PSY 110 Personality
PSY 110 Personality PSY 110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Serena Buckley on Friday March 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Rod Gillis in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 - Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/06/15
Chapter 9Personality I De ne personality the scienti c study of stable characteristics that differentiate people A TraitState distinction Personality Social Psychology studied by personality psych studied by social psych manipulates situations to see what happens Trait State Internal External Stable Unstable Typical Situational B Early attempts Selectively attend to information that makes us feel right done unconsciously aleviates anxiety why scienti c method was made 1 Astrology based on valid ideas in their day lead to astronomy 400500 years ago when realized stars do not rotate around earth does not predict personalities fortunes etc 2 Phrenology personality is controlled by something in head certain regions in head control certain personality traits 3 Somatotypes Ectomorph Mesomorph Endomorph personality could be controlled by body type ectomorphskinny people serious mesomorphmuscular people endomorphfat people jolly 4 Palm reading teling the future by reading palmslifelines 5 Graphology reading writing to tell about personality ll Psychoanalytical Approach Psychodynamic A Freud not a psychologist neurologist Wrote papers on the nervous system in Vienna Austria in 1856 1 The structure of Personality personality is like an iceberg Only a portion is above consciousness system may con ict amongst the three parts a ID Pleasure Principle completely unconscious present from birth primitive animalistic Guided by sex and sel shness b Ego Reality Principle mostly unconscious other people s needs matter comes with consequences c Superego Morality Principle partially unconscious and conscious morality principle has to be shaped Children must learn what is good and bad 2 The EgoDefense Mechanisms defending the ego from uncomfortable impulses of the ID Repression most important pushing uncomfortable thoughts feelings and memories into unconscious awareness Rationalization substituting a better explanation for behavior Justifying it Projection imagining that your thoughtsmotivations are other people s thoughtsmotivations ex quotWouldn t you love to win the lotteryquot Displacement diverting impulse from real source to a safe place ex taking out aggression towards boss on wife at home Regression going back to an earlier safer time to deal with anxiety Reaction Formation repacing unacceptable impulses with their opposites ex a gay person is on an antigay committee Denial refusal to recognize an occurance Reactance doing the opposite of what someone tells you to do in order to create the illusion of control Sublimation impulsedriven behaviors are channeled toward producing a socially valued accomplishment 3 Psychosexual Development 1 Oral 02 Oral Fixations can lead to eating too much drinking too much smoking 2 Anal 23 Anal RetentiveAnal Expulsive when children start engaging in toilet training harsh toilet training may force people to become anal retentive a perfectionist a lack of toilet training may cause someone to become anal expulsive overly messy 3 Phallic 37 Oedipus when the differences between boys and girls begin to matter Oedipus Complex a stage when little boys are more strongly bonded with the mother than they are with the father Eectra Complex a stage when little girls are more strongly bonded with the father than they are with the mother Penis Envy young girls are envious of young boys penises 4 Latency 7 Puberty a nonstage no development of importance occurs during this time period 5 Genital the emergence of true adult sexuality BCadJung studiedcorresponded with Freud Jung believed the Ego is who you think you are founded school of quotAnalytical Psychologyquot 1 Collective Unconscious made up of our shared human ancestry has given us common ideas can be described as genetics a Archetypes eement of collective unconscious universaly understood symbol if a book or movie appeals to the audience s collective unconscious it will sell well b Mandala everywhere in the world you will nd concentric patterns represents the self striving for wholeness ex ying yang atom swastika jewish star cross wedding ring c Anima the feminine side of all human beings d Animus the masculine side of all human beings C Erik Erikson also thought Freud focused too heavily on sex during development founded the school of quotPsychosocial Developmentquot lll Behavioral Model of Personality says Personality is Learned through A Classical Conditioning B Operant Conditioning C Observational social Learning fails to recognize that personality is also genetic IV Humanistic Models of Personality A Carl Rogers 1 Unconditional Positive Regard if a child was raised in an environment of unconditional positive regard they would reach their full potential Rogerian therapy necessary for therapy Conditional Positive Regard 2 Active Listening We make 5 Common responses to emotional communications Re ect Evaluate Interpret Reassure or Probe re ecting is the most important aspect of active listening B Abraham Maslow Self Actualization V Biology affects personality There s lots of evidence 1 Breeding animals it is very easy to breed animals to have speci c personality traits 2 Gender differences males are substantially more aggressive women tend to be passive aggressive 3 Drug induced changes 4 Jerome Kagen shyness Jerome Kagen studied reactivity to novel stimulation chidren that react strongly to novel tendencies will be shy while children that act weakly will be outgoing The other 70 of children vary upon nurture 5 Identical twin studies separated at birth same genetics but different upbringing about 70 of the variability is induced by genetics VI The Measurement of Personality A Objective tests can be scored by someone or something 1 MMPI2 deveoped in 1940 s Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory many subscale personality inventory about 500 questions and takes approximately an hour results in an MMPI personality pro lescale used for diagnosing people with clinical disorders 2 l6PF 16personality factors ooks for normal variations uses factor analysis 3 MCMI Ted Millon of the University of Miami Milon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory functions to replace the MMPI 4 NEOPl Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory now referred to as the big ve including Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness and Conscientiousness B Projective tests Ambiguity are not scorable by a machine Require the clinical interpretation of a professional projection is imagining someone else s feelings when you look at an ambiguous stimulus such as a cloud what you see reveals the unconscious mind 1 Rorschach deveoped by Herman Rorschach in 1921 dropped ink onto a blank piece of paper and folded in half the longer someone views the ink blot the more objects they will see a way of projecting unconscious mind 2 TAT Thematic Apperception Test pictures are shown and the observer is asked to explain what is going on 3 Incomplete sentence blank psychiatrists ask patients to nish sentences such as quotI wishquot 4 Word Association when said a speci c word one is asked what they think of 5 DrawaPicture chidren are asked to draw a picture of something speci c C Research measures instruments used by psychiatrists not therapists 1 Type AType B Type A a sense of time urgency do not relax easily Coronary Prone Personality 2 InternalExternal locus of control whether you are in control or you are powerless to other people 3 OptimismPessimism highy in uenced by environment and parents 4 Need for Achievement some people don t wish for success again based off role models
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