Week 7: Imperialism
Week 7: Imperialism JMC:1200:0AAA
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Kreischer on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JMC:1200:0AAA at University of Iowa taught by Frank Durham in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Media History and Culture in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Chapter 6 Promoting and Resisting US Imperialism Yellowjournalism journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration Imperialism and AntiImperialism Westward expansion 0 Manifest Destiny In search of property and prosperity Manifest Destiny dominant vision that framed American control of the continent as or gained by God Fed government removed Native Americans based on this ideology 0 War with Mexico Southwestern states of Texas New Mexico Arizona and California Expansion beyond boundaries of North America 0 Started at the end of the Civil War 0 Argued it could supply US industries with raw materials and foreign markets for manufacturing goods 0 US wanted to take its place among world powers assembling an empire that could rival European powers 0 Thought that US could assist these nonwhite savage corners of the world White man s burden Moral duty of the supper white race US journalism s response 0 Especially prominent in thejournalism published by William Randolph Hea Purchased New York Morning Journal in 1896 Competed with Joseph Pulitzer s New York World Use of large head lies to announce stories of crime scandal journalistic stunts sports news and social crusades Illustrations and cartoons Richard Outcault brought to the Journal Created the Yellow Kid Led to the term yellowjournalism Disappointed middle and upper class observers Heart s view on imperialism o Believed US should aid Cuba s fight for independence form Spanish rule 0 Romantisized the struggle of freedom fighters for independence compared it to US struggle for freedom from Britain 0 Wanted to replace Spain as a dominant imperial power 0 Whitelaw Reid shared this enthusiasm o Commissioned reporter William Harding Davis to report on Cuban liberation movement and Spain s effort to squash it War with Spain 0 Escalating tensions between nations 0 USS Maine US warship exploded The Journal blamed Spain without evidence The World joined in also without evidence 0 April 19 1898 Declared war on Spain 0 December 1898 Spain signed a treaty to give US Cuba Puerto Rico Guam and Philippines Annexed Puerto Rico Guam and Philippines US struggled against antiimperialist fighters from Philippines Wanted to reform these primitive people Objections to imperialism 0 George Washington Williams published an open letter condemning brutal practices in Congo 0 June 1898 American Antilmperialist League formed Opposed the annexation of the Philippines Notable members Formed President Grover Cleveland Samuel Gompers Jane Addams Andrew Carnegie John Dewey William James Ambrose Bierce William Dean Howells Mark Twin Disbanded in 1921 Arguments around similar themes whether imperialist or anti 0 American commitment to selfgovernment and individual freedom 0 ln favor of imperialism Arguments more successful Had very effective outlets for their message owners of the most widely read and influential newspapers Prominent public figures Ideology of race and assumed supremacy Labeled opponents as isolationists National Glory and the White Man s Burden Framed by newspapers as romantic adventure American s show values that makes themselves seem superior Venturing into uncivilized ares of the world David Livingstone s explorations of Africa 0 New York Herald publisher James Gordon Bennet assigned Henry Morton Stanley to find him when he lost contact with European explorers o Publicity stunt for the Herald 0 Exotic accounts and brutal measures he took to subdue them Whitelaw Reid Our New Duties Their Later Aspects Whitelaw Reid 0 Editorinchief of New York Tribune 0 Spoke about the virtues of US colonization in the Philippines 0 Framed US actions towards the region as a project that had begun long before the Spanish American War Emphasized the potential of US rule leading to civilization and then selfgovernment 0 Philadelphia Inquirer cartoons Shows the US as capable of managing its imperial possessions to the admiration of European on looks lmperialism s Opponents George Washington Williams 0 African American journalist o Attempt to expose the abuses of the Belgian colonial regime in the Congo William Walker 0 Cartoonist of Life magazine 0 Mocks the white man s burden Mark Twain 0 North American Review commentary 0 To the Person Sitting in the Darkness February 1901 o lronic tone Conclusions Role of mainstream press to normalize American imperialism New York World and New York Journal engaged in yellow journalism 0 Showed the power of newspapers to promote a war White man s burden Lecture 11 Imperialism Proponents of Imperialism William R Hearst The Journal Joseph Pulitzer The World James Gordon Bennett The Herald Whitelaw Reid The Tribune Henry Mortensen The Death of Rodriguez Student Journalism Dr Livingston presume Aframe James Gordon Bennett NY Herald sent Stanley for Livingston July 1872 R H Davis for The Journal sympathy for Cuba s freedom fighters The Death of Rodriguez 1896 Opponents of AntiImperialism American Antilmperlialist League 18981921 0 Mark Twain 0 Grover Cleveland 0 Jane Addams o Africans American journalism George Washington Williams 0 Washington s Farewell Address ambiguous Timeline 1895 0 March 5 The Times moralizes against Spain s rule of Cuba yellow journalism 1898 0 February 15 940 PM The Maine explodes and sinks with 260 casualties 0 February 26 The World is still a voice for moderation 0 April 25 Declare war on Spain Yellow Journalism is Created Joseph Pulitzer 0 St Louis PostDispatch 1878 0 NY World 1833 the people s paper Pulitzer s Innovations Bigger headlines Graphics Sold for a penny Sensationalistjournalism referred to as tabloid journalism today Yellow Journalism Rules Imperialism in New York Pulitzer The World Hearst The Journal Ochs The Times Yellow Journalism Sensational journalism tied to the promotion of the SpanishAmerican War as a way to promote newspaper sales Partisan news reportage See Outcault s Hogan s AlleyYellow Kid for the origin of the name The World Headlines Similar to broadsides William Randolph Hearst Strongly imitated Pulitzer s populist approach tojournalism lnnova ons 0 Color printing 0 Lured Richard Outcault and The Yellow Kid from Pulitzer o Staged stunts ex Hot air balloon wedding 0 Gossip column Annie Laurie the original sob sister 0 Cut price to a penny The Yellow Kid A classbased satire that played to the populist Democratic base of each paper s readership By Richard Outcault who drew Hogan s Alley New York Times A standard against which yellowjournalism can be judged Whose interests were being served 0 How objective was the New York Times in all of this Objectivity the weight of intelligentjudgement The Times approach Informational not entertainmentbased The Papers Positions Yellowprowardemocratic o The World 0 The Journal Objectiveantiwarrepubican o The Times Lecture 12 Imperialism amp Spanish War Continued Today s Questions What is the mouth about the Spanish American war 0 Partisan more interested in commercialism than extending American Democracy How does David Spencer revise the myth about the press role in the Spanish American war How is yellowjournalism defined A Myth to Revise That the New York Journal and the World New York caused the Spanish American War 0 Pulitzer and Hearst The conclusion They contributed to its advent The Revision A Choice Between Sensationalism and Information Reactions against 0 The New York Evening Post A nationa disgrace journalism sinners 0 Midwest Victor Lawson publisher of the Chicago Daily Record and the Chicago Daily News 0 Reacted against Joseph Medill s Chicago Tribune A choice would crystallize Between rival visions of American journalism sensational or objective Selfactivated participatory ethos of Hearst o and the detached sober NY Times In the time the NY Times style would win Hearst s Objectors New York Times New York Evening Post And in the Midwest o the Chicago Record 0 The Chicago Daily News 0 Owner Victor Lawson bitterly opposed to the concept of Hearst s sensationalism p 125 Wanted unfiltered news and repots Cartoon the map of America as seen from NYC Provincialism 0 NY Magazine 0 Regionalism Provincialism in the Press Three pillars of nationhood What the mainstream values in the 1890s 1 Silver 2 Nativism Desire to rid the country of foreign elements Chinese Irish and African discriminated against 3 Imperialism America seen at the only great power without an empire These three pillars reflect public option Partisan Positions Outside of New York ex South Dakota newspapers 0 Republican newspapers backed McKiner 0 Democratic newspapers attacked him The Role of Wire Services Circulation war from the Northeast spread o Deadwood Daily SD 0 Pioneer Times SD 0 Aberdeen Daily News SD Couldn t afford to cover the news themselves Editorial agenda and business agenda began to blur The Maine A Dividing Line The New York press howled for war Midwestern press signaled caution lack of professionalism by the NY press Nevada press more interested in the silver issue than war with Sprain Imperialism Needed an Empire Why Was Hearst so against Spain in Cuba He believed in an empire 0 Not white man s burden Timeline to the War March 13 1895 The World reports attack by the Allianca Sept 1895 Hearst comes to Cuba Feb 1897 The Olivette incident 0 Second example of yellowjournalism Yellow Journalism Often featured individuals Dramatic or salacious themes Served commercial purposes building circulation Classbased appeal Not based on facts Not a kind of professionalism Often tied to partisan ideology February 20 1897 Ricard Ruiz A national journalistic firestorm The slipper slope of sensationalism Expected to be a rebel arrested but escaped to the United States Ruiz s death had to have been murder 0 Chose the most sensational and marketable frame 0 Bandwagon against Spain Evangelina Cosio y Cisneros Aug 17 1897 The Journal Rebel against the Spanish Martyr Able to sell a series of stories about her Object of a petition drive January 25 1898 USS Maine sais into Havana harbor The Stage was set for war The Myth Revisited Both Hearst and Pulitzer saw an opportunity to profit 0 Pulitzer sent divers to examine the wreck after the sinking o Hearst offered a 50000 reward 0 Neither of them pursuing actual fact Competing claims but no evidence 0 Hearst McKiner too slow tot act McKinely Believed an accident called Court of Inquiry to investigate Hearst Lie Upon Lie February 17 1898 World story proof of Spanish torpedo or mine Feb 20 1898 conclusive proof of a mine not a torpedo Feb 25 A map of Spanish mines in the harbor claim to have examined the sunken ship None of this true design flaw in the ship April 24 Spain declared war on US April 25 US declared war on Spain lmperial gains 0 Philippines Guam 0 Puerto Rico 0 Cuba because independent 0 Hawaii Samoa and Wake Island David Spencer s Conclusion Hearst and Pulitzer did not cause the war Other serious issues were afoot 0 Labor crisis Haymarket 0 Currency reform The tend was toward professionalism in journalism although yellowjournalism would persist Provincialism outweighed a national news agenda
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