Bio Anth Week 13
Bio Anth Week 13 Anth 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1001 at George Washington University taught by Shannon C. McFarlin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Emergence and Dispersal of Modern Humans Models for AMHS origins • Multiregional model ◦ Pleistocene hominins represent a single evolving lineage across different regions ◦ AMHS evolved in the context of significant gene flow between regions • Out of Africa Model ◦ AMHS originated in Africa and later dispersed to occupy the Old World ◦ No gene flow/ interbreeding, but replacement of existing hominins • Predictions ◦ Multiregional—> Pleistocene hominins represent a single lineage across different regions ◦ Out of Africa —> AMHS originated in Africa and later dispersed to occupy the Old World ◦ Assimilation —> ▪ African origin of AMHS ▪ Varying degrees of interbreeding with existing populations • Assimilation Model ◦ Genetic data are more consistent with assimilation (or partial replacement): ▪ African origin of modern humans: ▪ Greatest amount of genetic diversity in Africa ▪ AMHS first appear in the fossil record of Africa ▪ But varying degrees of interbreeding with populations they found as they migrated • First AMHS from Africa ◦ Herto, Ethiopia (165 kya) ◦ Omo, Ethiopia (195 kya) • Later AMHS ◦ Class River Mouth, South Africa (120-90 Kya) • Modern Humans in the Near East ◦ Skhul and Qafzeh, Isreal (110-90,000 ya) ◦ After 90,000 ya in Near East... ▪ Modern humans disappear from the record in this area ▪ Neanderthals come back when the weather gets colder (70-40 kya) • Evidence from Archaeology ◦ *late stone age/upper paleolithic blade based tools ▪ suggested to be a more efficient use of raw materials, much longer cutting edge that can be put to use ◦ Early Stone Age/Lower Paleolithic —> Plio and Pleistocene —> H. habilis, H. erectus, Archaic H. sapiens ◦ Middle Stone Age/ Middle Paleolithic —> Upper Pleistocene —> Archaic H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, early AMHS ◦ Late Stone Age/ Upper Paleolithic —> Upper Pleistocene —> AMHS; some late Neanderthals • Late Stone Age/ Upper Paleolithic ◦ Blade-based technology; variety of types made from stone, bone, antler ◦ Many of which were attached to spears for long distance tool use • Behavioral Innovations ◦ Behavioral modernity wasn’t associated with abrupt change ◦ No single cognitive “explosion” that led to the modern human mind ◦ Gradual acquisition of typically modern human behaviors, starting in Africa • Some especially important innovations by 60,000 years ago in Africa: ◦ Projectile technology ◦ Fishing ◦ Personal adornment, larger social networks, exchange networks, as evidenced by beads ◦ Belief systems? (burial with grave goods) • Why are projectiles important? ◦ More success ◦ Less risk ◦ Survivorship increases ◦ Competitive advantage • Evidence for fishing from Katanda, DR Congo ◦ 82-70 Kya ◦ Bone tools, including barbed and unbarbed points; appropriate tools for fishing ◦ Two species of catfish, especially a large species ◦ Ability to develop new technologies allowed early modern humans to expand their subsistence base • Symbolic behavior, social intensification after 90 kya ◦ Perforated beads from the Middle Stone Age of Blombos Cave in South Africa ◦ (South Africa, Namibia, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Senegal) • Ritual Burial ◦ Upper Paleolithic graves commonly included artifacts, body adornments, and sprinklings of red ochre ◦ Concept of life after death? • Art and Modern Humans ◦ After 40kya; in Europe and Africa ◦ Intensification and consistent presence of: ▪ Music ▪ Rock art ▪ Portable art, including figurines ◦ Music ▪ Archaeological evidence for music predates evidence for cave art ▪ Expression and comprehension of social and emotional information ▪ Flutes made from animal bones ▪ Debate about Neanderthals having musical traditions or not ▪ Clear that modern humans had them ◦ Rock art ▪ Variety of scenes, including animal figures, often rather realistically drawn ▪ Human figures were less common ▪ Abstract patterns ▪ Natural substances: red and yellow ochre, manganese, charcoal, to create a variety of colors ▪ Different instruments—horsehair, sticks, and fingers to apply the paint ▪ Significance is unclear ▪ Magic purpose, to improve hunting success ▪ Other ritualistic or symbolic purpose (naturalistic scenes, including animals that were not hunted) ▪ Portable art ▪ Venus figurines (Gravettian ca. 25,000 ya) • Expanded Subsistence Base ◦ More varied diet, which also included use of aquatic resources • Settlement Patterns ◦ Sites occupied for longer periods extensively modified ◦ Evidence of more permanent shelters (e.g. mammoth bone shelters) • Modern Human Advantages ◦ Innovative- new, more elaborate technologies, projectile weapons, clothing, shelters, and other innovations in material culture ◦ Cognitive- personal adornment and symbolic behavior, art, and music, ritual ◦ Social- larger social networks, exchange networks ,buffered risk of starvation
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