NTRI 2000 Week 14 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Nutrition Notes Week 14 Health Problems Associated with Obesity A. Cardiovascular disease and stroke B. Diabetes Obesity A. Currently nearly 2/3 of all North American adults are overweight to obese B. The increase in the percentage of overweight/obese adults is very recent C. What does the relatively rapid increase in the number of overweight/obese people suggest? Our world was rapidly changed into a technological society D. Changing environments, linking lifestyle E. Is there a “cure” for being overweight? Change in lifestyle?/Medications? Energy Balance A. Energy in = energy out B. If energy in > energy out 1. Positive energy balance 2. Body weight (fat) will increase 3. Required for pregnancy, infancy, and childhood 4. Is there a limit to positive energy balance? (heaviest person was 1400 lbs) C. If energy in < energy out 1. Negative energy balance 2.Body weight will decrease 3. Not just fat mass but lean mass Energy In A. Energy in = calories consumed (metabolized) B. To truly calculate you need to know how many cells you're metabolizing Energy out A Energy expenditure B. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) 1. Represents the minimal amanita of collies expended in a fasting state 2. Energy that takes to be alive 3. 60-70% of total energy expenditure 4. 1.0 kcal/kg for men and 0.9 kcal/kg for women 5. BMR is hard to measure experientially G. We measure the resting metabolic rate (RMR) H. Factors that increase a persons BMR 1. More lean body mass 2. Larger body surface area 3. Body temperature 4. Thyroid hormones (elevated, hyperthyroid, condition) 5. Pregnancy 6. Caffeine and tobacco use I. Factors that decrease a persons BMR 1. Extreme diet regime a. Low calorie intake b. Basal metabolism (10-20% decrease) 2. Physical activity a. Increases energy expenditure above basal needs b. 25-40% of total energy expenditure c. Note: not exercise Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) A. When you digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store nutrients, you use energy B. Think of this as an energy tax on everything you have to eat C. Also called diet induced thermogenesis D. 4-10% of total calories E. Involuntary physical activity is triggered by cold, such as ﬁdgeting, maintenance of muscle tone, and body posture F. Very small compare to other factors affecting energy expenditure G. Tissue that plays an important role is the brown adipose tissue because it’s high in mitochondria Energy Out A. Energy expenditure B. Direct calorimetry- measures heat produced by the body C. Indirect calorimetry- measures the gas exchange (O2 consumed and CO2 expired) Body Fat A. Varies widely in individuals (2-70% of body weight) B. Desirable amount of body fat (in men- 8-24%, in women, 21-35%) C. Different body types 1. Individual shaped like an apple have more visceral fat and a higher risk of weight-related diseases than in a pear 2. Pear-shaped is much more ideal than apple D. Fat is found in different areas (depots) in the body E. Methods for measuring body weight 1. Underwater weighing (gold standard) 2. Air displacement (BodPod) 3. Bioelectrical Impedance 4. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorbtiometry (DEXA) Nature vs. Nurture A. Genetics vs Environment B. If one parent is obese, there is a 50% chance that they're child will also be obese C. If both parents are obese, their children have an 80% chance of being obese D. What would you expect in twins? 1. 70% of fat has a strong genetic component 2. Studies on identical twins raised separately Thrifty Gene Hypothesis A. In populations that experienced periods of feast and famine, B. Natural selection favored individuals carrying thrifty alleles (genes) C. These genes are promoting the storage of fat and energy Environmental Factors Hypothesis A. Genetic susceptibility to obesity is not equal across ethnic groups B. Selection factors 1. Related to climate 2. Centered on the ability to thermoregulate in extreme heat or cold C. Body similarities within families could be due to learned behaviors D. Similarities between couples Role of Leptin in Body Weight A. Fat produces a hormone called leptin that decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure B. Leptin is secreted in proportion to the amount of body fat C. Thus, it appears that leptin is a feedback signal informing the brain how much fat is in the body D. Leptin blocks food intake E. Most obese people have high levels of circulated leptin F. Leptin is not working as it should G. This is called leptin resistance Ghrelin A. Regulates weight loss B. Hormone from the stomach stimulates feeding and hunger C. Ghrelin concentrations are high during a fast and reduced after feeding Weight Loss A. Diet programs all somewhat work because you're reducing calorie intake and eating more of a plant-based diet B. Professional Help 1. Medications- Criteria (FDA) for a drug to be approved: a. Weight loss of >5% loss at 1 year (placebo adjusted) b. Weight loss of >5% weight loss by >35% of patients (which must be at least twice that induced by placebo c. Problems: poor safety and efﬁciency Treatment of Severe Obesity (BMI > 40 or 2x healthy body weight) A. Very low calorie diets (VLCD) 1. Done exclusively at medical centers and clinics 2. Person consumes 400-800 cals/day B. Bariatric Surgeries Treatment of Underweight (BMI < 18.5) A. Can have numerous causes (cancer, infectious disease, digestive disorders, excessive dieting/exercise, genetic background) B. Health problems - loss of menstrual cycle, low bone mass
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