipulation of objects; adhering to a culturally defined ritual schema; and closely connected to a specific set of ideas that are often encoded in myth rite of passage – a ritual that serves to mark the movement and transformation of an individual from one social position to another liminality – the ambiguous transitional state in a rite of passage in which the person or persons undergoing the ritual are outside their ordinary social positions communitas – an unstructured or minimally structured community of equal individuals found frequently in rites of passage orthopraxy – “correct practice”; the probation of deviation from approved forms of ritual behavior worldviews – encompassing pictures of reality created by the members of societies religion – ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses shaman – a part-time religious practitioner who is believed to have the power to contact supernatural forces directly on behalf of individuals or groups priest – a religious practitioner skilled in the practice of religious rituals, which her or she carries out for the benefit of the group witchcraft – the performance of evil by human beings believed to possess an innate, nonhuman power to do evil, whether or not it is intentional or self-aware magic – a set of beliefs and practices designed to control the visible or invisible world for specific purposes oracles – invisible forces to which people address questions and whose responses they believe to be truthful syncretism – the synthesis of old religious practices (or an old way of life) with new religious practices (or a new way of life) introduced from outside, often by force revitalization – a conscious, deliberate, and organized attempt by some members of a society to create a more satisfying culture in a time of crisis nativism – a return to the old ways; a movement whose members expect a messiah or prophet who will bring back a lost golden age of peace, prosperity, and harmony Lecture – April 18 methods of social control (protecting authority and self-interest) murder co-opt (buying out) organize social system in a way to make sure people don’t question decision making (education) first two methods are expensive and not reliable, which is why the last is almost always used Antonio Gramsci – social philosopher; “educating consent” educating consent – the idea of education as a means of social control; became prevalent in the 17 and 18 centuries with the rise of the nation-state in the west governmentality – mentioned in Foucaut’s Discipline and Punish; ways of controlling large groups of people not through force but by measurement and shifting people’s sense of self mass schooling – laws requiring education for everyone th Joseph Lancaster – evangelical minister in England during the 19 century; said if the poor are unstable morally/emotionally, the rest of the social order becomes unstable McCauley – British politician who advocated social control through education rather than jailing to protect government interest The purpose of the expansion of the English language in the Sudan by the British was to educate Sudanese children so they’d be better servants. reification – to treat a person or idea as if they were a thing human capital – idea that learning certain knowledge and skills that create a kind of stock in a person that you can essentially sell to an employer The self is not thought of as a consistent, coherent whole; never done changing’ never moving toward a specific ideal; aiming to be flexible. This is different from the past; an idea new to the 21 century. critical thinking – emphasized problem solving G.M. vs. Bunny Lady (Roger & Me documentary) G.M.’s main goals were to keep people from getting angry, keep people from asking questions, and the move resources from productive pursuits to social control Lecture – April 20 elementary hierarchy with the Sambia people of New Guinea age initiation rank behavior 0-6 years st 7-10 1 stage initiate homosexual 11-14 2 stage initiate homosexual 15-18 3 stage bachelor homosexual 17+ 4 stage newlywed homosexual th late teens 5 stage newlywed bisexual early 20s 6 stage adult heterosexual mid-30s+ bigman heterosexual the Sambia’s age hierarchy reinforces their gender hierarchy and vice versa sex – biological differences between males, females, and intersex individuals; DNA gender – sets of behaviors, feelings, and social roles that are thought to be appropriate for the different sexes there is no such thing as biological gender Plains Native Americans – berdache; alternative gender category Gender antagonism is common among the Sambia, where men are taught to distrust and be suspicious of women; women and children cannot go into the forest, only men can; the inside of the house is divided between woman and children and the man; men’s house is at the top of the hill, followed by the men’s path, the family houses, then women’s path, and finally the menstrual hut at the bottom of the hill jerungdu – strength, fierceness, etc. (Sambia) rite of passage – 1) separation, 2) transition, 3) reincorporation/reaggregation
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