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LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey class notes

by: Lauren Caldwell

LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey class notes LIFE 103

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > LIFE 103 > LIFE 103 Tanya Dewey class notes
Lauren Caldwell
GPA 3.8

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Includes metabolism and excretion, as well as immunity
Macrobiology; Plants and Animals
Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Caldwell on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Erik Arthun, Tanya Dewey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Macrobiology; Plants and Animals in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 04/25/16
4/18 Circulation recap: Pressure from muscles help keep vein pressure high Osmotic pressure forces into the vein, blood pressure forces out of the vein  Blood pressure decreases the further down the venous end of the capillary, while osmotic pressure remains the same o Net loss of fluid into tissues  lymphatic system  Hemoglobin has higher oxygen affinity in the lungs  Hemoglobin has higher oxygen saturation in high pH environments, such as the luings (low CO2) Gas Exchange  Respiratory exchange surfaces - skin, gills, lungs, tracheal systems o Must be moist on all surfaces  Gasses cannot cross membranes except in aaqueous solutions  For aquatic animals, this is not a challenge  Cutaneous respiration -> across the skin  Gills -> many aquatic animals have this, and some terrestrial creatures  Terrestrial animals must overcome not being in a wet environment  Must keep moist membranes  Uses lungs - internal - and moist skin  Some mollusks independently developed lungs  Partial pressure of oxygen in air and water - respiratory media o Partial pressure  Pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mix of gases  Not pressurizing oxygen -> a measure of concentration o O2 is less soluble in water, so the concentration of O2 in water is lower at the same partial pressure  Oxygen is harder to extract in an aquatic environment than in a terrestrial environment  Rates of diffusion increases with:  Increased surface area  Decreased distance the molecule has tot travel  Increased concentration gradient  What influences rates of diffusion for O2 and CO2  Ventilation mechanisms o Non direction  Respiratory medium is NOT moving o Unidirectional  Counter current exchange in gills  Needs to move to get oxygen  Can get up to 80% of O2 in water  (for example's sake) if water is flowing to the right, BLOOD is flowing to the left  Countercurrent, as such - concentration goes from high to low  Keeps oxygen constantly flowing from water to gills o Tidal  Lungs  You don’t naturally expel all air from your lungs every time you breathe out  What remains mixes with new air as it comes in  Birds can carry, essentially, two breathes of air at any given time o Avian unidirectional ventilation o Special adaptations to diving - northing elephant seals The answer is B 4/20 Elephant seals  Can dive super deep  Spends 10 months foraging in deep water and 2 months fasting on land o Lose 1/3rd of body weight on land  Can go 2 hrs under water and dive up to a mile under water  Myoglobin - in muscles. Used to store a little bit of oxygen in muscles Osmoregulation and excretion  Balancing the uptake of and loss of water and solutes  Diffusion o Net movement of a substance from high to low concentration  Moves down the concentration gradient  Does not require a membrane  O2, CO2, and H2O diffuse easily across plasma membranes  Osmosis o Solvent through a semipermeable membrane o Into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction in order to euqalize the solute concentration on BOTH sides  The solvent is usualy water Hypertonic Isotonic Hypotonic Higher More solutes same Lower concentration outside of where outside of a cell the cell than inside Flow goes Water flows out Its Water flows in where equal In terms of animals Hyperosmotic Isosmoti Hypoosmotic c Higher solute concentraion than equal Lower solute the environment/other material concentration than the at hand environment/other material at hand Exampl Sea water is hypoosmotic to Marine fish are es marine fish hypoosmotic to sea water  Osmoconformers o Marine invertebratews and some vertebrates, isosmotic with the environment, but differ in the specific solutes in their tissues  Ionoregulators o Osmoregulators  All else  Expends energy to control water uptake or loss in a hypoer/hypoosmotic environment o Marine fish are hypoosmotic to marine water - must spend energy to avoid water loss o Freshwater fish are hyperosmotic to freshwater. Must spend energy to lose water and avoid solute loss Terrestrial challenges  Preventing dessication - water loss  Ways to gain water o Ingest water from food o Drink free water o Metabolic production  The product of cellular respiration  The ratio that these three will hold vary depending on the creature -= kangaroo rats don’t drink water, and gain most of hteir water from their metabolism and lost a lot through evaporation. Humans get most from drinking and lose most through urination  Water loss o Gas exchange  Water lose through moist epithelia  The skin o Urination and defication  Air is cooler after leaving an animal partly due to the moisture that is extracted in order to retain in the body Transport epithelia  Counter current exchange  A lining of cells specialized for transport o Can be for stuff either moving into or out of the body  Salt in blood moves coutnmercurrent to salt secretions ducts and flows into the ducts Nitrogenous wastes  Metabolism involving amino acids results in nitrogenous waste  Most metabolic waste products are excrete in solution - water - so excretion involves water loss  Nitrogen removed in the form of ammonia is very toxic  Expend energy to concert it to a less toxic compound (uric acid)  Things involved o Ammonia  Toxic  Excreted in a LOT of water, used only be aniamls with access to lots of water (freshwater creatures)  Requires little energy to rengerate  Released across the body surface or gills  Used by most fish o Urea  Limited water  Requies energy to generation  Transported to bladder for concentration  Used by terrestrial animals o Uric acid  Limit water  Low toxic  Not very soluable in water  Excretement is semisolid paste  Requires more energy to create  Least toxic, least amoutnm of water, most expensive  Used by birds. Mammals cannot make this! Gas exchange in fish fills is especially efficient because  Water and blood flow in opposite directions so that the partial pressure of oxygen in the water near blood vessels in the gills is generally higher than in the blood Camel humps are made of fat, not water, and themetabolism from breaking it down releases water 4/22 Excretion  Nitrogenous waste o Amino acids break down to produce nitrogenous waste  NH2 and a COOH plus a side chain R  Enzymes remove amino groups, creating a biproduct of ammonia  This, however, is very, very toxic, and wastes a lot of water  Is not the most effective method  As it is not the best, animals expend energy to convert ammonia to a less toxic compound - UREA or URIC ACID  Urea - CO group added to amines higher water cost  Uric acid - very, very metabolically expenseive to produce. Little water cost.  Bird poop  Excretory processes o Four steps:  Filtration  Filtering the blood (or hemolymph) and extracting  Caused by hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure in mammals)  Water and small solutes - salt, sugar, amino acid, nitrogenous waste - cross the membrane, becoming the FILTRATE  Reabsorption  Valuable molecules are actively transported back into body fluids  Secretion  Additional waste actively transported into waste fluid  Excretion  Fluid waste removed from the body  Mammalian kidney o A system of tubules - transport epithelia - that creates a large surface area to exchange water and solutes  Filtration, reabsorption, and secretiong occur here  Tubules are arranged in nephrons o Supplied with blood by the renal artery o Blood leaves via the renal vein o Most blood in the kdiney is filtered and then reabsorbed into blood fluid o Glomerulus & Bowman's capsule - input of tubule  Filtrate enters the capsule o Proxminal tubule  Salts, sugars, amino acids, and ions transport out of the filtrate  Everything BUT large molecules, really  Water follows by osmosis o Loop on Henle  A descending limb  Is permeable to water, not very permeable to salts and other solutes  Water flows through osmosis out of the fultrate o Distal tubule - regulates potassium and sodium chloride (K and NaCl) o Collecting duct - collects water and moves it thorugh the kidney  Literally is the last tool; drives water out through osmosis, concentrating the urine as it is ready to leave o Nephrons  Cortical nephrons - only a short distance is reached  Juxamedullary nephrons - for concentrating urine (reaches farther)  Needed for creatures to save as much water as possible  The more arid or dester like the creature, the more of these nephrons they will have o Parts of the kidney (regions)  Cortex - outer part of kidney  Medulla - closer to the center of the kidney  Jux nephrons reach the renal medulla  Higher osmoregularity in the inner medulla - higher concentration of everything o Water is not lost in asending parts of the kidney, only desending parts  This is a counter current exchange system with a gradient  Variation in kidneys o Reptiles/irds don’t concentrate their urine o Freshwater fish and amphibians produce a lot of dilute urine  Hormonal control of kidney function The Immune System 1 Preventable diseases, immunization, and herd immunity. 2 How the vertebrate (mammalian) immune system works. a Innate Immunity. i barrier defenses a Prevention from entering i Skin ii Mucous membranes 1 Traps pathogens ii Secretions 1 Bathes the surface, destroys cell walls of some bacteria 2 Acidic body pH kills a lot of pathogens ii cellular innate defenses - phagocytosis iii antimicrobial peptides iv inflammatory responses b Adaptive Immunity i diversity of antigen receptors ii self tolerance iii cell proliferation iv immunological memory  General diseases o Smallpox  Now eradicated  Responsible for hella death in the 20th century  Killed native people thanks to western colonization o Polio  Nearly gone  Still in the middle east o Measles  Coming back  Most vaccine preventable death on a global level  Still kills  Usually kids under 5 yo o Immunization  Process of creating an immune response in an individual to protect against disease o Inoculation  Exposure to a disease in order to prompt a reduced infection then later immunity o Vaccination  Inoculation to induce immunity  Exposure to dead or altered diseases to introduce an immune reacting to create an immunity


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