unit 5 Lecture notes
unit 5 Lecture notes KN 1223
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jahnai Acosta on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KN 1223 at Temple University taught by Dr. Roonney in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see anatomy andphysiology in Kinesiology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
SpecialSenses Smell, Taste, Hearing and Equilibrium, Vision Olfactory Sense - Smell Olfactory Organs Called olfactory epithelium • Contains receptors Yellowish-brown masses Surrounded by mucous membranes – Covers roof of nasal cavity and part of nasal septum Olfactory receptors • Chemoreceptors • Stimulated by chemicals dissolved in mucus – Once stimulated • Impulses travel along axons of receptor cells • Axons grouped into fascicles – Stimulation • Pass through tiny openings in the cribriform plates of the ethmoid bone • Synapse with neurons in olfactory bulbs • Impulse travels along olfactory tracts to olfactory cortex in the uncus Gustatory Sense - Taste Taste Buds - special organs of taste – On surface of tongue – Associated with papillae - tiny elevations – Modified epithelial cells called Taste or Gustatory cells Taste Buds Function as receptors – Taste bud is somewhat spherical – Taste pore - opening on free surface – Taste hairs protrude from taste pore • Tiny projections (microvilli) • Sensitive part of receptor cell – Taste receptors are chemoreceptors • Modified epithelial cells, not nerve cells • Chemicals dissolved in watery fluid surrounding taste buds - trigger receptor potential Sensitive to five types of substances – Sweet: tip of tongue – Sour: lateral margins – Salty: tip and along lateral edges – Bitter: back of tongue* cilia? New taste – Umami (ooh - mommy) • “Meaty” taste produced by amino acids • Tongue region unknown Ear - Auditory - Hearing Responds to sound waves – Caused by compression waves in air • Air is compressed, relaxed, compressed - wave results • Ear - Auditory - Hearing Vibration received by outer ear Amplified by middle ear Received, transduced, and transmitted by inner ear Transmitted to auditory cortex Ear - Auditory - Hearing Structure - Outer Ear – Pinna or auricle • Gathers and funnels sound – External Auditory Meatus • Contains hairs and modified sweat glands • Ceruminous glands - secrete cerumen (ear wax) – KEEP OUT FOREIGN OBJECTS Structure - Middle Ear – Typanic cavity: • Air filled space between outer & inner ear – Tympanic Membrane “Ear Drum” • Semitransparent membrane at end of ear canal • Outer surface: thin layer of skin • Inner surface: mucous membrane Tympanic Membrane – Oval margin – Cone-shaped - apex directed inward – Ear - Auditory - Hearing – Auditory Ossicles - 3 small bones – Transmit vibrations from eardrum to inner ear • Malleus (hammer) - attached to tympanic membrane • Incus (anvil) – Transmits vibration to the Stapes • Stapes (stirrup) - attached to the oval window – Opening to inner ear Tensor Tympani Muscle – Attached to medial surface of malleus, wall of auditory tube – Pulls malleus inward – Tightens tympanic membrane - damps or reduces vibration Stapedius - Attached to posterior side of stapes, posterior wall of tympanic cavity – Pulls stapes outward away from oval window – also damps vibration Tympanic reflex – Initiated by loud sound - muscles contract – Make tympanic membrane & oval window rigid – Protects inner ear - less vibration transmitted • Ear - Auditory - Hearing Eustachian tube – Connects middle ear with the nasopharynx – Allows air to pass between tympanic cavity and exterior via throat and mouth – Maintain equal air pressure on both sides of tympanic membrane – With unequal pressure - eardrum can’t vibrate – Auditory tube is normally flattened – When pressure changes - must open system to equalize pressure between tympanic cavity and the outside – Swallow, yawn, and chew Inner Ear - Hearing – Labyrinth - complex system of tubes and chambers which comprises the inner ear – Major divisions: 1) Osseous labyrinth 2) Membranous labyrinth inside Osseous labyrinth - divided into structurally and functionally into 3 different regions: 1. Cochlea - functions in hearing 2. Semicircular canals (3) - equilibrium 3. Vestibule - opening which serves both – Structures actually holes in solid temporal bone Cochlea – Actual organ of hearing – Coiled, spiral shaped, 2 1/2 turns – Divided into 3 parallel compartments Basilar membrane – Narrow and thick near oval window – Becomes wider and thinner toward apex – Supports the Organ of Corti or spiral organ • Contains sound receptors - Cochlear hair cells Path of Sound Transmission Gathered and enters external ear Vibration of tympanic membrane – Low frequencies - slow vibration – High frequencies- fast vibration Moves auditory ossicles- malleus, incus, stapes Stapes move oval window – Path of Sound Transmission (cont’d) Oval window movement – Compresses perilymph to scala vestibuli – Creates a wave in perilymph Vibrations transmitted across vestibular membrane – To endolymph in cochlear duct – Path of Sound Transmission (cont’d) Endolymph pushes down on basilar membrane – Moves basilar membrane – Moves hair cells’ stereocilia Tectorial membrane contact causes hairs to bend – Produces receptor potential – Leads to transmission of impulse interpreted as sound Path of Sound Transmission (cont’d) Vibrations pass through perilymph of scala tympani – Dissipated by movement of membrane covering round window- secondary tympanic membrane
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