Pharmacology PPT 301 Week 15 Notes
Pharmacology PPT 301 Week 15 Notes PPT 301
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Stenson on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PPT 301 at University of North Dakota taught by James Haselton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Human physiology in Physiology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Pharmacology Week 15 Chloropropamide Trade Name: Diabinese Therapeutic Class: Oral hypoglycemic Therapeutic Use: Adjunct to diet and exercise to lower blood glucose level in Type II diabetes mellitus Pharmacologic Class: Sulfonylureas, first-‐generation Mechanism of Action: Stimulates the release of insulin from functioning beta cells in the pancreas; may improve the binding of insulin to its receptor, and increase the number of insulin receptors Human Regular Insulin Trade Name: Humulin R Therapeutic Class: Antidiabetic agent; pancreatic hormone Therapeutic Use: Used to help maintain blood glucose levels within normal limits, primarily in patients with Type I diabetes mellitus Pharmacologic Class: Short-‐acting hypoglycemic agent Mechanism of Action: Promotes cellular uptake of glucose, amino acids, and potassium; to promote protein synthesis, glycogen formation and storage, and fatty acid storage as triglycerides; and to conserve energy stores by promoting the utilization of glucose for energy needs, and inhibiting gluconeogenesis Metformin Trade Name: Glucophage Therapeutic Class: Antidiabetic agent Therapeutic Use: The preferred oral hypoglycemic for managing Type II diabetes mellitus; used alone or in combination with other oral hypoglycemic or insulin Pharmacologic Class: Hypoglycemic agent; biguanide Mechanism of Action: Reduces fasting and postprandial glucose levels; does not cause hypoglycemia. The drug actions do not depend on stimulating insulin release, so it is able to lower glucose levels in patients who no longer secrete insulin. In addition to lowering blood glucose levels, it lowers triglyceride and total and low-‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, and promotes weight loss Conjugated Estrogens Trade Name: Cenestin Therapeutic Class: Hormone Therapeutic Use: Treatment of moderate to severe symptoms of menopause caused by diminished estrogen secretion by the ovaries. Other replacement therapies include treatment of female hypogonadism and use after oophorectomy. The drug is approved for the palliative treatment of inoperable prostate cancer Pharmacologic Class: Estrogen; hormone replacement therapy Mechanism of Action: Increases bone density and reduces LDL cholesterol. It may also lower the risk of coronary artery disease and colon cancer in some patients Estradiol/Norethindrone Trade Name: Ortho-‐Novium Therapeutic Class: Combination oral contraceptive Therapeutic Use: It is nearly 100% effective at preventing conception. Off-‐label indications for the drug include acne vulgaris (in females who have achieved menarche), endometriosis, hypermenorrhea, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Noncontraceptive benefits include improvement in menstrual cycle regularity and decreased incidence of dysmenorrhea Pharmacologic Class: Estrogen/progestin Mechanism of Action: Prevents ovulation by negative feedback to the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, preventing the release of FSH and LH Medroxyprogesterone Trade Name: Provera Therapeutic Class: Hormone; agent for dysfunctional uterine bleeding Therapeutic Use: Treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, secondary amenorrhea, and contraception; palliation of metastatic uterine or renal carcinoma and as a sustained release form for contraception Pharmacologic Class: Progestin Mechanism of Action: Inhibits the effect of estrogen on the uterus, restoring normal hormonal balance Oxytocin Trade Name: Pitocin Therapeutic Class: Drug to induce labor; uterine stimulant Therapeutic Use: Drug for choice for inducing labor; ma also be administered postpartum to reduce hemorrhage after expulsion of the placenta, and to aid in returning normal muscular tone to the uterus Pharmacologic Class: Hormone; oxytocic Mechanism of Action: Binds to oxytocin receptors in myometrium, increasing intracellular Ca++ and stimulating uterine contractions Finasteride Trade Name: Proscar Therapeutic Class: Drug for BPH Therapeutic Use: Treatment of BPH. Also marketed as Propecia, which is prescribed to promote hair regrowth in patients wit male-‐patterned baldness Pharmacologic Class: 5-‐alpha reductase inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Inhibits 5-‐alpha-‐reductase, the enzyme responsible for converting testosterone to one of its metabolites, 5-‐alpha-‐dihydrotestosterone. This active metabolite causes proliferation of prostate cells and promotes enlargement of the gland. Promotes shrinkage of enlarged prostates and subsequently helps restore urinary function Sildenafil Trade Name: Viagra Therapeutic Class: Drug for treating impotence Therapeutic Use: Treatment of impotence. Also used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Blocking phosphodiesterase-‐5 in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle causes vasodilation and reduction in arterial hypertension. The drug improves exercise capacity in these patients Pharmacologic Class: Phosphodiesterase (PDE)-‐5 inhibitor Mechanism of Action: Relaxes smooth muscles in the corpora cavernosa, allowing increased blood flow into the penis. The increased blood flow results in a firmer and longer lasting erection Testosterone Trade Name: None Therapeutic Class: Male sex hormone Therapeutic Use: Treatment of delayed puberty and hypogonadism in males; treatment of erectile dysfunction that is caused by low androgen levels; palliative treatment of inoperable breast cancer in women Pharmacologic Class: Androgen; anabolic steroid; antineoplastic Mechanism of Action: Stimulates RNA synthesis and protein metabolism; promotes virilization, including enlargement of the sexual organs, growth of facial hair, and a deepening of the voice; increases libido and restores masculine characteristics that may be deficient
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