Week 13 Notes
Week 13 Notes HIST 225 0021
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Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 225 0021 at James Madison University taught by Richard Meixsel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Shaping the “Cold War” ***TEXTBOOK ● The Truman Doctrine, March 1947 ● The Marshall Plan, June 1947 ○ Decision to rebuild Europe economically (they were in ruins from the war) ○ People were hungry, DPs (displaced persons) wandering the continent ○ Extremist ideologies (fascism in Italy, nazism in Russia) ○ Big program to help Europe ○ Named after George Marshall, Secretary of State during WWII ● North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), April 1949 ○ Collective security agreement ○ US, Canada and 10 European states ○ This is different because US usually wants to stay out of international affairs ○ Why do we need NATO when Cold War ended? ● The “loss” of China, 1949 ○ Communism goes to Asia ○ Mao Zedong comes to power in 1949 ○ Doesn’t have much to do with the Soviet Union but Americans saw that it did because of the spread of communism ○ Corrupt government-- people wanted less corrupt and so they started supporting the communists ● The communist invasion of South Korea, June 1950 ○ Japan had to leave Korea and go back to Japan after WWII ended ○ North Korea- USSR ○ South Korea- American Army ○ North Korea invades the south ○ The Korean War, 1950-1953 ■ The use of military force to try to contain the spread of the USSR ■ Spark the growth of American military forces The Cold War at home (“Duck and Cover” video) ● NSC-- 68 (National Security Council Memorandum #68, April 1950) recommended increased defense spending: ○ Continue to spend high in order to prepare to defend ourselves from USSR and communism ○ Fiscal year 1947-- $13.1 billion ○ Fiscal year 1956-- $40.3 billion ○ Fiscal year 1961-- $474 billion ● Nuclear Deterrence/Arms race ○ Building up the nuclear arsenal-- wanted weapons to scare the USSR ○ Diverse weapons allowed for many methods of setting off the bombs ○ 1951-- the US had 429 atomic bombs/weapons ○ 1953-- it had 1,161 ○ 1959-- it had 12,305 ● Peacetime Draft ○ In 1930, the armed forces of the United States numbered about 250,000-- about ⅕of 1% of the population (very small) ○ In 1955, they numbered just under 3 million-- about 2% of the population (after WWII) The Cold War at home-- 2 “I have here in my hand a list of 205-- a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the communist party who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the state department.” -- Senator Joseph McCarthy ● Soviet spies working in the US ● Although peacetime, people were treating it like it was wartime ● McCarthyism-- besmirching people without the same views as you McCarthyism ● Predates McCarthy ○ HUAC, the House of Representatives Un-American Activities (i.e. communistic) Committee dates to 1938 ○ 1947-- Loyalty review system for government employees ○ 1947-- HUAC begins hearings on communist influence in Hollywood ○ 1950-- McCarran Internal Security Bill (Communist organizations had to register; communists could not work in defense plants; etc.) ○ Highly publicized spy trials ■ Alger Hiss-- Convicted of Perjury ■ The Rosenbergs-- Executed The Cold War at home-- 3 ● The 1950s: A Continuation of the 1920s? ○ Politically, a “return to normalcy?” → return of the consumer goods, cars, The New Deal was to a halt (like in the 1920s Progressivism came to a halt) ■ Truman and the fate of the “Fair Deal” ○ A period of economic prosperity President Truman’s Fair Deal (became president after FDR died in office) ● Americans and politicians thought that after government spending ended, there would be another depression (they wanted to continue the New Deal) ● “It has long been recognized as an inescapable obligation of a Democratic society to provide for every individual some measure of basic protection from hardship.” ● People aren’t interested in the FAIR DEAL ● 50s-- first McDonalds, credit card, Holiday Inn Motel, vaccines and drugs Jonas Salk ● 58,000 new cases of Polio in 1952 ● Salk develops vaccine, 1955 ● 910 new cases of Polio in 1962 More likely to have a TV than toilet 1 in 7 jobs in the US were dependent on military contracts National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Interstates) Civil Rights Movement ● Johnson wasn’t willing to make civil rights decisions before he got elected ● Cold War-- wide gap between the US (“Free World”) and how many blacks were treated in the US ● USSR reminded about America’s racism ● WWII and the Cold War helped bring about the conditions for civil rights African Americans since reconstruction (which was a failure) **TEXTBOOK ● An overview ○ Jim Crow ■ Most blacks were also still in poverty, rural south, and conditions were worsening because of the lack of economic opportunities ○ The impact of populism and progressivism ■ Social reform movements ■ Government can be a force for good progress ■ Progressives didn’t want to help African Americans ■ African Americans disenfranchised in the south ■ Literacy tests, poll taxes (these were constitutional to make blacks not vote) - whites were exempted- if your dad served in Confederate army, you didn’t have to undergo tests ■ Supreme Court was okay with this ○ The Great Depression Thursday African Americans since Reconstruction (after WWII into 1950s) ● An overview ○ Jim Crow ○ The impact of populism and progressivism ○ The Great Depression ● (aka, things didn’t improve for African Americans) ● New Deal-- African Americans didn’t benefit as much as whites ● FDR didn’t want the white southerners to be against him ● Agricultural Adjustment Act-- began in the 1930s: ○ Pay farmers to take land out of production WWII and the Conditions for Change ● Many blacks leave the south ○ But still suffered discrimination in the north ● In some parts of the north, blacks have substantial voting power ○ Election in 1940 ○ People now have to pay attention to black community ● Cold War environment ● Postwar decolonization ○ European nations (white nations) give up their colonies in Asia and Africa ○ Non-whites can now have their own nations and be free ○ Change for the black community ● Changing attitudes within the black community ○ Increasing urbanization, education, economic improvement from the war ○ Blacks less willing to accept hand-outs-- they are no longer second-class status ○ WWII created a Civil rights movement ● “Separate but Equal” (Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896) ○ Embraced separate, but not equal ○ I.e. schooling in MS, SC - paid white teachers more, better buildings, better textbooks than blacks ● Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 1954 ○ 1951-- Oliver Brown wanted daughter Linda to be able to walk to her school nearby instead of ride the bus to a further school ● Was a part of 5 similar cases (involving 4 states and DC) that reached the Supreme Court in 1952 ○ Court ruling- “moral legitimacy” separate is NOT equal ● 1960- only ⅙of 1% of black school children went to de-segregated schools, even INTENSIFIED segregation ○ Wasn’t until 1969 that desegregation really happened ● Any chance of reconstruction, would have needed the Federal Government to help, but they didn’t during the 1950s and early 1960s The President and Civil Rights (I) ● Dwight D. Eisenhower (President from 1953-1961) ● “I don’t believe you can change the hearts of men with laws or decisions… the Supreme Court decisions set back progress in the south at least fifteen years.” President Eisenhower on Civil Rights ● Wasn’t sympathetic to blacks Rosa Parks ● Montgomery, Alabama (December 1955) ● Blacks and merchants used this bus, and stopped using the bus ● Segregation of buses now unconstitutional Martin Luther King Jr. Montgomery AL December 1956 ● Minister and participated in the bus boycott ● Asked to leave the movement because he was from Atlanta ● Doctorate from Boston University ● Sympathetic to whites because of non-violence Southern Christian Leadership Conference “Until the founding of the SCLC [in Feb. 1957], the struggle for racial equality had been largely the domain of a northern black elite oriented primarily toward legal action. Now the southern black church would become preeminent in leading black resistance to white oppression…” ● Many blacks resented the slow pace of change ● Blacks across the south were still subject to harassment and discrimination ● Wanted more assertive ways to challenge segregation ○ Sitions- Greensboro, NC- blacks sit-in at counter- first to get national coverage and these sit-ins, sleep-ins, play-ins, read-ins reached national levels (non-violent!) ○ Some success, but still didn’t work ○ Southern whites tried to stop it by legal methods, violence ○ Activists tried to make it against the law for segregation for transportation systems (buses) across state borders ○ 1961-- people were more sensitive to racial equality The president and Civil Rights (2) ● John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) (Assassinated in 1963) ● First two years in office, did next to nothing-- said he wanted civil rights but didn’t do anything ● 1963 begins to press for Civil Rights Legislation ● “We preach freedom around the world, and we meant it, and we cherish it here at home, but are we to say to the world, and much more importantly, to each other that this is the land of the free except for the negroes…? Who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in their place?” Birmingham, 1963 ● Desegregation of Birmingham (was the most segregated city in America) ● April 1963 protests began-- peaceful marches, not peaceful police The President and Civil Rights (3) ● Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) ● First president from the south since Wilson ● Within days of taking office began pushing for Civil Rights Legislation ● 1964 Civil Rights Act ○ Prohibited discrimination in most public places ○ Government to withhold funds to public programs that discriminated ○ Funnelled more money to southern school districts ○ Banned discrimination in employment ● 1964 24th Amendment to the Constitution (banned poll taxes) - that may be used to deny AAs the right to vote ● 1965 Voting Rights Act ○ Justice Department would intervene in Southern election registration if many people were denied the right to register to vote ○ Mississippi- percentage of AAs the right to vote before 1965 and after 1965 went up 600%! ○ African Americans will vote democrat! ● NOW… ○ AA mayors, appointed to Supreme Court ● North in 1950 and 1960s IN TEXTBOOK ○ People still were racist… even if there were laws passed “We must recognize that we can’t solve our problems now until there is a radical redistribution of economic and political power… the black revolution is much more than a struggle for the rights of negroes. It is forcing America to face its interrelated flaws… it reveals systemic rather than superficial flaws and suggests that radical reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced.” - MLK Decline of the movement ● Rise of “black power” militancy ○ Malcolm X dismissed any chance of meaningful racial change in the US. He insisted that true AAs would live separately ○ Stokely Carmichael- “the only way we are going to stop them from whippin’ us is to take over. It’s time we stand up and take over; move on over [whitey] or we’ll move on over you.” ● Outbreaks of violence, 1965-1967 ○ In the north ○ Watts (LA suburb) riots ● War in Vietnam ○ MLK denounced the war ● Election of Richard Nixon (1968) The President and Civil Rights (4) ● Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Republican- video on Nixon ● Closest election in history- Nixon vs. Kennedy ○ Not opposed to Civil Rights, but keen to exploit political opportunities that came from white resistance to desegregationist policies (like court-ordered busing and affirmative action) Late 1960s- high point of the Civil Rights The Sixties ● Civil Rights, Vietnam War, war protestors (anti-draft poster), Hippies, Rock music, Woodstock, Gay Pride, long hair ● ^ political statements would sometimes get you in trouble ● Sound of Music ●
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