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ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #13

by: Ashley

ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #13 ARCH 2243 - 001


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Here are the notes of the week.
History of Architecture II
Kim Sexton
Class Notes
history, Architecture
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Monday April 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.

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Date Created: 04/25/16
4-18-2016 National Settings: The Federal Presence in Architecture and Urban Design 1785-1830 I. Washington DC Plan and Mall – Washington DC – 18 – 19 cent. – Pierre L’Enfant – Enlightenment  Context oJefferson got the idea of his separation of land in the National Land Ordinance from the Romans  6x6 miles townships  The first 13 colonies had primary organic roads that had no order other than the states that Jefferson put together with secondary roads that follow the gridded land separation rules  Eventually Europe follows this idea – Barcelona, Spain oIdeas for Washington DC  L’Enfant’s Plan was radiating areas  Jefferson’s Plan was gridded and he hanged the name of the Jenkins Hills to Capitol Hill and the Goose Creek to the Tiber River – just like in Italy  L’Enfants WON  Enlightenment Innovation oWalls violated – nature invades the boundaries oMultiple Centers oOnly local archetypal geometries oAnti-perspectival character of urban space oLaugier  City like a forest  Order and yet sort of confusion  Monuments should edify the populace  Symbolism oBalance of powers  Legislative and Judiciary together in the Capitol building  Executive in the President’s House  Washington Monument  Creates a right triangle to connect the three places oHistorical founding  All the major people in the founding of the US lived on the same street oA diagram of the early Republic’s values and history  English garden is brought in again  Mall for monuments  Capital at the top = Constitution  Washington Monument = Revolution  Lincoln Monument = Confirmation of the Union  Archaeological Correctness 4-18-2016 oRobert Mills plan adapt the English garden model with the architectural variety of pavilions in the mall  US Treasury Building as Greek Stoa (portico)  Face the park  Represent Greek Revival  Smithsonian Gothic Revival Castle  Egyptian Revival – Washington Monument – Obelisk  Personality is sublimated in geometry oRevival style for Mill’s design for the Washington Monuement as a ‘pavillion’  Greek Revival Lincoln Monument  Authorized 1867  Built 1914-22  “In this temple, as in the hearts of the people for whom he saved the Union, the memory of Abraham Lincoln is enshrined forever”  Not a religion but gives an idea of civic duty  Monument that confirms the survival of the Union 4-20-2016 The Industrial Revolution: New Materials for New Architectural and Social Frontiers I. The Panopticon – England – 18 cent – Jeremy Bentham - Enlightenment  Context oEngland is in the lead for Industrial Revolution oIndustrial Revolution 1760/80 – 1830  Blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale, England  Steam engines are super slow at this time oCast iron bridge (1779-81) near Coalbrookdale, England  Really underestimating the tensile strength of the cast iron due to the amount he used  Uses an arch to make sure it can spread the load  Architect said he would pay for it all then realized it would cost to much and ended up dying in the debt prison oIron is now being used in the mills oIron is more “fireproof” than what they used before oConsumerism (people who didn’t work in those factories)  They would discover these glass and iron things in the shopping arcades  Passages des Panoramas, Paris, 1799  Rhode Island – Providence Arcade, oCommerce  Grain Exchange – Paris, 1813  Glass and iron for the dome but they don’t let it be visible  Enlightenment oPanopticon – “you can see everything”  Used in hospitals and prisons  Jeremy Bentham’s  Auto icon  Founded University College of London  Had his body mummified and it is oThe idea of separating different crimes that the prisoners commited in the prison is now a thing oWhy were these ideals not always successful  Put one person per stall in a circle on the outside and the warden is in the center of the building  Utilitarianism – help most of the people, if it doesn’t work for everyone then oh well  Surveillance as Power oSolitude  Each person had their own stall and the warden could see absolutely everyone  Therefore each person would think that they are being watched at all times 4-20-2016  Correction  transform bad habits into good ➝ labor  Reform the soul  transform moral character ➝ solitude  When prisoners went to a lecture or a church service each person would have their own stall so they would never see other people  When all the prisoners went on walks they would cover the face in order to not see any people as well  Industrialization oDue to the enhancement of iron and glass you could use glass as your façade instead of punching windows in walls  Delusion oSocial effects of the “violence of the walls and gaze”  Some people may go crazy due to the lack of privacy and communication  “Full lighting and the eye of a supervisor capture one better than darkness [does], which ultimately protected.  Visibility is a trap” (Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish (1977), 200). oFuture role of the architect if architecture had autonomous and active agency in the future of the world  Architecture is almost instrumental  Putting walls were you need them and putting curtains where you need them II. Royal Saltworks – Arc-et-Senans, France – 18 cent – Claude-Nicolas Ledoux – Neoclassical  Radical neoclassical style oLooks like The Tempietto – Rome, Italy – Bramante oNeo-classical because …  The columns look like pedistals, flat and low  No ornament or statues or reliefs on the exterior  Geometric purity Nationalism and 19 -Century Revivalism in Europe: Schinkel’s Neoclassical Berlin I. Historical background for early 19 - century European architecture  Lack of confidence oIndustrial Revolution  Population of Britain in 1701: 7 million  Population of Britain in 1901 37 million (nearly all city dwellers) oPolitical revolutions:  French Revolution: 1789 oRe-entrenchment of kings, emperors (Napoleon becomes emperor of France in 1799)  Intense historicism in architecture comes at a time of crisis oThinking with the history and deploying it in terms of the now  18 century (Enlightenment)  historical relativism architecture is universal language that transcends the vagaries of time: diverse styles are global “characters”  19 century (nationalism)  historicism inventing the past as a foil to the present; deploying styles as caution, inspiration, contrast or analogy, above all as a measure of how far they had advanced or declined. The pieces of history were assembled in acute awareness of what they mean in the context of now. oNationalistic sub contexts  “The character of whole nations, cultures, and epochs speaks through the totality of their architecture, which is the outward shell of their being” (Jacob Burchardt, Reflections on History, 1868-71).  Franth under Neapolitan is like the modern roman empire oTactical (19 century) over utopian (18 century) responses  Romanticism oCultural movement against industrialization oRomanticists privileged intuition, sensation, escapism II. Cultural Institutions for ambitious nations: Architectural revivalism builds the identity of old and new nation-states (nationalism)  Context oRoyal Palace destroyed over WWII  Enlightenment Innovation oAcross the palace  Romantics idea (arts should be seen)  Style oWants to use the idea of the stoa as his main greek type oHuge ionic columns oStaircase focuses on a part of the stoa due to the fact it doesn’t span the whole length of the building  That area it focuses shows that behind those columns there was a darker area showing that it was an entrance to something  Romanticism oWhere is the romantic “temple of art” within the stoa-inspired museum  sculpture on the lower floors  Paintings on the top floor  Top floor  Had small rooms set off from the main room  Spaces of individual contemplation  These rooms were for people to focus and view personally and in a quiet area  Big room is done in the model of the Pantheon that isolates sculptures  Aesthetic experience – the Picturesque oPicturesque was on the interior and exterior oThe Vestibule  Sheet glass was in between the columns that were at the stairs  You would walk up on of the staircases to a terrace  Not too much art in this area because he wants you to look back out at the view  His architecture school and one of his churches is in the view as well as the Royal Palace  Then you enter through thresholds to the actual museum III. Breaking new ground: Schinkel’s Romantic classicism at Charlottenhof in Potsdam, Germany  Main villa – neoclassical  Court gardeners house – people liked this one more  Aesthetic experience – the Picturesque oClassic pavilion – to look at the landscape o English style park – main villa (axial but still asymmetric)  Style oGeometry order vs asymmetric composition oFront 1 story vs back 2 stories and more of a casual look to it oIntegrated into the landscape  Back door is a 2 story door that when looked through there is a staircase and a fountain  Plan oGetting ideas second hand and first hand from classical architecture oPrecedent – Pompeii  “in accordance with Pompeian models” IV. The Vernacular in the Picturesque aesthetic liberates neoclassicism from its own restraints in Schinkel’s Court Gardener’s House in Potsdam  Style oUneven non-symmetrical design oEveryone can sense a kind of grid underneath it oItalianate – vernacularized classical style  Bold off center element  Disciplined asymmetrical groupings  Off center element – the tower  Defined voids and masses juxtaposed in 3-dimensional composition  Plan and the Picturesque oAsymmetric element – the tower – but is also holds the composition together as an anchor oLong portico with a roman baths on it oLand entrance  Edges of the buildings blend into nature even though it is so geometrical  Bridge together main villa and gardeners new villa attachment has a trellises to go between the two  Archaeological Correctness oStibadium oTrees get to act as if they are columns oHermes figures in the garden to show the boundaries oBig garden  Low portico  High building  Low round arches in the portico  Straight arches on the pergola oSemi-peristyle courtyard oRoman Baths – one little room off of the villa oDisplay for classical culture and sculpture


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