Lecture notes o the Brain
Lecture notes o the Brain KN 1223
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jahnai Acosta on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KN 1223 at Temple University taught by Dr. Roonney in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see anatomy andphysiology in Kinesiology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
TheBrain General Structure – Embryological development procedures – 3 regions of enlargement of the neural tube Developed brain- Many structures and groups Forebrain • Cerebral hemispheres • Basal nuclei • Diencephalon – Thalamus – Hypothalamus - Hindbrain – Pons – Medulla Oblongata – Cerebellum - Brainstem – Midbrain – Hindbrain (except cerebellum) Meninges 3 layers of connective tissue – Separated by spaces or potential spaces – Protect brain and spinal cord Dura Mater: tough outer layer Sub-dural space: beneath dura Arachnoid Mater: thin, transparent middle layer Subarachnoid space: beneath arachnoid Pia Mater: transparent inner layer – Adheres to brain and cord Epidural space (above dura)- in cord only Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Clear fluid Similar to blood plasma – More Vitamin C – More Na, Cl, and H ions than blood plasma – Less protein and fewer Ca and K ions – pH of CSF effects breathing and cerebral blood flow Formed in choroid plexuses – Specialized capillaries in the ventricle’s roof • Surrounded by ependymal cells - 1 layer – Fluid from blood stream is filtered as moves through ependymal cells – Enters ventricles as CSF CSF constantly produced and reabsorbed Circulates through ventricles & subarachnoid space – Covers brain and cord Functions: – Hydraulic shock absorber – Transportation system Ventricles 4 Ventricles – Interconnected cavities – Within cerebral hemispheres and brain stem – Continuous with central canal – Allow continuous circulation of CSF Brain Ventricles CSF Circulation Most produced in lateral ventricles (some in 3rd) 1. Lateral ventricle 2. Interventricular foramen rd 3. 3 ventricle 4. Cerebral aqueduct th 5. 4 ventricle 6. Central canal of cord (Circulates around cord ) 7. Enters sub-arachnoid space (Through openings in roof of 4th ventricle) Blood - Brain barrier Protects brain Helps maintain stable internal environment Controls passage of materials from blood to cells in brain Controlled by: 1) Tight junctions Seal endothelial cells of brain capillaries together- become least permeable in body 2) Thick basement membrane- basal lamina Surrounds external surface of capillaries 3) Feet of astrocyte processes cling to capillaries Blood-Brain Barrier Some materials can pass through barrier: – glucose, fats, fatty acids, alcohol2 O ,2CO Cerebral Hemispheres or Cerebrum Thin, outer layer of gray matter – Cerebral cortex – 75% of all neuron cell bodies in CNS Inner region of white matter – Bundles of myelinated nerve fibers ,Connect neuron bodies to other parts of the CNS 3 Functional groups of fibers 1) Commissural Fibers – Connect structures in each side or hemisphere • Brain or cord - right and left sides – Examples • Gray commissure of cord • Corpus Callosum : right & left sides of cerebrum • Massa Intermedia: right & left sides of thalamus 2) Association Fibers – Connect areas within the same hemisphere – Long: connect between lobes – Short: connect adjacent gyri within same lobe 3) Projection Fibers – Connect cerebrum with lower structures • Internal capsule – Open V or boomerang shape – Tracts can be specifically located Lobes of Cerebral Hemispheres they Correspond to cranial bones – Frontal – Parietal – Temporal – Occipital – Insular (Deep to lateral sulcus) Lobes of Cerebral Hemisphere Surface of lobes – Gyri (gyrus)- ridges or convolutions Separated by: – Sulci (sulcus)- grooves or depressions – Arranged in distinct patterns – All have names Lobes of Cerebral Hemisphere are All mapped for function – Highly organized – Sensory and motor functions for opposite side of body • Left hemisphere: 90% dominant for: – Language activities: speech, writing, reading – Analytical reasoning (math & science) • Right hemisphere: Non-dominant – Non-verbal functions: Interpreting musical patterns or spatial relationships & Imagination, artistic skill Cortex: involved with consciousness – Perception of sensations • Voluntary motor control • Higher mental processing: memory, logic, judgment – Other regions have specific functions Hemispheres and Lobes Mapped for function – Occipital- vision – Frontal- higher mental functions – Pre-central gyrus- primary motor – Post-central gyrus- sensory Primary Functional Organization 1. Motor 2. Sensory 3. Association
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