Bio Anth Week 13
Bio Anth Week 13 Anth 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1001 at George Washington University taught by Shannon C. McFarlin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Neanderthals Homo neanderthalensis • Europe and Wester Asia, ~150-40 Ka • Characteristics ◦ More robust facial structure in general ▪ Inflated cheeks, as opposed to canine fossa in humans ▪ Protrusion in occipital region of the skull as referred to as the occipital bun, modern humans lack this ▪ Retromolar Space ▪ Gap between back tooth and part of the jaw that extends to the cheekbone, humans lack this—>have more crowing in the mouth ▪ Larger jaws, Large teeth ▪ No chin ▪ Defining characteristic of anatomically modern humans is the existence of the chin ▪ Double-arched brow ridges ▪ Humans have limited development of brow ridges ▪ Large nose ▪ Prognathism ▪ Both humans and neanderthals have large cranial capacity (1300-1500 cc) ◦ Robust, heavily muscled body ▪ Barrel-shaped rib cage ▪ thick leg bones ▪ Much more muscular and stocky figure than modern humans ▪ Adaptation to different climates and ecological conditions ▪ Also linked to their cold environment, species that live in higher altitude and colder environment tend to have shorter limbs and stockier bodies as a more efficient way to restore heat by increasing body volume and decreasing surface area (places to lose heat) ◦ Dentition ▪ Evidence of behavior in the way that their teeth are worn with use ▪ Systematic use of the mouth as a “third hand" ▪ Extremely worn teeth ◦ Tools ▪ Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic ▪ Mousterian (Mode 3) ▪ Prepared core technology ▪ Associated with tools that are specifically made out of flint stone which fractures very easily in order to create thin, sharp tools ▪ Evidence that they were using tools that were found locally, this changes with modern humans when they have long distance transport of raw materials ▪ Later Stone Age/ Upper Paleolithic ▪ Aurignacian (Mode 4) ▪ Blade-based technology ▪ Suggests that Neanderthals were capable of creating more complicated tools, more prevalent with the coming of modern humans ◦ Neanderthal Subsistence ▪ Hafted weapons, competent hunting ▪ animal remains at Neanderthal sites are often characterized by an abundance of 1 or 2 prey species (specialization) ▪ Healthy adults are abundant in the animal remains ▪ Cut-marked bones, first access ▪ Also plants included in diet ▪ No clear evidence of permanent shelters ◦ Neanderthal burials ▪ Evidence that neanderthals buried their dead. However, it is not clear if these burials had a religious nature ▪ Example- Shanidar 4 Skeleton- “The Flower Burial" ▪ Large amount of pollen. Was this individual buried on a bed of flowers? ◦ Neanderthals had relatively short and difficult lives ▪ Competent hunters, however, they had not yet developed weapons for long range hunting such as spears, so you can imagine they were hunting at short distances with high amounts of danger associated ▪ a good amount of evidence of serious injuries especially to the skull and neck ▪ suggests that in order to live, at least for a little, with these injuries they must have received care from their peers ◦ Personal Ornamentation, Symbolism ▪ Fossil eagle talons that were worn as jewelry by Neanderthals 130,000 years ago, found in a cave in Croatia ▪ Other sites where pigments have been found ▪ Greater evidence of this in humans ◦ Neanderthal behavioral “modernity" ▪ Burials ▪ Personal Ornamentation ▪ Rock art? ▪ Care of elderly individuals ▪ Little behavioral innovation— however this is an example of their low density of populations, they lived in smaller groups which suggests the inability to innovate and share as much as with different set ups of population groups ◦ Neanderthal behavior summary ▪ Hafted weapons, competent hunting ▪ Interpersonal violence, cannibalism ▪ Long-term survival of sick or injured individuals ▪ Use of pigments ▪ Burial without grave goods ▪ Little evidence of long-distance networks • Neanderthal-Modern Human Interactions ◦ Neanderthals and modern humans co-inhabited in Europe for approximately 10,000 years (40,000-30,000 years ago) ◦ Both species hybridized (demonstrated by DNA analyses) ◦ Did they interchange knowledge? ▪ Late neanderthals associated with Chatelperronian tools, similar to modern human tools ◦ Are these interactions related to the extinction of Neanderthals? ▪ Direct competition, ecological competition, genetic replacement... • Denisovans ◦ Siberia, 40 kya ◦ Little is known about their anatomy, only a finger bone and a third molar ◦ Based on their DNA sequence: ▪ sister group of neanderthals ▪ they hybridized with modern humans, as neanderthals did ◦ Denisovans and Neanderthals ▪ Complex relationships between Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans ▪ Europeans and Asian populations (but no indigenous African populations) carry 1-4% neanderthal DNA ▪ Denisovans show genetic admixture with some modern humans in easter Asia • What impact did inbreeding have on who we are today? ◦ Areas of our genome with neanderthal DNA- some examples: ▪ Keratin (protein in hair, skin, nails) ▪ Skin color ▪ Risk factors for certain diseases (Chromes disease, Lupus, Type 2 Diabetes) ▪ Cell surface immune receptors ◦ Areas that appear to lack neanderthal DNA- examples of certain genes: ▪ Activated in the testes ▪ Located on the Y chromosome
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