Lecture Notes from March 2 week
Lecture Notes from March 2 week HIST1011
Popular in History since the 1500s
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Popular in History
This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Rewerts on Friday March 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST1011 at George Washington University taught by Hugh Agnew in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 246 views. For similar materials see History since the 1500s in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/06/15
Q 2182015 Changing Land Use Most widespread resource now more intensively used 39 Enclosures and other techniques of land improvement New crops livestock development Comparable developments in East Asia Korea Japan wld0 wil l 7140 hiMi 3quot 37 933 MC 64 71 Jamal landowners in Britain but also Korea and Japan enclosed torme y common lands to raise livestock Search for Food Resources 6 General tendency to intensify exploitation of land enclosed underused land shift to livestock all part of search for food resources 9 European Empires placed well to lead in this search They controlled territory in all climate zones Controlled the shipping resources to bring them together Imperial countries created and developed botanical gardens as storehouses and laboratories for the plant riches of the world tif 39 sll if I745 Ci Wt 9 le Med 9M cm 5 u t 3 j Braille E17 Hu d f Lil vitbt d y 5 1 1quot l Li cgr AW7 4 39 5 Iquot it f ju scgrttdl liccl a 305 E 6407 tCCx39 jg 8 lquot new 1 p 39 1 n ET LQA 14016wa Ohm cc2H3 CH chifleas were gilv bfa rstquot 397 he EBA rmquot may Tcd e sMbc almuU 3quot 3 avg9f v l Eco rpm 1c Shoutsm Cheacid Lad use Ame toms may land i u M1113 erovs t M lawn J g Al 2 PtJCHJW39A My m 45 Mxt b new 35mm Ana maid he celltalk f t 439 J51 39 a 1 L a 4SL KO H Ibh iL qId 3 6 Veij JR 53quotW5 Veal lame omeA 140 a 6quotquot fterns PK 93 3 tabaz lb39V l ayegtogk FAquotPmb m Cig ml l it grs 39 m l 39395 4FcIO 39 adieu color a wwww Ema OctM V 4T lb1 Driil b g Wt 66th it wilttch 31M Jtoquot 4550c bratij G M a 6Ml 4 p l J V91 w 1 1 rquot W M We M f Emma Y 5 mm mm W wig 1ampin UM 2182015 Madrid s botanical garden one of many the Spanish established in the 18quot century Butaninlgudsnswmhmn ma m n I but especially theyallowed Experimentation andpmpagntion at oommarciallypmmin nguopsinminuspartsofthegbbg W WWW DfOAVLCB J r Directed Ecological Exchange f a From the laboratories of botanical gardens targeted spreading of products could take place French development of diversi ed spice production andquot reforestation in Indian Ocean colonies Dutch planting of coffee in Java in 1707 as part of program of deepening political controls a Coffee takes off in 180 French imitate Dutch plant coffee in Reunion Indian Ocean and St Domingue Haiti in Caribbean 1 W M Wits m quoti mwa 98mm X akquot 139quot yam r W5 Cm C60 IMAM awr r L in t litcm Cez t39 d0 Lift lL g39e 3 W6 53 PWLMHUQ Portuguese in Brazil in early 180 British in Jamaica 1730 Plants introduced into Hawai i in 1825 a Coffee boom stimulated yet more sugar production this time around Indian Ocean tm 3am mm cw 1m w Que3 Em O aCCC I Preybk gt1 P6090 wk We W d mk CUJQGQ tUf 3M 3 So CO39QBC SQf 5 314quot alga mag W 7quot 4 M ii WW 2 W 9 WNWix 9W1 Wet W N Ml l 2182015 Pacific Ocean Exchanges and New Eur0pes 5 Some Paci c Island societies economically productive Hawai39i Tahiti New Zealand Fostered image of the South Seas as a paradise of plenty an sexual license 9 Breadfruit experiment and the Mutiny on th Bountyquot e Other transfers Pigs trade between Tahiti and Australia British after 1792 Potatoes garlic other garden and orchard crops 0 New Europesquot Where climate and terrain allowed Europeans to feel at home 39 f Glow Samw 00L blatzlll M and bring crops and animals they were familiar with New Zealand Australia the southern cone of South America Still not just carbon capies of Europe Hakim IUWME LafW ilL I Wb 39 x o 3 I Ta NM t 3 3r 27ch a aqptu d3 35 M x 5 th WillDb l13 m h lw blind N 5N 39 l in in t V J Sydney Australia 1792 Development Strategies of Western World EV e Control sources of key commoditie Coffee inJava Dutch o Tea in India British Australian wool econogy began to be developed British 9 Continue to control trade 0 European control of resources of Ameri Dutch monopoly of trade with Japan silver 0 British dominance in India revenue labor markets French English Venetian merchants dominate Ottoman trade and markets I W I n l 39 11m it r X i t r quot l Nquot lt OC l lkh W M 9 75 a 0321 Haste WCOQHO r mm a t Chow aquot ll w quotimperial U n i y 39 Shighlji ac711 19 3690M ME SatCf cork Jim K Cyc1e has emerged of growing population rising demand increasing output and expanding commerce all mutually reinforcing China and Japan benefitted 39om demographic and economic changes but Europe and its American and Pacific extensions poised to gain the Summing Up most 2182015 10 36201 5 History 101110 World History since 1500 Lecture 12 Clash of Empires in the Eighteenth Century China39s Empire in the Eighteenth Century Vulnerable Success e Continued expansion of territory in 18C Absorbed Tibet 1720 Extended further into Central Asia and along Mongol Russian Burmese and Vietnamese borders 9 o Colonization expanded in Taiwan Mongolia and Xingjian Chinese migration overseas Continued in spite of government indifference or hostility Rarely sought power but pursued pro ts China remained economic superpower Tax revenues rose even though taxes decreased Rising population production and trade But inertia and stagnation setting in corruption end of f Wit 1 Emad g expansion I illll 5 Cu 1th 1 damp giant WWI1k mfg AUr ii ltd 0 rimBeets bait Clin gm 3 HM C 144 Miami tr WitM Wm slimlle 19m 9 JUL Winterquot Hf lift 61V PM Drlii l ilh The Qianlong Emperor receiving Mongol horses as tribute Utt lnknl lite bingo s Co in 5 W39s M5 Western portrait of Qianlong Emperor 17903 Other Asian StatesEmpires 9 Southeast Asia Decline in major states Thailand fell into several parts Similar end for Burma Vietnam Safavid Persia Safavid dynasty fell in 1722 Internal strife warlords e Ottoman Empire o Stagnant population decline of e icient government Territorial losses Balkans Black Sea region Caucasus North Africa Egypt g 36201 5 Eeli thism J 24 lil li lth i HSC m 7 WWW WW lb aim ii iii 339 tstwilar in Hamil Wipen 67 In 14 0 mi 0quot U OWNth Em pile 3 Mai 0 pics aim Wt 1quotka WC 1M mi 9qu at iiilg bVOWS m Rqu FUZK back Arabia Wahhabism ignored Caliphate Trade declines Sick Man of Europb K Simmer astival aradc observes by Fieiicliaiiu British ambassadors 1720 jt 96f TiA AD nth UMP 13 Ni ii i I Emit MSWii miliii kgquot minister 81f C MES Me i 4 395 PEHSM 1 I an InspiredbyMuharrmacmn EGYPT 139 Abd al Wahhab I 703 1737 eligious refor39n loads to thowlng off of Ottoman ies in Arabia Wahllabi Expanslon L Qumran imam211m M vvwsatr mm y 4 2m at Wnnhehx quotconsi nnnnn H 39 a untktn 1 rs LU mi piste rrmn391 M m t Ahhahix f The Fall of the Mughal Empire and the Rise of the British o Mughal India in decay After Aurangzeb problems with militant Islam and accommodation Sikhs Hindus Muslims Costs of empire of conquest increasing friction between old and new clients local rulers ignored Mughal emperor Robert Clive and the British East India Company Con ict with French leads to militarization of policy 175657 campaign into Bengal battle of Plessey Bengal falls to British The looting of Bengal funds further conquests lndian rulers39 subdued other Europeans pushed out a British in India Spanish in Peru and Mexico Last of adventurer conquests Forerunner of next century s industrial conquests RabatT CINE meeting with the Naweb of Bengal atter the Battle at PIassey 1757 362015 New 35 itquot can i a 45 gt4 Getter at W of twig Eta MASS h fm E lira03901 85 u flquot 5 m3 Irma I Mitt S We f E I J Vquot Pittaii W 5 3 quoti jquot 7 W 055 Let emit In wilting M W M WWW hm Elsie CW IA m lintM East 39Wt i Camiw dimML a Item an mini lat lmll Melt RM RIICON FFHYfn I J Jg wil fail Mir Kim a BI if 4X65 2 Wills my Hilts W Wire WW mt r74 iii36421 Ar Igc iw n Waist was last great gambit it We We 5 to em QSJ Cowman 9 W me at My 3 HUIR Of IMAM U 391 r 393quot 441 The MattedIns gt 1 evenwow If It W39tu MrM7r B IM4 returns4m I Jaduxmh t rum 39n quota 1 mun39 V uqnmrrhm 1mm 393 quotaquot 7 1m EO39CJHE CrU varle v a n Jg i 4 lusl39s39 quot 7 E95 4 mmmswmmlww xmhuxm mm 39 L ln V 99 ffa r Mn39 uca mnn nu vnsm39m 1 mung a 39 7quot 39t39rv39o39v Witt Eh cam quot quot55 quot17113 MMWIIHHIBY 39 d I NQEW39 11 15 1M1quot u I N 439 t A quotw x Sara hardwired lio39hendro 39 View 1 39 Kg l 4 A pg 25 113 q 4 V s quot1 V 7quot m f D A 1 U K F t J 362015 I Ore of the Sultan o lulysors39s favorite objects d art a soldier of the British East ndia compary in the trger39s jaws 1792 Dutch East Indies Empire without Profit e Case of India illustrates how European maritime empires were turning landward Spanish in Philippines Portuguese around Goa though expelled by Omanis from East Africa a Dutch in Java 39 Established system of client regents across island Problems Dutch a seafaring people lacked surplus manpower o Thus empire of piracy suited them best e Forced into landbased empire by grabbing not just spices but land on which they grew Very costly did not show pro t resources over extended Only conversion of much of Java to coffee production made empire mostly pay for itself rlklg r M 191M LilA Cir91 olt Mtge billquot millquot is o P Oil 39 w W git i all i M if LWW 00347 has Gill 5amp3 Dow Titty Y Es 362015 r Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Xiloirmwilrg imaged glam Eidhteenth Century L 0 Structure of trade remained similar to earlier centuries A scale increased t British North America some 400000 during 180 r 5 P i f j o 1 million to Spanish colonies 1 million to Caribbean W 40 3 million to Brazil 439 r j 9 Middle Passage horrors r quot amp ll quotCargoquot packed in like cordwood k V K 1 Q Ci M A Slaves especially sick or rebellious thrown overboard for V f J T I insurance claims e Was slavery economically reasonable Terriny inefficient all accounts agree o Compare to other contemporary types of labor compulsion a common feature 39 High demand for slaveproduced plantation products made it pro table even if inef cient Ashlie gli39iiiszs We limo m l Arrangements 39 l m lurslowmg 39b 397 39 cargoquotonlhe 0 i lY v slavosnip quotBrooksquot 1783 WW0 iCOhbilltlb W qoomllkV quotl ll if icil k lith UP biP quot in Wis Cliqu Oil i it Wilmier 5W quot trillquotii MW 5 a lm quotquot Conditions of Black Life e Plantation slavery was cruel demeaning and unjust with threat of violent punishment ever present Within limits blacks were still able to create their own social relations values practices and norms of behavior Marriage protected by law owners discouraged but stable unions still existed c Interracial sexual relations forbidden except where power relationships not challenged a Slave demographics Mainland colonies Mrginia Maryland Delaware found it best to 1750 Elsewhere slaves39 most elfective resistance not to have children combination of factors treat slaves well enough to encourage natural increase after about quot Impacts on Africa e Europeans didn39t rush to extend control in Africa Volume of slave exports dwarfed anything else no interest in grabbing land Disease still a factor especially in equatorial Africa a Slave states continued to exist based on export of humans Along the southern bulge 39slave coast threatened by each other New slave states in savannah region south of Congo basin 0 Generally not much pressure from Europeans elsewhere Portuguese in upperZambezi when gold discovered Oromo accept lslam and wear down Ethiopian Christian state Dutch Doers and Xhosa in Southern Africa stalemate by late 180 British seize Cape Colony from Dutch East India Company a lslam the Fulani and the last great pastoralist Empire I 362015 will film WW quot Min 39 Wm WWW Hint may WM r a 0 Nz jbiw 1W R Jol iil Plinth2A Slave 39 1e31m 3 3 014mm impenb Vquot M quot g 1 0M Wk 39WlVi on bzydn 31442 HALL VO jh lllV b kk b 3 10 km ACNCOM fatHwy MuSh J WW Emmy UlFiSHOA 9W0 Woman Shot film nice W P l hl i l k Il l QWUP I Llag r l Prelim dodgith in WallaM tcCMmlJJ 391 in Wm JJ 36201 5 quot I New World Land Empires Native American Grasslands o Key catalysts for emergence Spread of the horse Appearance of farming and urban communities on edges markets for horse cattle sheep e Pampas mostly in today s Argentina r Arauoanos Mapuche resisted pressure from Europeans Local chie ans traded with them and built essentially independent states North American prairies Buffalo horse cattle agrarian or huntergatherers turned to nomadism Sioux most famous in northern Great Plains Comanche followed similar path in southern Plains n Erica ads 0b Ul Swazi 09W MaliM3 495 m italipr i0 il e r tel 3 oi WS fvbtis Wit Wm blinking in F J Ehj g We tuth Mr L imtoiirei i 5 I m Syraadohhe hora5n Hu 4 Numb Ameth Prairie 1600114X 5 w I in icif k W sr w ve 39 39y 4 3 v w rr 39 ugh y Mr m 7 39 ilt Mquot 39 39 t io Hangar harass r k b quot39x quotMWaim 39 4 t quot5 2 w 2 if r l 61 1 339 ILI I39NAD v at 3 3quot 1 39 was ism n t t n r 39 39 39 39 MW FMW W ll its I a an v at e v york 393 0k quot t t u a xha tsmrnv 5 3 A 39 V 7 7 a a w l if 3 ll 1 l 63 t V inks 40062 a 39M V quotW quotm fitl wt I 7quot I m f m 9 315x115 7 i Limits and Success Elsewhere WWW Though populous country no large scale emigration Transferred to Spain after Seven Years Warin 1763 with only a few thousand European inhabitants 9 Portugal in Brazil About all that was left them with losses in Asia and Wit lino x itir Cali ti tat Africa Hinterland developed after 1690swith gold and diamonds a Spain Shift from policy of conquest to accommodation Planned settlements missions along and beyond borders o Absorbed some natives in southern border and peaceful trade with Mapuche established all lam i 397 Betti at Verityst New l lll tiilusim its Banish timid tom u Cittit EU Pit lltl l aa Ml hurl1M in 36201 5 lhc Frophci Ezekiel mum I y lh Wm B minequer Alcicdmro Amaric Fra crsco Lisaoa d 1814 fr Ire Sanctuary of Bum Jesus de atoehhosat Ccnaorhas in the gold anc gen 1 prrzv nre cf Mhas Gem 5 SqPEO QA 02m Reform 32va Lm jn I WM 7 yakTAO J k m 1m Mk lt ck WK g kc m as q WEMs AM 5 9 W l39maa w Wmm ka U amp black mm 201 M 09 a wst Wk p U IMW b xwr Wm 90 W33 Vv u k Md 35 g w m x V 362015 NONE fill No limit lo 3 02 2r 34sz L Growth of Creole Mentalitles a New colonies formed in motherland s image but altered in time Some settlers were eeing their former homes and had little desire to recreate them in the new world Empty lands to the interior drew the gaze away from the ocean and contact with former home Spanish America Assertion of superiority of American nature climate fauna and ora Discovery and assertion of connection to Native American antiquities lnca in Peru Aztec in Mexico o British America not untouched o Jefferson and W 4 M3 llltittg llxltr Wt Wmlil if U W quot NQVNLK Rib WW5 My SAWA W 3 09 Am ltmlx ltt 2r brim my Millige r Tl 36201 5 British America and Independence America was already a new society immigration up 10fold in three gene ions 25 million people in the colonies by 1775 Migrants came with alienated loyalties s New Englanders couldn t go inland had to look to seas a Meanwhile Britain sought more centralization and scal ocean and trade Their quarrels with Crown had to do with freedom of trade regulations contraband ef ciency aftermath of Seven Years War British rule and colonial interests Steps towards abolishing slavefquotquotquot 39 j Desire to preserve Native Amerin nations on weste frontier I Ntr a NW QMCIIOI tr Bib Ila IQhm U V r ti Q SCIMQR T WIN k9 n at MI 6quot Wth muttv il wrw a l J I m kmn39ilw VMXM Id mum NH K dmwy WW to 5000 3000 Population 5r limpsalute w 1000 Nature of the War for Independence o Some competing views English a air rights of freeborn Englishmenquot in con ict with usurping Crown Instead shared features of resistance to similar centralizing policies in Spanish America and Ireland o English civil war in sense that seventeenthcentury ideas recycled in colonists39 ideologies American civil war 20 of white colonists nearly all blacks slave and L free and most Native Americans supported Britain lntemational conflict France and Spain entered after Britain failed to suppress rebels quickly N0 I M39ixlristm UG Egrfmma ILA39IM Eo l llllt39i5k Agif ISV i z A 7mm EDI I 15 anti1W 5MV aner mrkigh Liam WM NMIW 1 mm fml Iii6 we Sim EM t Wt mUUm vi L e 10 36201 5 Reverberations in Spanish Asserted bureaucratic control Did away with local customs America Spanish Empire followed policies like Britain increased power and taxation by Crown Trained people for local defense rational but created reservoir of military experience things After war didn t want to give up power eMalaspina s voyage and its fate Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars Spain immobilized local juntas councils set upto run Clrolt39 WWW brim lllilrd Mill lit twirl kiwi 71 lires WW3 anvil SUIM W ca d M W WA Might til litter an him as it it is w 393an WW NR North and South America Differences a Spanish American struggle Started later lasted longer Had little to no external help 9 British American War Lasted only eight years Colonists had French and Spanish help a Differences in size tactics of armies philosoph of warfare co Economic impact American colonies with French and Spanish navy s help expanded trade during con ict 39 Spanish colonies experience long total interruptions of trade economies ruined h w s 3 imp lilw us lit U03 detail Mt 39irn Vim WK animus i Wu WEIR 3 mm k M W 0 AS l WaxA Mk RAW it Nigbhm 11 Empires and Attitudes 362015 Not only in the Americas were the rights of empires questioned Many in Europe s elite supported colonists As the colonies became independent trade and immigration increased o Exploration of the largely unknown interior of North and South America accelerated Europe now had a virtual monopoly on empire building as the Asian empires declined 12 History 101 110World History since 1500 139 Lecture 13 The Enlightenment in Global Context Characterizing the Enlig htenment o What was the Enlightenment Eighteenth century intellectual and cultural mOVement Cosmopolitan and transatlantic 39 Believed in reason and its need for autonomous application Created an identity for the age Combat unreasonquotDare to Know What were its characteristic features Faith in the power of reason Selfcon dence Belief that reason needed autonomy and freedom Determination that all knowledge should be organized Further Characteristics of the 39 Enlightenment 9 Knowledge should be spread through free open discussion lrreverence toward custom and tradition Belief in progress and human perfectibility Belief in the uniformity of human nature Belief that society can and must be reformed o Foundations of the Enlightenment Scientific method Bacon and Newton John Locke s epistemology Knowledge based on experience alone Pragmatic example of Great Britain Locke s Time Treatises of Government 312015 Eh lgtniWii quot W a 6M g MinMags Will I pf lamulmi imtQtim calmm Wm ih gymViva 3 ohmic 44in I15 C E m WWW quot KM 5M 30er 2 21mquot M Pruitth RigMitt imim Mam 3975 Wu iiiWit 74 0 Mam W M Hbgmi i Imitigzhw Casi m 3r 39haditim w mi 5 W 9quot mm 51M WWW E i hoi 55 WMWdi M5 ROM 93f 5 5 Witt T W Ch in WW7 W M to Jim quot7 30th um I 39me M W on Win atl I join0 1 vinyl Ebb 312015 grow E The Party of Humanity the Freethinkers not bound by religion or other dogma Not philosophers stricto sensu Voltaire Life and work personi ed the Enlightenment Philosophical Letters 1734 Praise for British liberties empiricism open mindedness Veiled criticism of France Loathed religious bigotry and intolerance quotEcrasez l infame PhilosopheK 4913173 55L MMMML 1 quotI Wm 2WD 5 M OsM ilkquotz um M l istl 6 ml 05744ng Francois Marie Arouet alias Voltaire 1694 l 788 Other Leading Philosophes o Montesq39uieu Born of a noble family served as magistratestudied law 73 Persian Letters 1721 7719 spirit of the Laws 1748 Comparative and historical Identi ed different forms of government republic monarchy despotism Checks and Balances o The icyclopedia Diderot and D Alembert Application ofEnlightenment ideal of reason to human affairs Grand compendium of howledge and oral 17 volumes of text and illustrations between 1751 and 1772 Widespread throughout Europe Wham 0 Eu 5 c eran mm Km FN J J 312015 Charles Louis de Secondat Baron de Montesquieu 16891755 f The ENCYCIopedia great work of Denis Diderot 17131784and Jean d Alembert 17174233 39 8 Wk 0 PMNMR OWL A 01 w EVR Wf f JR W WWK WWW JCS Elgagdu m r t 41mg K
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